CBSE Class 10 English Grammar – Clauses

What is a Clause?
A Clause is a part of a sentence which has a subject and a finite verb, e.g.

  • This is the place where I was born.

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used.

Clauses Exercises for Class 10 CBSE With Answers

In this sentence, there are two clauses. In the first clause ‘this’ and ‘is’ are the subject and the verb respectively. In the second clause l’ and ‘was born’ are the subject and the verb respectively.

In this way, the more finite verbs–the more clauses in a sentence. If there is a single ‘finite verb in a sentence, then it is not a clause. It is a simple sentence, e.g.,

He goes to school. (Simple Sentence–No Clause)

Note. If there are more than one finite verbs in a sentence, then it is either a Complex or a Compound sentence:

A clause is a group of words within a sentence, that includes a subject and a verb. Here are some types of clauses:

  1. Noun clauses: A noun clause is a clause that plays the role of a noun.
    For example, I like what I cook, (what I cook is the noun clause here)
  2. Adverb clauses: Adverb clauses contain an adverb and provide answers to the questions that begin with How? When? Where? or Why?
  3. Relative clauses: Relative clauses add extra information to a sentence by defining a noun.
    For example, The boy who lives next door plays cricket. (who lives next door is the relative clause here defining the noun boy)

Clauses Solved Exercise With Answers for Class 10 CBSE

Complete the sentences that follow.

Question 1.
Sunita: Today Manoj Verma rang up to ask why we were not going to the gym.
Neetu: I realised that (a) …………………………..
Sunita: But we have paid money in advance for the next three months.
Neetu: I don’t know (b) …………………………..
Sunita: I’ll talk to Manoj about the refund of the money.
Neetu: I will also find out (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) excessive exercise is harmful.
(b) how to get my money back.
(c) what sort of man he is.

Question 2.
Sushil: The laptop (a) …………………………. is superb. I liked it. Where did you buy it from?
Sunil: I bought it from a custom shop in Singapore (b) …………………………..
Sushil: Anil was saying (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) which has an inbuilt camera and multifunctions
(b) when we had gone to Singapore for my niece’s wedding.
(c) that you visit Singapore every month.

Question 3.
Sonu: Have you ever visited Assam?
Monu: Yes, (a) …………………………..
Sonu: Do you know (b) ………………………….?
Monu: It is a beautiful place and it is very famous for tea gardens.
Sonu: Can you tell me (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) when I was very young
(b) what it is famous for?
(c) how to reach there?

Question 4.
Rakesh: You have a wonderful car. Please tell me (a) …………………………..
Harry: It is a Mercedes Benz.
Rakesh: Please tell me (b) …………………………..
Harry: From a leading finance company
Rakesh: Do you know (c) ………………………….?
Harry: Yes I do.
Answer:
(a) what makes it is.
(b) from where you have taken the loan.
(c) how to drive a car?

Question 5.
Vandana: Congratulations! Komal, you have done very well in English.
Komal: Thank you very much.
Vandana: Tell me (a) …………………………. and (b) ………………………….
Komal: Certainly yes, I studied at Master English Coaching Centre. They gave us regular assignments and weekly tests.
Anju: I would like to know (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) how you have managed to score 98%.
(b) what the regular features of Master’s are.
(c) what your future plans are.

Question 6.
Sudha: That girl (a) …………………………. is very beautiful.
Moni: I like her saree. I saw the same saree in Karol Bagh (b) …………………………..
Sudha: Next Sunday we shall go to buy the same saree (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) who is wearing a blue saree
(b) when I was doing window shopping
(c) for sure

Question 7.
Niru : Anita, please tell me (a) …………………………. .
Anita: I think (b) …………………………..
Niru: OK. It will suit me but make sure (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) when the house warming ceremony will take place.
(b) that will take place in the morning.
(c) that I accompany you.

