CBSE 12 Class Biology Syllabus
CLASS XII: UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
CLASS XII:UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution- Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
CLASS XII:UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
CLASS XI:UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
CLASS XII:UNIT V: Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Which book is best for CBSE 12 Class Biology?
It is a well-known fact that NCERT books are the best for CBSE Class 12th Board exam preparation. But then again, simply mugging the NCERT books is also not enough. Students should be thorough with NCERT books at least 5 months before their boards. This will give them ample time for using other reference books for CBSE Class 12 Biology.
Best Reference Books for Class 12 CBSE Biology
Below given are some of the good reference books for preparation of class 12 Biology exam.
- CBSE Biology Chapterwise Solved Papers class 12th by Arihant Expert
- NCERT class 12 Biology Textbook
- Pradeep’s A Text Book of Biology class 12 by P.S. Dhami
- S.Chand’s Biology for class XII by B.P. Pandey
- Trueman’s Elementary Biology for Class 12 and NEET by K.N. Bhatia and M.P. Tyagi
- Together with Biology by S.Chand
- Biology by Campbell and Reece
CBSE Class 12 Biology, Notes ,Test Papers, Sample Papers, NCERT Solutions
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter
Get 100 percent accurate NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter explained by expert Science teachers. We provide step by step solutions for the questions given in Class 12 Biology textbook as per CBSE Board guidelines from the latest NCERT book for Class 12 Biology.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes
Get Notes prepared by Ex-IITIan for CBSE Class 12 Biology
Concept Maps and Important Questions Class 12 Biology
These concept maps and important questions will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks. Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers of Class 12 Biology Chapter Reproduction in organisms are provided here for . I will help you online for any doubt / clarification.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Assignments
Chapter wise assignments are being given by teachers to students to make them understand the chapter concepts. Its extremely critical for all CBSE students to practice all assignments which will help them in gaining better marks in examinations. All assignments available for free download on the website are developed by the best teachers having many years of teaching experience in CBSE schools all over the country. Students, teachers and parents are advised to contact me online incase of any doubt / clarification.
Past Many Years Question Biology Class 12 Solutions
Past Many Years Question Papers Solutions for Class 12 Biology are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for are extremely popular among Class 11 students for Chemistry .Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Past Many Years Question Papers Book of Class 12 Biology are provided here for . I will help you online for any doubt / clarification.