NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Vistas English The Enemy

The Author Pearl Sydenstricker Buck was an American writer and novelist. She was also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu. She was born on June 26, 1892 in Hillsboro, West Virginia and raised in Zhenjiang in eastern China by her Presbyterian missionary parents. Initially she was educated by her mother and a Chinese tutor. At the age of 15 she was sent to a boarding school in Shanghai. Two years later she entered Randolph-Macon Woman’s College in Lynchburg, Virginia. She graduated in 1914. In May, 1917 she married missionary John L. Buck; although later divorced and remarried. She returned to China and taught English literature in Chinese universities from 1925 to 30. During that time she briefly resumed studying in the United States at Cornell University, where she took an M.A. in 1926.

As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in Zhenjiang, China. After returning to the United States in 1935, she continued writing prolifically and became a prominent advocate of the rights of women and minority groups, and wrote widely on Asian cultures. Her novel The Good Earth was the best-selling fiction book in the United States in 1931 and 1932 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. She was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. She died on March 6, 1973 in Danby, Vermont.

Introduction

The story highlights how a Japanese doctor saves the life of an American prisoner of war and rises above narrow national prejudices. He risks his honour, career, position and life by sheltering a war prisoner of the enemy camp and saving his life. The author has beautifully portrayed the conflict in the doctor’s mind as a private individual and as a citizen with a sense of national loyalty.

Setting

The story takes place on a coastal town of Japan in the year 1941 when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. A war going on between America and Japan. Japanese were hostile to the Americans and ready to kill any American found in their soil.

Theme

‘The Enemy’ gives the message that humanism transcends all man made prejudices and barriers. Dr. Sadao upholds the ethics of medical profession in treating an enemy. The story is a great lesson of peace, love, sympathy, fellow feeling and humanism.

Characters

1. Dr. Sadao Hoki: A Japanese doctor trained by Americans.
2. Sadao’s father: much concerned about his son’s education, a true patriot.
3. Hana: Wife of Dr. Sadao, met in America, became friends and got married in Japan.
4. Tom: An American prisoner of war, a soldier of U.S. Navy.
5. The old General: a sick Japanese army General, needed an operation, trusted only Dr. Sadao.
6. An officer: A messenger of the General.
7. Gardener: an old gardener in the house of Dr. Sadao.
8. Yimi: Hana’s maid servant.
9. The cook: an old cook in the house of Dr. Sadao.

Place

House of Dr. Sadao:a house built on a narrow beach near the sea.

Summary

Sadao was a Japanese surgeon. He studied in America and returned with Hana, a Japanese girl whom he met there, and married her in Japan and settled down comfortably. While most of the doctors were sent to serve the Japanese army in the World War II, Sadao was allowed to stay home because he was wanted by the old General who was dying.

But one night into his uneventful life came an American Navy-man, shot, wounded and dying. Though unwilling to help his enemy, Sadao took the young soldier into his house and provided him with medical aid. He was in danger from that moment. Soon his servants left him. Dr. Sadao saw that the soldier was getting well and absolutely alright.

Once his patient was no more in need of him, the doctor turned out to be his assassin, conspiring to kill him in his sleep. He informed the General of the American and the General promised, he would send his private men to kill the American. Sadao awaited the American’s death every morning but to his gloom the man was still alive, healthier and posing danger to him.

At this point Sadao becomes the real man in him, a true human being who realizes the essential worth of human life and universal brotherhood. He thinks beyond countries and continents and races and wars. He finds no reason to believe that the American is his enemy. Sadao rescues the American. Thus Sadao rises above narrow prejudices and acts in a truly humanitarian way.

Main Points

1. Dr. Sadao, a Japanese surgeon finds a wounded American soldier on the beach near his house.

2. He is unable to throw him back into sea though he was his enemy. Being a doctor, his first duty was to save a life.

3. Hana, his wife though initially reluctant joins her husband in operating and nursing the enemy soldier back to health.

4. It is dangerous to keep the enemy in the house so all the servants left. Hana does the housework alone.

5. The General did not send Sadao with the troops as he is an expert surgeon and the General might need him any time for an emergency operation.

6. Even General comes to know that Sadao is harbouring his enemy, he does not take any action and suggest that he would send his private assassins to kill the enemy and remove his body.

7. Dr. Sadao performs an emergency operation and succeeds.

8. The General promises a reward and saves the life of Dr. Sadao who in return helps the American soldier escape in his boat.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1. What did Dr. Sadao and his wife see when they stood out looking at the sea?

Ans. Dr. Sadao and Hana were standing out facing the sea. Mist had gathered around their house. Suddenly they saw something black coming out of the sea. He was crawling on his hands and knees. Then suddenly he fell down on his face and lay there motionless. They went to see him. When they turned his face, they were shocked to see a white soldier. They read the print writing on the cap. “U.S. Navy”. The man was a prisoner of war.

Q2. In what condition was the American sailor when Dr. Sadao found him?

Ans. The American soldier was wounded. He was very weak and pale. He had a wound of a gun and had the bullet stuck in his wound. His face looked tortured and his back was stained with blood flowing from the wound. The wound was black and was also stuck by the rocks. He was almost at the verge of death if Sadao had not saved hi

Q3. What was the chief concern of Sadao’s father and what did he do for it?