Question 8.
Johny: We went to watch the IPL match and it was great fun.
Pooja : (a) …………………………. to see IPL?
Johny: We went there last evening with Rakesh uncle but I apologise that (b) …………………………. you as we had two tickets.
Pooja: No problem. Next time (c) …………………………. at least inform me. I can arrange a ticket.
Answer:
(a) When did you go
(b) I could not take
(c) when you go

Question 9.
Radha: I would like to know (a) …………………………..
Ricky: I think (b) …………………………..
Radha: All right, I think (c) …………………………. after that.
Answer:
(a) when you would be completing your graduation.
(b) I’ll complete it by June.
(c) that we can join the job together

Question 10.
Complete the passage given below by writing a suitable clause.
Anju was punished by her teacher and she shared this with her mother. The bewildered mother did not believe in the beginning and asked Anju (a) …………………………. . Anju told her mother that she had not been able to complete her project file. Mother asked her (b) …………………………. When she was preoccupied with her entrance exam. Mother advised Anju (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) why the teacher had unnecessarily punished her.
(b) how she could finish her project file
(c) that she should learn to balance everything in life lest she should be a loser.

Question 11.
Complete the lines by writing a suitable clause in the blanks.
Raghav asked Swati (a) ……………. during the summer vacation. Swati replied that she had been to Malaysia (b) ………………………….
Raghav: I would also like to accompany you. (c) ………………………….?
Answer:
(a) where she had been
(b) where her aunty and uncle had been staying since 1947.
(c) When will you go next time?

Question 12.
The teacher has advised us (a) …………………………. We shall follow the rules continuously (b) …………………………. Nobody is allowed to get down from the train (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) that we should all be together on the train while going to Shimla.
(b) when we go
(c) before it reaches Shimla.

Question 13.
Anu: Have you bought a mobile for Karan?
Amrita: Yes, but I do not know (a) …………………………..
Anu: Can I help you to pack (b) ………………………….?
Amrita: That is really nice of you, tell me (c) …………………………..
Anu: Give me a wrapping paper, a pair of scissors, a ribbon, and a roll of cellotape.
Answer:
(a) how to pack it.
(b) it, if you want?
(C) what you require for packing.

Question 14.
While talking to his son on the phone, the father told Anil (a) …………………………. in Northern India. Anil told his father not to worry as the epicenter was in Karnal, which is 120 km from Delhi. He asked him (b) …………………………. and he replied that he was perfectly fine. When he asked him (c) …………………………. he replied that he was not aware of the havoc caused by the earthquake as no details were available.
Answer:
(a) that there was an earthquake
(b) how he was
(c) how much damage the earthquake had caused

Question 15.
Mohan told me (a) …………………………. the book (b) …………………………. by Kalidas. He gifted the book to Manoj (c) …………………………. his best friend.
Answer:
(a) that he had bought
(b) which was written
(c) who was

Question 16.
It is certain (a) …………………………. in his examination. He will get good marks (b) …………………………. His father told me (c) …………………………..
Answer:
(a) that he will succeed
(b) as he had worked hard.
(c) that he will get admission to a good college.

Clauses Exercises With Answers for Class 10 CBSE 

Kinds of Clauses. Clauses are of three types:
I. The Principal Clause. The Principal Clause is a clause that is complete in itself and expresses its meaning clearly. It does not take any support from any other clause for conveying clearly its meaning. So, it is also known as “the main clause’, ‘the independent clause’ or ‘the complete clause’, e.g.,

I do not know where he lives.
In this sentence I do not know’ is the Principal clause because it provides a clear meaning.

Note. The Principal Clause never begins with any Conjunction.

II. The Subordinate Clause. The Subordinate Clause is a clause which is not complete in itself for expressing its clear meaning. It starts with subordinating conjunctions. It cannot provide its meaning clearly without the help of the Principal Clause. So, it is also known as the dependent clause’ or ‘the incomplete clause’, e.g.

I asked her why she came late.
In this sentence, the clause ‘why she came late’ does not provide a clear meaning, that is why it is the subordinate clause.

Kinds of Subordinate Clauses. The Subordinate clause is divided into three parts:

  1. The Noun Clause
  2. The Adjective / Relative Clause
  3. The Adverbial Clause

1. The Noun Clause. The Noun clause is a clause which does the work of a noun in the sentence.
2. The Adjective/Relative Clause. The Adjective clause is a clause which does the work of an adjective in the sentence.
3. The Adverbial Clause. The Adverbial clause is a clause which does the work of an adverb in the sentence.

