# Class 12 Physics ### Free

Categories: Class 12

## Course Overview

### Class 12 Physics Syllabus

#### Unit I: Electrostatics: Electric Charges and Fields

• Electric charge: conservation
• Conductors and insulators
• Charging by induction
• Basic principle of electric charge
• Coulomb’s law
• Coulomb’s law
• Forces between multiple charges
• Electric field
• Electric field lines
• Electric flux
• Electric dipole
• Dipole in a uniform external field
• Continuous charge distribution
• Gauss’s law
• Application of Gauss’s law :find field due to infinitely long straight wire
• uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
• uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

#### Unit I: Electrostatics: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

• Electrostatic potential
• Potential due to a point charge
• Potential due to an electric diple
• Potential due to a system of charges
• Equipotential surfaces
• Potential energy of system of charges
• Potential energy in an external field
• Electrostatics of conductor
• Dielectrics and polarisation
• Capacitors and capacitance
• The parallel plate capacitor
• Effect of dielectric on capacitance
• combination of capacitors in series and in parallel
• capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates
• Energy stored in a capacitor
• Van De Graff’s generator
• Energy stored in a capacitor

#### Unit II: Current Electricity

• Electric current
• flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor
• drift velocity
• mobility and their relation with electric current
• Ohm’s law
• electrical resistance
• V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
• electrical energy and power
• electrical resistivity and conductivity
• Carbon resistors
• colour code for carbon resistors
• series and parallel combinations of resistors
• temperature dependence of resistance
• Cells, EMF, internal resistance
• Cells in series and parallel
• Kirchoff’s rule
• Wheatstone bridge, Meter bridge
• Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells
• measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

#### Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:Moving Charges and Magnetism

• Concept of magnetic field
• Oersted’s experiment.
• Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
• Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids
• Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields
• Cyclotron
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
• Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.
• Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field
• moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

#### Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:Magnetism and Matter

• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
• Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
• Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
• Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field;
• Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid
• Magnetic field lines
• Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
• Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples
• Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths
• Permanent magnets.

#### Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction

• The experiments of faraday and henry
• Magnetic flux
• Lenz’s law and conservation of energy
• Motional electromotive force
• Energy consideration : A quantative study
• Eddy current
• Inductance: self and mutual inductance
• AC generator

#### Unit IV: Alternating Current

• Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage
• AC voltage applied to a resistor
• Representation of AC current and voltage by rotating vectors- phasors
• AC voltage applied to an inductor
• AC voltage applied to a conductor
• AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit: phasor diagram solution
• AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit: analytical solution
• Resonance
• Power of AC circuit: power factor
• LC oscillation
• Transformers

#### Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

• Displacement current
• Electromagnetic waves: source
• Nature of electromagnetic waves
• Electromagnetic spectrum
• Microwaves
• infrared
• visible
• ultraviolet
• X-rays
• Gamma rays

#### Unit VI: Optics: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

• Reflection of light by spherical mirrors
• Mirror formula
• Refraction of light
• Total internal reflection and its applications
• Optical fibres
• Refraction at spherical surfaces
• Lenses
• Thin lens formula and magnification
• Lensmakers formula
• Power of a lens
• Combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
• Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism
• Blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
• Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers

#### Unit VI: Optics:Wave Optics

• Wave front and Huygen’s principle
• reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
• Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle
• Interference Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light
• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
• Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes
• Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

#### Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

• Electron emission
• Photoelectric effect: Hertz and Lenard’s observation
• Experimental study of photoelectric effect
• Einstein’s photoelectric effect: energy quantum of radiation
• Matter waves-wave nature of particles
• de Broglie relation
• Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

#### Unit VIII: Atoms

• Alpha-particle scattering experiment;
• Rutherford’s model of atom
• Bohr model
• energy levels
• hydrogen spectrum.

#### Unit VIII: Nuclei

• Atomic masses and composition of nucleus
• Size of nucleus
• Mass-energy and nuclear binding energy
• Nuclear force
• Alpha decay
• Beta decay
• Gamma decay
• Nuclear energy: fission
• Nuclear reactor
• Nuclear fusion: energy generation in stars
• Controlled thermonuclear fusion

#### Unit IX: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

• Classification of metal, conductors and semiconductors, insulators
• Intrinsic semiconductors
• Extrinsic semiconductors
• P-n junction
• Semiconductor diodes
• Application of junction diode as rectifier
• Special purpose p-n junction diode: Zenner diode
• Optoelectronic jnction devices: photodiode
• Light emitting diode
• Solar cell
• Junction transistor: structure and action
• Basic transistor circuit configuration and transistor characteristics
• Transistor as a device (amplifier)
• Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator
• Digital electronics and logic gates
• Integrated circuits

#### Unit X: Communication Systems

• Element of a communication system
• Basic terminology used in electronic communication system
• Bandwidth of signals
• Bandwidth of transmission medium
• Propagation of electromagnetic waves:sky wave
• Propagation of electromagnetic waves:space wave
• Modulation and its necessity
• Amplitude modulation
• Detection of amplitude modulated wave

### CBSE Class 12 Books List 2019-20: Check NCERT & Other Recommended Reference Books for Physics

Wondering about the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Check details of best reference books & also get links to download solutions of NCERT (and NCERT Exemplar).