Ans. Sadao’s education was the chief concern of his father. He never joked or played with the boy. He worried about his education only. When Sadao was twenty-two, he was sent to America to learn all he could of surgery and medicine.

Q4. Why was Sadao not sent to the battlefield?

Ans. Sadao was a famous surgeon and scientist. He was perfecting a discovery that could make wounds entirely clean. Moreover, he was treating the old General medically, and the General could need an operation also. That was why Sadao was not sent abroad with the troops.

Q5. Who was Hana and where did Sadao meet her?

Ans. Hana was Sadao’s wife. Sadao had met her in America at the house of a professor where some foreign students lived. But he had waited to fall in love with her until he was sure she was Japanese.

Q6. How did foreign students feel at Professor Harley’s house?

Ans. Professor Harley and his wife were kind people. They were anxious to help their few foreign students. But the students felt bored there. The rooms there were very small and the food was also no good. And the professor’s wife was very talkative.

Q7. How did Sadao and Hana get married?

Ans. Sadao met Hana in America. He liked her but he waited to fall in love with her. He wanted to be sure that she was a Japanese. His father, too, was very particular in such matters. Both Sadao and Hana came back to Japan after finishing their studies. Their marriage was arranged in the old Japanese way.

Q8. Why do you think Dr. Sadao’s father was a very traditional and conventional man?

Ans. Like a traditional and conventional person, Sadao’s father did all he could for the education of his son. Even in the marriage of his son, he was very traditional and conventional. He accepted Hana as his daughter-in-law only when he found that she was of the pure Japanese race. He arranged the marriage in the old Japanese way.

Q9. What did Sadao notice about the white wounded man? How did he stop its bleeding?

Ans. Sadao noticed that it was a gun wound that had reopened. The man had been shot some days ago and had not been tended. Now a rock had struck the wound and it had started bleeding. Sadao took some sea moss lying on the beach. He packed the wound with it and thus stopped the bleeding.

Q10. What did Sadao and his wife want to do with the white man after he had stopped his bleeding? Why?

Ans. Japan was at war with America. Thus if Sadao and his wife sheltered the white man in their house, they would be arrested. But if they turned him over as a prisoner, he was sure to be killed. Therefore, they thought the best thing would be to put him back into the sea.

Q11. Why did Yumi defy the orders of Hana?

Ans. Hana asked the maid servant Yumi to wash the wounded dirty man with warm water. Finding a white man she became stubborn as she had never washed a white man. So she was determined not to wash him. Hana cried at her sternly but Yumi had a fierce look of resistance on her round face. Then Hana decided to do it with her own hands and asked her to return back.

Q12. How did the gardener react about the wounded American soldier?

Ans. The old gardener was a superstitious person. He said that the white man ought to die. First he was shot. Then the sea caught him and wounded him with her rocks. It showed the man was fated to die and they had no business to save him.

Q13. Why did servants leave sadao’s house?

Ans. Dr. Sadao had given an enemy soldier shelter in his house. None of his servants liked it. They looked upon all white Americans as their enemies. When they saw that Dr. Sadao was not going to hand over the man to the police, they left his house.

Q14. How did Hana help Dr. Sadao while he operated upon the enemy soldier?

Ans. Hana was very much helpful while the operation was on. She dipped a small clean towel into the steaming hot water and washed his face. She was requested to give the anesthetic if needed. With the help of instruments from his emergency bag, Sadao made a clean and precise incision. The bullet was out and the doctor declared that the man would live.

Q15. At what point of time does Sadao decide to get the enemy out of his house?

Ans. The General had known about the presence of the enemy in Sadao’s house. He had forgotten his promise to send his personal assassins to kill the enemy. The enemy had recovered. Sadao had given him a lease of life. He had no desire see the enemy killed. Therefore, he decided to get the enemy out of his house and reach the nearby island.

Q16. Why did the messenger come to Dr. Sadao? What did Hana think about it?

Ans. The General was very ill. He was in pain and required medical treatment immediately. He had faith only in Sadao’s medical capabilities. With his orders, the messenger came to Dr. Sadao. Hana thought that the General would penalise her husband for giving shelter to an enemy.

Q17. In what context does Hana remember the cruel nature of General Takima?

Ans. Hana remembers General Takima in the context of the sufferings of the prisoners of war. Moreover she knew that he was a ruthless despot. At home he beat his wife very cruelly. But no one mentioned it then because he had won a victory in the battle of Manchuria.

Q18. Why did the General spare the American soldier?

Ans. The General was in great pain and had to be operated on. In his own pain, he forgot all about the American soldier. So we can’t say that he spared the American soldier. He had only forgotten about him.

Q19. How did the old General offer to help sadao in getting rid of the white man?

Ans. The General said that he had his private assassins. He would send two of them any night. He said, “They are very capable assassins — they make no noise and they know the trick of inward bleeding. If you like, I can even have them remove the body.”

Q20. What instructions were given by Dr. Sadao to the American before he left for the sea?

Ans. Sadao instructed him to row and stay on the island for the arrival of a Korean fishing boat. He advised him not to bum any fire for fear of being caught. He gave him his flash light and told to signal two flashes. In case he ran short of food or still he was on the island, one flash would suffice. He sternly warned him to flash the light only at the sunset and never during the darkness.

Q21. What message does ‘The Enemy’ give?