The Noun Clause
Recognition. Ask the question ‘what’ to the main verb, the answer is always the noun clause, e.g.

  • He told me that he was feeling unwell.

Question: He told me ………. what?
Answer:
That he was feeling unwell. (Noun Clause)
The Noun Clause generally begins with the connectives–who, whose, whom, when, where, which, what, why, how, that, if and whether.

The noun clause serves as either the subject or the object of the principal clause.

  • How it happened is a mystery.
  • Do you know when the train will arrive?
  • I know where he lives.
  • I desire that I must pass.
  • I know who has stolen your purse.
  • I want to know how far he is right.
  • I want to know when you will return.
  • Your success depends on how you work.
  • This book will sell for what it is worth.
  • The report that he is elected an MP is known to me.

The Adjective Clause / Relative Clause Recognition.
1. The Adjective/Relative Clause generally begins with relative pronouns–who, whose, whom, that, which, as, as well as relative adverbs–when, where, why and how.

2. The Adjective/Relative Clause always qualifies the noun (subject or object) in the Principal Clause, e.g.

  1. He is the boy who had made a noise.
    (a) He is the boy …………….. Principal Clause.
    (b) Who had made a noise ………………. Sub. Adjective Clause.
    Qualifying the noun “boy’, e.g.,
  2. You know the time when he is coming.
  3. This is the place where I was born.
  4. This is the boy whose father has been appointed Collector.
  5. Those who help themselves are helped by God.

Note: ‘Relative’ is used both in restrictive and in continuative series.

The Adverbial Clause

Recognition. The Adverbial Clause is used to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb given in any other clause. It expresses time, place, purpose, reason, manner, extent, condition, result, comparison and contrast.

I. Time. Adverbial Clause of Time indicates time and generally starts with the Subordinating Conjunctions when, whenever, till, until, before, after, since, while, as, as soon as, as long as, so long as, etc., e.g.

  1. As soon as he saw me, he began to weep.
    (a) He began to weep ………………. Principal Clause.
    (b) As soon as he saw me ……………. Sub. Adverb Clause, showing ‘time’.
  2. When the cat is away, the mice will play.
  3. I get up before the sun rises.
  4. We shall wait here until you come.
  5. When the sun set he returned home.

II. Place. The Adverbial clause of place expresses either position or direction, so they answer the question where, where to.

  1. I kept the bag where she had asked me to keep it.
    (a) I kept the bag …….. Principal Clause.
    (b) Where she had asked me to keep it ……………… Sub. Adverb Clause, showing ‘place’.
  2. The dog followed his master wherever he went.
  3. Mahi returned where he was born.
  4. Everyone likes to work in an organization wherein a friendly atmosphere is maintained.
  5. The mice ran wherever the cat went.

III. Condition. Adverbial Clause of Condition shows condition. It generally starts with the Subordinating Conjunctions–if, unless, provided, in case, whether … or, etc., e.g.

  1. If you work hard, you will pass.
    (a) You will pass ……………… Principal Clause.
    (b) If you work hard ……………. Sub. Adverb Clause showing “condition’.
  2. I shall let you go provided you speak the truth.
  3. If I were in your position, I would resign.
  4. No man can become a great artist unless he dedicated himself to art.
  5. If it rains, we shall not go out.

Clauses without a subject: When we use a sequence of clauses with the same subject we use a comma before each clause and use ‘and before the last clause e.g., When he staged in Greece he visited the Parthenon, went snorkeling, danced with the local people, and bought lots of presents.

Clauses Exercises Solved Example With Answers for Class 10 CBSE

Diagnostic Test – 32

Identify the type of clause mentioned in the following sentences.

Question 1.
Tom can run faster than anybody else. (Adverb clause) ……………………………………………………
Answer:
faster than anybody else

Question 2.
Whoever wins this match will play the finals. (Noun clause) ……………………………………………………
Answer:
Whoever wins this match

Question 3.
She took the apple that was lying on the table. (Relative clause) ……………………………………………………
Answer:
that was lying on the table

Question 4.
He does not like what he sees. (Noun clause) ……………………………………………………
Answer:
what he sees

Question 5.
When you grow older, you can become a pilot. (Adverb clause) ……………………………………………………
Answer:
When you grow older