NEET Biology: NEET Biology Questions, Study Materials, Paper Analysis

The Biology section of NEET consists of 90 questions each carrying 4 marks. This section carries the highest weightage in NEET paper. Score in the Biology section also acts as an important tie-breaking factor while compiling the NEET merit list. It is, therefore, very important for you to answer as many NEET Biology questions as possible accurately. This is possible when you remember even the minutest details from the NCERT Biology textbooks. Please go through all the test papers at IITianAcademy to have access to most of the questions that can be derived from NCERT books. So, finish the NCERT Biology book thoroughly. Practice Biology from this book and take Biology quiz.

To grab a seat in a top medical or dental college, students are advised to polish their skills in Biology as well as Physics and Chemistry. The difficulty level of Biology has increased over recent years. As per the overall analysis of NEET 2019, it was deemed that the exam fared average on the difficulty meter where amongst all other sections, Biology was considered to be the easiest, followed by Chemistry and then Physics which was the toughest and challenging section which demanded time.

Syllabus for NEET Biology

Class 11

Class 12


Topic / Chapters


Topic / Chapters


Diversity of Living Organisms



Chapter-1: The Living World

  •  What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

  • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

  • Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

  • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

  • Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

  • Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).


Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals



Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

  • Morphology and modifications; Tissues;

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

  • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

Chapter-7: Evolution

  • Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution- Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.


Cell: Structure and Function


Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

  • Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

  • Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

  •  Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.


Plant Physiology


Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

  • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast,symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

  • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

  • Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

  • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.


Ecology and Environment

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

  • Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

  • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

  • Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.


Human Physiology

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

  • Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

  • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

  • Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

  •  Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

  •  Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

medial books

With medical entrance exams like AIPMT, AIIMS and state level PMTs, it becomes essential for students to not only strengthen their theoretical concepts but also get adequate practice problems. Though a majority of students take additional assistance from tutors and specialised classes, there is always a need for personal study time coupled with the right tools for practice.

We compiled a brief list of books for students aspiring to appear for the All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT), AIIMS and other medical entrance exams. The following are a few out of several good ones available on the internet and/or in bookstores.

Trueman’s Elementary Biology, Volume 1 and 2 (KN Bhatia)Physical Chemistry for AIPMT by OP Tandon (G. R. Bathla Publications)Concept of Physics by HC Verma
Objective NCERT for Biology (MTG Editorial Board)Objective Chemistry (Set of 3 Vols) (S.Dinesh & Co.)Objective Physics by Prof. Satya Prakash Arya (MTG Publishers)
Objective Biology for AIPMT, AIIMS & Other Medical Exams: (Published by S. Dinesh)Modern’s  ABC of  Chemistry (Part 1 & 2)Concepts of Competition Physics For CBSE PMT by Agarwal
Rapid Biology by Dr. Reena Ahlawat (MTG Editorial Board)Organic Chemistry by Himanshu Pandey (GRB Publication)NCERT Physics by Anil Aggarwal
 Exploring Biology (Arihant Publications)  
 Modern’s ABC Biology (Part 1 and 2) (Modern Publication)  


Biology constitutes the major part of PMT (50%), hence it is important to concentrate on biology. PMT Biology requires a lot of in-depth studying with reference notes and textbooks. Some of the most popular and helpful books for Biology are:

1. Trueman’s Elementary Biology, Volume 1 and 2: (KN Bhatia)
With nearly 50% of the AIPMT exam consisting of Biology questions, KN Bhatia’s Elementary Biology comes handy. The book contains basic concepts explained in sufficient detail. The book is specially designed to serve both school students and entrance exam aspirants, hence making the study notes simplistic yet comprehensive. The chapters are divided into units, making it convenient to cover larger syllabus in lesser time.

aipmt books most important list

2. Objective NCERT for Biology: (MTG Editorial Board)
NCERT books are any day the best set of books to carry out your preparation for school exams and entrances. Objective NCERT at your fingertips will make studying for exams seem easier. The study notes are explained in the a simplistic manner and the questions include every pattern possible. The fact that the book is meant to also be studied by class 11 and 12 students makes it clear that no concepts are too difficult to comprehend, in the book. Types of questions include objective questions like MCQ’s, true and false type questions, fill in the blanks and matching given options.

3. Objective Biology for AIPMT, AIIMS & Other Medical Exams: (Published by S. Dinesh)
The book is most recommended by toppers and counsellors. The name suggests that the book will serve not just AIPMT but other entrance exam aspirants as well. The updated versions of the book carry the latest questions and study notes as per CBSE’s standards. The questions in tune with the pattern of the exams and help you practise more and better. MCQ questions are placed topic wise and are followed by revisionary questions. The book can be your stand-alone guide to AIPMT Biology preparation.

4. Rapid Biology by Dr. Reena Ahlawat (MTG Editorial Board)
Rapid Biology: Crash Course for Peak Performance, published by MTG Learning Media, is a comprehensive book that contains high yield facts that are easy to grasp. It discusses all the essential biology concepts for various competitive exams. The book is interspersed with diagrams, tables, and illustrations wherever necessary, to explain complex concepts in a simple way.

5. Exploring Biology (Arihant Publications)
The book contains the best available collection of objective questions and has been designed to work as a self study guide for Biology for CBSE AIPMT and all other national & regional medical entrance examinations. The book is compiled in a way that it syncs with the school syllabus and thus students find it easy to study along with their school curriculum. The book contains complete theories as per the NCERT books and has ample illustrations, examples, graphs and diagrams.

6. Modern’s ABC Biology (Part 1 and 2) (Modern Publication)
This book will help with both school syllabus and medical entrance exams. These two volumes comprise of various topics in both Botany and Zoology. Topics like Ecology and Environment, Biology and Human Welfare, Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biotechnology and Environment. The textbooks are compiled by the highly esteemed Indian academicians Dr. B. B. Arora and A. K. Sabharwal. The books are essential for Class XII students as they conform to the latest syllabus.

NEET Chapter Wise Weightage for Biology

Biology is one of those sections that must not be taken lightly. Forming 50% of NEET question paper, Biology will help you get enough marks to qualify the examination. Every chapter in this section is important, however, candidates need distribute their time effectively amongst various chapters. One can refer to the table below for the chapter-wise weightage of NEET Biology and plan their study accordingly.



NEET Chapter Wise Weightage 2020 for Biology

Biology Chapters and topicsAverage no. of Questions from the chapterWeightage of the chapter and topic
Plant Diversity712%
Plant Anatomy24%
Plant Morphology47%
Cell Biology & Cell Division610%
Plant Physiology813%
Plant Reproduction59%
Genetics & Biotechnology1524%
Biology in Human Welfare12%
Animal Diversity310%
Animal Tissue13%
Structural Organisation in animals12%
Human Physiology1345%
Human Reproduction & Reproductive Health518%
Origin & Evolution310%
Animal husbandry13%
Human Health & Diseases39%


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