Ans. ‘The Enemy’ gives the message that humanism transcends all man made prejudices and barriers. Here Dr. Sadao upholds the ethics of medical profession in treating an enemy. The story is a great lesson of peace, love, sympathy, fellow feeling and humanism.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1. There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss.

Ans. As private individuals, we have our own ideas. We have our own likes and dislikes. But as citizens of a state, we have a duty to be loyal and law-abiding. But sometimes a conflict arises in our mind. There is one thing we want to do as an individual. But our national loyalty demands from us quite the opposite. The choice becomes hard to make on such occasions. This is what happens with Sadao in the story, ‘The Enemy. As a doctor, he has been trained not to let a man die if he can help it. A doctor is not supposed to kill a patient even if the patient happens to be his enemy. But as a loyal citizen of Japan, he must not give shelter to an enemy. He must hand him over to the police at once. All through the story, Sadao struggles with this conflict. He himself admits, “In fact, I do not know why I am doing it.”

Q2. How would you explain the reluctance of the soldier to leave the shelter of the doctor’s home even when he knew he couldn’t stay there without risk to the doctor and himself?

Ans. Though the Doctor and his wife were Japanese, they had displayed extreme kindness towards him. He was an American prisoner of war who had escaped and was given refuge by the kind doctor and his wife even though this act was fraught with danger for the two of them. He had obviously suffered at the hands of the Japanese while in prison and the scars on his neck were the evidence of the torture that he had undergone. He was afraid that if he left their house he would be discovered and would have to face the dire consequences, possibly further and even worse torture.

Q3. What explains the attitude of the General in the matter of the enemy soldier? Was it human consideration, lack of national loyalty, dereliction of duty or simply self-absorption?

Ans. Human Consideration

In the matter of the enemy soldier, the General had taken a soft stand and spared his life as well as imprisonment for treason in the case of Dr. Sadao on account of human consideration.

(a) The General’s humanitarian instincts made him identify with the wounded soldier, who too, needed Dr Sadao’s medical intervention to survive.

(b) He favoured being treated by Dr. Sadao because this doctor, a humanitarian, unlike the other two Japanese surgeons, placed saving of human life above the technical perfection of their skill.

(c) Having been to Princeton, the General had imbibed American values for human life and unlike most Japanese who could turn over a prisoner to execution, showed his leanings towards human consideration in making decisions.

(d) He did not gloat over his victories in battle but rather felt weighed down by the added responsibilities that each victory brought alongside, showing his deeply human instincts.

(e) Instead of outright action he suggests that the prisoner is killed by assassins so that both he and Dr. Sadao are spared the agony of killing a fellow human being in cold blood.

Lack of national loyalty

There is no lack of national loyalty as the General contemplates ways of getting rid of the enemy under all circumstances. Though educated in Princeton, he is at heart Japanese and decides on getting rid of the prisoner by using hired assassins who know the native technique of internal bleeding. A true loyalist, he knew that serving his country did not mean taking lives of enemies unnecessarily. Thus despite proclaiming to Sadao that he would arrange for assassins he trusted Sadaos judgement in finding an alternative and effective way out of the problem. The General makes a self-confession explaining that he had not sent the assassins because he was preoccupied with his own health condition instead. This was a face saving answer as both the men knew that no true patriot kills an enemy in cold blood. The General rewards the doctor for his kindness indicating that true patriotism is not about taking advantage of a fallen and defeated enemy.

Dereliction of duty

The General is a cool strategist who plans actions like a professional soldier. While trusting his medical needs in his surgeon’s hands, he goes ahead and secures victories for his country. For him, his victories in battle are not occasions of personal success but moments of introspection and planning for the duties thrust upon him by additional victories. He knew of every move within his command and thus was aware of the presence of the enemy and Dr. Sada
o’s medical intervention to save his life, in the spirit of humanity. His duty as an officer and a gentleman required that he find a way that would not jeopardize his surgeon as also not give his enemy undue advantage. He helped Dr Sadao find a solution to the problem by goading him into action by suggesting that he was taking the extreme measure of sending hired assassins, without actually meaning to do so.

Self-absorption

(a) Though the General glibly says that he forgot to order the assassins to kill the prisoner, taking cover under self-absorption with his medical condition, the following events distinctly prove contrary to this statement.

(b) Having ascertained Dr Sadao’s capabilities as a doctor who is both humane and technically skilled, he carries out his actions without further thought about his health.

(c) He is concerned about protecting the doctor facing the complexity of an enemy arriving at his doorstep instead of being absorbed with the repercussions of such a matter on his own career prospects.

(d) Even in the thick of his own illness he spares a thought about his doctor’s plight showing his utmost concern for Dr Sadao’s welfare instead of his own.

(e) The self-absorption was a perfect ruse to make Dr Sadao devise an escape route for his patient an enemy soldier.

Q4. While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during wartime, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?

Ans. Though the Doctor hated all Americans and felt superior to them, he felt that he had to do his best to save the life of the American prisoner of war who had got washed ashore, close to his house. The open resentment of his domestic servants and the obvious danger of giving refuge to an American prisoner of war did not deter him from carrying out his duties as a doctor. In this way, he rose above the narrow prejudices of race.

Q5. Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?

Ans. It was indeed the best solution to the problem as in this way the American could finally escape the Japanese at whose hands he had already suffered, the Doctor could assuage his conscience which would have bothered him had the General’s plan of having the American murdered, been carried out and his wife, Hana, could feel relieved at the enemy’s departure.