What are the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Many students preparing or CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam 2019 often asks this question. Here we are providing details of books recommended by many CBSE School teachers and important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics Syllabus and CBSE 12th Physics Board Exam 2020.

Recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics:

List of best books or recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics is given below

1- NCERT Textbook for Class 12 Physics – Part I & Part II

Books published by NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) are recommended by CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). NCERT textbooks (Part 1 and 2) for Class 12 Physics are important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics board exam and competitive exams like NEET, JEE  etc. These books are available free of cost on the official website of NCERT. You can also download these books free of cost from the link given below. We have also provided the solutions of the exercises given in Class 12 Physics NCERT Textbooks.

2 – NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics

NCERT Exemplar is basically a question bank and it contains different varieties of questions that you will not find in the NCERT textbook.  In NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics, you will find

– Multiple Choice Questions with Single Correct Answer

– Multiple Choice Questions with Multiple Correct Answers

– Very Short Answer Types Questions

The difficulty level of these questions is a bit higher then NCERT textbook. Questions given in NCERT Exemplar are often asked in competitive exams (like NEET, JEE Mains etc), directly or indirectly. NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics is also available for download in PDF format, free of cost. Here, we have also provided links to download solutions of Class 12 Physics NCERT Exemplar.

3 – NCERT Lab Manual for Class 12 Physics

This is another important book for CBSE Class 12 students having Physics as one of their subjects. In Lab manual students will get complete details of the project work and the experiments. The theory and experiments, given in the NCERT Lab Manual are important for both CBSE 12th Physics board exam and various competitive exams (JEE Main & Advanced, NEET).  The PDF of this book is also available for free of the cost.

Reference Books for Class 12 Physics:

The book which has easy to understand theory and varieties of questions is considered as the best reference book. Here we have provided details of the reference books recommended by many teachers teaching in various CBSE Schools.

4 – Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics – Class 12: Volume 1 and 2

For Class 12 Physics, we recommend Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is recommended by many CBSE School teachers. The theory portion given in this book is very easy to understand. This book has a sufficient number of solved and unsolved questions. This book also contains solutions of NCERT and NCERT Exemplar. This book is also helpful for the preparation of various engineering and medical entrance examinations.

5 – Concept of Physics by HC Verma (Part I and Part II)

If you are preparing for competitive exams, then, you must study Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Part I & II. This book even has more varieties of questions which you will not find in NCERT Textbook and NCERT Exemplar.

6 – Nootan Physics – A reference book for Class 12 by Kumar Mittal

This book is another good option and is often recommended by many school teachers. The flow of theory portion given in Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is similar to the NCERT textbook but this book has its own unique style. Many students love reading from this book and is often recommended by teachers of various coaching institutes.

### NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Science Chapter 10

Get 100 percent accurate NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Science Chapters explained by expert Science teachers. We provide step by step solutions for the questions given in Class 12 Science textbook as per CBSE Board guidelines from the latest NCERT book for Class 12 Science.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Notes

Get Notes prepared by Ex-IITIan for CBSE Class 12 physics

### H C Verma Physics Class 12 Solutions

H C Verma & Manjit Kaur Solutions for Class 12 Science  are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for are extremely popular among Class 12 students for Science. Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the H C Verma & Manjit Kaur Book of Class 12 Science  are provided here for . I will help you online for any doubt / clarification.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Assignments

Chapter wise assignments are being given by teachers to students to make them understand the chapter concepts. Its extremely critical for all CBSE students to practice all assignments which will help them in gaining better marks in examinations. All assignments available for free download on the website are developed by the best teachers having many years of teaching experience in CBSE schools all over the country. Students, teachers and parents are advised to contact me online incase of any doubt / clarification.

### Past Many Years Question Physics Class 12 Solutions

Past Many Years Question Papers Solutions for Class 12 Physics are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for are extremely popular among Class 12 students for Physics .Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Past Many Years Question Papers Book of Class 12 Physics Chapter are provided here for . I will help you online for any doubt / clarification.