QUESTIONS FROM TEXTBOOK SOLVED

READ AND FIND OUT
Q1. Who was Dr Sadao? Where was his house?
Ans. Dr Sadao Hoki was an eminent Japanese surgeon and scientist. He had spent eight valuable years of his youth in America to learn all that could be learnt of surgery and medicine there. He was perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean.
Dr Sadao’s house was built on rocks well above a narrow beach that was outlined with bent pines. It was on a spot of the Japanese coast.

Q2. Will Dr Sadao be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy?
Ans. Dr Sadao knew that they would be arrested if they sheltered a white man in their house. The wounded man was a prisoner of war who had escaped with a bullet on his back. Since Japan was at war with America, harbouring an enemy meant being a traitor to Japan. Dr Sadao could be arrested if anyone complained against him and accused him of harbouring an enemy.

Q3. Will Hana help the wounded man and wash him herself?
Ans. The gardener and the cook were frightened that their master was going to heal the wound of a white man—an enemy. They felt that after being cured he (the white man) will take revenge on the Japanese. Yumi, the maid, was also frightened. She refused to wash the white man. Hana rebuked the maid who had refused to wash a wounded helpless man. Then she dipped a small dean towel into the steaming hot water and washed the white man’s face. She kept on washing him until his upper body was quite dean. But she dared not turn him over.

Q4. What will Dr Sadao and his wife do with the man?
Ans. Dr Sadao and his wife, Hana, had told the servants that they only wanted to bring the man to his senses so that they could turn him over as a prisoner. They knew that the best possible course under the circumstances was to put him back into the sea. However, Dr Sadao was against handing over a wounded man to the police. He dedded to carry him into his house. He operated upon him and extracted the bullet from his body. He kept the white man in his house. He and his wife looked after him and fed him till he was strong enough to walk on his legs. .

Q5. Will Dr Sadao be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy?
Ans. It was the seventh day since Dr Sadao had operated upon the young white man. Early that morning, their three servants left together. In the afternoon, a messenger came there in official uniform. He told Dr Sadao that he had to come to the palace at once as the old General was in pain again.
Hana, who had thought that the officer had come to arrest Dr Sadao, asked the messenger, “Is that all?” The baffled messenger enquired if that was not enough. She tried to cover her mistake by expressing regret and admitted that the General’s illness was enough. Dr Sadao told the General about the white man he had operated upon. Since Dr Sadao was indispensable to the General, he promised that Dr Sadao would not be arrested.

Q6. What will Dr Sadao do to get rid of the man?
Ans.Dr Sadao had told the old General that he had operated upon a white man. The General promised to send his private assassins to kill the man silently and secretly at night and remove his body. Dr Sadao left the outer partition of white man’s room open. He waited anxiously for three nights. The servants had left their house. His wife Hana had to cook, clean the house and serve the wounded man. She was unaccustomed to this labour. She was anxious that they should get rid of the man.
Dr Sadao told Tom, the white man, that he was quite well then. He offered to put his boat on the shore that night. It would have food and extra clothing in it. Tom might be able to row to the little island which was not far from the coast. It had not been fortified. The .water was quite deep. Nobody lived there, as it was submerged in storm. Since it was not the season of storm, he could live there till he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. He gave the man his flashlight. He was to signal twice with his flashlight at sunset in case his food ran out. In case, he was still there and all right, he was to signal only once.
Dr Sadao gave the man Japanese clothes and covered his blond head with a black doth. In short, Dr Sadao helped the man to escape from Japan. At the same time he also got rid of the man.

READING WITH INSIGHT
Q1.There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty? Discuss with reference to the story you have just read.
Ans. Dr Sadao Hoki faces a dilemma when he finds the body of an unconscious wounded white man lying on the lonely coast with dangerous rocks near his house. His first reaction was that the person was perhaps a fisherman who had been washed from his boat. He ran quickly down the steps. His wife, Hana came behind him. When they came near, Sadao found that the man was wounded and lay motionless. His face was in the sand. As they saw his face, they found that he was a white man with long yellow hair and a rough yellow beard.
Being an expert surgeon, Dr Sadao saw that the man had a gun-wound on the right side of his lower back. He at once packed the wound with sea moss to stanch the fearful bleeding. Since Japan was at war with America, the white man was an enemy. Dr Sadao muttered, “What shall we do with this man?” He answered the question himself, “The best thing that we could do would be to put him back in the sea.” His wife approved of his decision.
Then Sadao made another observation. If they sheltered a white man in their house they would be arrested and if they turned him over as a prisoner, he would certainly die. Hana still insisted on putting him back into the sea. From his battered cap, Dr Sadao concluded that he was a sailor from an American warship. The man was a prisoner of war. He had escaped and that was why he was wounded in the back..
Hana asked if they were able to put him back into the sea. Sadao then said that if the man was whole he could turn the man over to the police without difficulty. He cared nothing for the man. He was their enemy. All Americans were their ‘enemy’. But since he was wounded… Hana understood his dilemma and realised that in the conflict between his sense of national loyalty and his duty as a doctor, it was the latter which proved dominant. Since Sadao too could not throw him back to the sea, the only course left for them was to carry him to their house. Sadao enquired about the reaction of the servants.
Hana said that they would, tell the servants that they intended to give the man to the police. She told Sadao that they must do so. They had to think of the children and the doctor’s position. It would endanger all of them if they did not give that man over as a prisoner of war.
Sadao agreed and promised that he would not think of doing anything else.

Q2. Dr Sadao was compelled by his duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathetic to him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff?
Ans. Dr Sadao and his wife, Hana, together lifted the wounded man and carried him to an empty bedroom in their house. The man was very dirty. Sadao suggested that he had better be washed. He offered to do so if she would fetch water. Hana was against it. She suggested that the maid, Yumi, could wash the man. They would have to tell the servants. Dr Sadao examined the man again and remarked that the man would die unless he was operated upon at once. He left the room to bring his surgical instruments.
The servants did not approve of their master’s decision to heal the wound of a white man. Even Yumi refused to wash the white man. There was so fierce a look of resistance upon Yumi’s round dull face that Hana felt unreasonably afraid. Then she said with dignity that they only wanted to bring him to his senses so that they would turn him over as a prisoner. However, Yumi refused to have anything to do with him. Hana asked Yumi gently to return to her work.
The open defiance from the domestic staff hurt Hana’s feelings. She had told the servants to do what their master commanded them. She was convinced of her own superiority. She now became sympathetic to her husband and helped him in his efforts to heal the wounded man. Though the sight of the white man was repulsive to her, she washed his face and his upper body. She prepared herself to give him the anaesthetic according to her husband’s instructions. She had never seen an operation. She choked and her face turned pale like sulphur. She felt like vomiting and left for a while. She returned after retching and administered anaesthetic to the man. Thus she co-operated with her husband fully to save the wounded man.

Q3. How would you explain the reluctance of the soldier to leave the shelter of the doctor’s home even when he knew he couldn’t stay there without risk to the doctor and himself?
Ans. On the third day after the operation, the young man asked Dr Sadao what he was going to do with him and if he was going to hand him over. Dr Sadao said that he did not know himself what he would do with the mem. He ought to hand him over to the police as he was a prisoner of war.
The young man saw that Dr Sadao and his wife Hana were different from other Japanese. They spoke English well, looked after him and served him food. Seven days after the operation of the man, Dr Sadao was called to the palace to see the General. Hana thought that the police had come to arrest Dr Sadao. Dr Sadao confided in the General and he (General) promised to send his personal assassins to kill the man and remove his body. Dr Sadao waited for three nights. Nothing happened. Then he made a plan to let the prisoner escape. He told Tom, the young American, about it. The young man stared at him and asked if he had to leave. It seemed he was reluctant to leave. Dr Sadao told him that he should understand everything clearly. It was not hidden that he was there and this situation was full of risk for himself as well as for the doctor and his family. Thus it is quite clear that the reluctance of the soldier was caused by the single motive of self-preservation. He knew from the treatment he had received from the couple that they would save him.

Q4. What explains the attitude of the General in the matter of the enemy soldier? Was it human consideration, lack of national loyalty, dereliction of duty or simply self-absorption?
Ans. During his meeting with the General, Dr Sadao told him about the man he had operated on successfully. He explained that he cared nothing for the man. The General appreciated his skill and efficiency and promised that he would not be arrested.
The General thought it quite unfortunate that the man had been washed up to Dr Sadao’s doorstep and thought it best if he could be quietly killed. He promised to send his private assassins to do so and remove his dead body. He suggested that Dr Sadao should leave the outer partition of the white man’s room to the garden open at night.
It is evident that the General had no human consideration in this matter. For him an enemy was an enemy and must be wiped out. He wanted the man to be eliminated silently to save the doctor from being arrested. It was neither lack of national loyalty nor dereliction of duty that guided and inspired his decision. It was simply his sense of self-absorption. He “wanted to keep Dr Sadao safe only for his own sake. He had no faith in the other Germany trained doctors. He might have to be operated upon anytime when he had another attack and he had full faith in the skill and loyalty of Dr Sadao only.
This fact is further corroborated by the General’s remarks to Dr Sadao, one week after the emergency operation upon the General. Dr Sadao informed him that the man had escaped. The General asked whether he had not promised Sadao that he would kill the
man for him. Dr Sadao replied that he had done nothing. The General admitted that he had forgotten his promise as he had been suffering a great deal and he thought of nothing but himself. He revealed the whole truth. He admitted that it was careless of him to have forgotten his promise. But added that it was not lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty on his part.

Q5. While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during wartime, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?
Ans. It is the consciousness of the demands of one’s calling that make a sensitive soul respond to the call of his duty as a professional doctor to attend to the wounded human being regardless of his being an enemy.
In the story ‘The Enemy’ Dr Sadao Hoki finds a prisoner of war washed ashore and in a dying state thrown to his doorstep. As a patriot, it is his duty to hand him over to the police. If he does not want to be entangled, the next best thing is to put him back to the sea.
However, the surgeon in him instinctively inspires him to operate upon the dying man and save him from the jaws of death. First, he packs the wound with sea-moss to stanch the fearful bleeding. Then he brings him home with the help of his wife. In spite of stiff opposition and open defiance of the servants, he operates upon the man and harbours him till he is able to leave. He knows fully well the risk of sheltering a white man—a prisoner of war—in his house. But his sentimentality for the suffering and wounded person help him rise above narrow national prejudices and extend his help and services even to an enemy.

Q6. Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?
Ans. Yes, I think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances. Initially, the doctor as well as his wife thought that the best as well as kindest thing would be to put him back into the sea. But neither of them was able to put him back into the sea.
Sadao explained that if the man was whole he could turn him over to the police without difficulty, but since he was wounded, the doctor could not throw him back to the sea. He could not kill the man whom he had saved from the jaws of death.
The General promised to send his private assassins to kill the man and remove his dead body. Sadao waited for three nights for their arrival, but they never came as the General being preoccupied with his own suffering, forgot everything else.
Meanwhile the fear of Hana, the doctor’s wife, that he would be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy kept on mounting. Dr Sadao made up his mind to get rid of the man as it was not only inconvenient but also dangerous for them to have him there any longer. He, therefore, quietly devised the plan of letting the prisoner escape by using his own boat and Japanese clothes.
As soon as the enemy left, the servants returned and life became normal once again. Dr Sadao informed the General that “the man” had escaped. The General admitted that he had forgotten his promise as he thought of nothing but himself as he was suffering a great deal. He confessed that it was careless of him but it was not his lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty. In short, the doctor’s strategy to let the prisoner escape was the best possible solution to the problem under the prevailing circumstances.

Q7. Does the story remind you of ‘Birth’ by A. J. Cronin that you read in ‘Snapshots’ last year? What are the similarities?
Ans. Yes, the story ‘The Enemy’ by Pearl S. Buck certainly reminds us of the story ‘Birth’ by A. J. Cronin. Both the stories have certain obvious similarities. Both the stories revolve around the protagonist who is a doctor. Both of them focus on the doctor’s devotion and dedication to his duty and his concern for the well-being of his patient. The doctor sacrifices his own rest and comfort while attending to the patient. If the doctor brings a ‘still-born’ baby back to life in the story ‘Birth’, Dr Sadao Hoki performs no less a miracle. He saves an almost dying man from the jaws of death by skilfully extracting the bullet from his body and giving him medicines and injections for quick relief.
Dr Sadao runs a greater risk than Dr Andrew Mason. While the former could be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy and condemned to death, the latter (Dr Andrew) was foregoing rest and staking his reputation as a medical practitioner. He had had a disappointing evening with Christine, the girl he loves, but he forgets his personal feelings and concentrates on the safe delivery of child and then of reviving the middle-aged mother and the still-born child. Similarly, Dr Sadao is dedicated to his patient and his problems. He forgets everything while concentrating on the operation. His servants have defied him for sheltering an enemy and run away. His wife, Hana, has to do menial jobs while attending to the patient and her retching disturbs him. Her distress and his inability to attend to her make him impatient and irritable, but he does not desert the man who is under his knife. To conclude, we may say that the zeal, dedication and efforts of both the doctors are similar. There is difference of degree in the risk factor, but their devotion to suffering humanity is undoubtedly of the same kind.

Q8. Is there any film you have seen or novel you have read with a similar theme?
Ans. I remember an old Hindi film ‘Dr Kotnis ki Amar Kahani’ that deals with a similar theme. The eminent doctor gives up his practice and goes to the war front to look after the wounded and ailing soldiers and render them medical help. He spares no pain in performing his duties. He ignores the demands of his own body that is sleep, rest and comfort. Service to suffering humanity is his sole motivation and in his zeal to restore the maximum number of victims back to health, the doctor suffers from physical and mental exhaustion and ultimately dies.
The film based on the life of Florence Nightingale, the lady with the lamp, also glorifies the spirit of service and sacrifice of a member of the medical profession. It is through her sheer hard work and dedication to duty that Florence Nightingale raises the job of a nurse to a high pedestal.

MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1.What do you learn about Sadao’s father from the story ‘The Enemy’?
Ans. Sadao’s father was a visionary. He knew that the islands near the sea coast were the stepping stones to the future for Japan. No one could limit their future as it depended on what they made it. His son’s education was his chief concern. He sent his son to America at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learned of surgery and medicine. He loved the Japanese race, customs and manners.

Q2. Why was Dr Sadao being kept in Japan and not sent abroad with the troops?
Ans. Sadao was an eminent surgeon and a scientist. He was perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. Secondly, the old General was being treated medically for a condition for which he might need an operation. Due to these two reasons Sadao was being kept in Japan and not sent abroad with the troops.

Q3. Who was Sadao’s wife? Where had he met her? Why did he wait to fall in love with her?
Ans. Hana was Sadao’s wife. He had met her by chance at an American professor’s house. Professor Harley and his wife had been kind people. They held a party at their home for their few foreign students. Hana was a new student. He waited to fall in love with her until he was sure she was Japanese. It was because his father would never have received her unless she had been pure in her race.

Q4. When and where did Sadao marry Hana? How was their married life?
Ans. Sadao married Hana when they returned to Japan after finishing their work at medical school. Sadao’s father saw her. The marriage was then arranged in the old Japanese way. They had been married years enough to have two children. Their married life was quite happy. They still loved each other.

Q5. ‘Both of them saw something black came out of the mists’. What did they see and how did they react to it?
Ans. It was a man who had been flung up out of the ocean, to his feet by a breaker. He staggered a few steps with his arms above his head. Then the curled mists hid him again. When they next saw him, he was on his hands and knees crawling. Then they saw him fall on his face and lie there. Sadao thought that he was perhaps a fisherman who had been washed from his boat. He ran quickly down the steps. Hana followed him.

Q6. In which state did Sadao and Hana find the man? What did they learn about him?
Ans. The man lay motionless with his face in the sand. As they turned the man’s head, they saw that he was a white man with long yellow hair. His young face had a rough yellow beard. He was unconscious. From his battered cap they learnt that he was a sailor from an American warship.

Q7. What did Sadao learn about the white man’s wound?
Ans. Sadao saw that a gun-wound had been reopened on the right side of his lower back. The flesh was blackened with powder. The man had been shot recently and had not been tended. It was bad chance that the rock had struck the wound and reopened it.

Q8. How can you say that Sadao’s head and hands worked in different directions?
Ans. Sadao’s head told him to put the man back into the sea as he was an American soldier-an enemy of Japan. His trained hands seemed, of their own will, to be doing what they could to stanch the fearful bleeding. He packed the wound with the sea-moss that strewed the beach. The bleeding was stopped for the moment.

Q9.What dilemma did Sadao face about the young white man?
Ans. The white man was wounded. He needed immediate medical care. Dr Sadao could do so. But if they sheltered a white man in their house, they would be arrested. On the other hand, if they turned him over as a prisoner, he would certainly die. Dr Sadao was in a fix. It was difficult for him to come to any decision.

Q10.What was the attitude of Sadao and Hana towards the white man?
Ans. They stared upon the inert figure of the white man with a curious repulsion. Both talked of putting him back into the sea, but neither of them was able to do so alone. They hesitated. Sadao said that being American, the man was his enemy. He would have handed him over to the police if he had not been wounded. But since he was wounded… He left the sentence incomplete, implying that he couldn’t do so.

Q11.What solution did Hana offer to resolve Sadao’s predicament?
Ans. Hana found that neither of them could throw the white man back into the sea. There was only one thing to do. They must carry the man into their house. They must tell the servants that they intended to hand him over to the police. She reminded her husband of his position and children. It would endanger all of them if they did not give that man over as a prisoner of war.

Q12. How did Sadao and Hana take the man inside their house?
Ans. Together they lifted the man. He was very light. His arms were hanging down. They carried him up the steps and into the side door of the house. This door opened into a passage. Down the passage, they carried him towards an empty bedroom. They laid the man on the deeply matted floor.

Q13. Hana took out a soft quilt from the wall cupboard. Then she hesitated. Why? What did her husband suggest? Why did she not agree?
Ans. The quilt was covered with flowered silk and the lining was pure white silk. Secondly, the man was quite dirty. So Hana hesitated. Her husband suggested that he should be washed. He offered to wash him, if she was willing to fetch water. She could not bear for him to touch the man and offered to tell Yumi, the maid, to wash him.

Q14. Why did Dr Sadao had to touch the man? What did he observe?
Ans. The utter pallor of the man’s unconscious face moved Dr Sadao first to stoop and feel his pulse. It was faint but it was there. Then he put his hand against the man’s cold breast. The heart too was yet alive. He observed that the man would die unless he was operated on.

Q15. Why did Hana come behind Sadao when he went out of the room quickly?
Ans. Hana did not wish to be left alone with the white man. He was the first she had seen since she left America. He seemed to have nothing to do with those whom she had known there. Here he was her enemy, a menace, living or dead.

Q16. How did the servants react when their master told them about the wounded white man?
Ans. The servants were frightened and puzzled. The old gardener told Hana that the master ought not to heal the wound of that white man. He said that the white man ought to die. First he was shot. Then the sea caught him and wounded him with her rocks. If the master healed what the gun and the sea had done, they would take revenge on them.

Q17. Why had Hana to wash the wounded man herself?
Ans. Hana told Yumi to fetch hot water and bring it to the room where the white man was. Yumi put down the wooden bucket, but refused to wash the dirty white man. Hana cried at her severely. She told her to do what her master commanded her to do. The fierce look of resistance upon Yumfe dull face made Hana afraid. Under these circumstances, Hana had no option but to wash the white man herself.

Q18. How did Hana wash the wounded man?
Ans. First, Hana untied the knotted rugs that kept the white man covered. When she had his breast bare, she dipped a small clean towel into the steaming hot water and washed his face carefully. She kept on washing him until his upper body was quite clean. But she dared not turn him over for fear of the wound.

Q19. What help did Dr Sadao seek from Hana while operating the wounded white man?
Ans. First, he asked her to fetch towels. Then he told her that she would have to give him the anaesthetic if he needed it. Since, Hana had never done so, he told her that it was easy enough. He asked her to soak the cotton with anaesthetic and hold it near his nostrils. When he breathed badly, she had to move it away a little. Thus, Hana proved herself helpful to her husband.

Q20. How did Hana react to Sadao’s absorption in his work?
Ans. Sadao went on with his swift concise movements. He did not seem to hear her. She was used to his absorption when he was at work. She wondered for a moment if it mattered to him what the body was upon which he worked so long as it was for the work which he did so excellently.

Q21. What did Sadao remark when he peered into the wound with his bright surgeon’s light?
Ans. He remarked that the bullet was still there. He said so with cool interest. He then wondered
how deep that wound was. If it was not very deep it was possible that he could get the bullet. He observed that the bleeding was not superficial. The man had already lost much blood.

Q22. What made a cool surgeon (like Dr Sadao) speak sharply to his wife? How did she react to his command?
Ans. The sight of blood made Hana choke. Her face turned pale. She had never seen an operation. Dr Sadao spoke sharply and asked her not to faint. He did not put down his exploring instrument. He argued that if he stopped then the man would surely die. Hana clapped her hands to her mouth, leaped up and ran out of the room. He heard her retching in the garden. But he went on with his work.

Q23. What forced Dr Sadao to be impatient and irritable with his patient?
Ans. Sadao heard Hana retching in the garden and said that it would be better for her to empty her stomach. He went on with his work. He had forgotten that she had never seen an operation. But her distress and his inability to go to her at once made him impatient and irritable with the man who lay like dead under his knife.

Q24. What instructions did Sadao give to Hana to administer the anaesthetic and when?
Ans. The man was beginning to stir. Hana asked Sadao where the anaesthetic was. Sadao motioned with his chin. She now had the bottle and some cotton in her hand. Sadao instructed her to saturate the cotton with anaesthetic and hold it near the man’s nostrils. She had to move it away a little when he breathed badly.

Q25. How did Hana react to the stories they heard of the sufferings of the prisoners of war? What made her think so?
Ans. These stories came like flickers of rumour, told by word of mouth. They were always contradicted. Hana wondered whether these stories were true. In the newspapers the reports were that people received the Japanese armies gladly with cries of joy at their liberation.

Q26. In what context does Hana remember General Takima? What does she infer?
Ans. General Takima was a ruthless despot. At home he beat his wife cruelly. No one mentioned it now because he had won a victory in a battle in Manchuria. Hana remembers him in the context of the sufferings of the prisoners of war. She infers that if a man (like General Takima) could be so cruel to a woman in his power, he would be quite cruel to a prisoner. The deep red scars on the white man’s neck confirmed her apprehension.

Q27. “Ml thought left him. He felt only the purest pleasure.” Why, do you think, did Dr Sadao behave in this way?
Ans. Dr Sadao was concentrating hard on locating the bullet. He felt the tip of his probing instrument strike against something hard, dangerously near the kidney. He was filled with the purest pleasure at the success of his skill. He thought only of curing his patient and did not answer even his wife’s query.

Q28. Dr Sadao was ‘familiar with every atom of this human body’. Who had seen to that knowl¬edge and how?
Ans. It was Sadao’s old American professor of Anatomy who had seen to the perfect knowledge of human body. He would tell his students, ‘Ignorance of the human body is the surgeon’s cardinal sin.” He would go a step further and impress upon the budding surgeons to have as complete knowledge of the body as if they had made it. To operate with anything less than that meant a murder.

Q29. Comment on Dr Sadao’s attitude to the white man in the light of the following:
(i) “Sadao took up his wrist, hating the touch of it.”
(ii) “But certainly I do not want this man to live.”
(iii) “This man will live in spite of all.”
Ans. Sadao has an ambivalent attitude towards the wounded white man. Since he is their enemy, he hates touching his wrist. As a patriot he does not want that man to live. However, as a surgeon, he does not want the man to die after a successful operation. Hence, in order to revive his faint, feeble pulse, he gives him an injection. The pulse now flutters and then grows stronger. The survival of the man is the victory of the surgeon’s skill.

Q30. How did Harm look after the white man? How did he react?
Ans. Hana had to serve him herself, for none of the servants would enter the room. She did not like him and yet she was moved to comfort him. She found the man quite weak and terrified. She knelt and fed him gently from the porcelain spoon. He ate unwillingly but still he ate.

Q31. How did Dr Sadao respond to the boy’s query: “What are you going to do with me?…Are you going to hand me over?”
Ans. Dr Sadao examined the boy and then told him that he did not know himself what he would do with the boy. He ought to give him to the police as he was a prisoner of war.

Q32. What did Hana inform Sadao about the servants? How did Sadao react to it?
Ans. The servants felt that they could not stay there if their master sheltered the white man there any more. They also accused them of liking Americans and of having forgotten to think of their own country first. Dr Sadao protested that it was not true. Americans were their enemies. But he had been trained not to let a man die if he could help him. Hana told him that the servants could not understand it.

Q33. ‘Somehow the household dragged on’. How did the servants behave after Sadao had operated upon the American? What opinions did they express?
Ans. The servants grew more watchful day by day. Their courtesy was as careful as ever, but their eyes were cold towards Hana and Sadao. The old gardener was sore, why Sadao had not let the young man bleed when he was so near the death. The cook remarked contemptuously that being proud of his skill to save life that he saves any life. Yumi added that they must think of the children. She enquired: “What will be their fate if their father is condemned as a traitor?”

Q34. What two things happened on the seventh day after that?
Ans. In the morning the servants left together with their belongings tied in large square cotton kerchiefs. Hana paid them off gracefully and thanked them for all that they had done for her. In the afternoon, a messenger came to the door in official uniform.

Q35. How did Hana react when she saw a messenger at the door in official uniform?
Ans. Hana was working hard on unaccustomed labour. When she saw the uniformed messenger, her hands went weak and she could not draw her breath. She feared that the servants must have told everything already. She thought that they had come to arrest Dr Sadao.

Q36. Why, do you think, had the messenger come to Dr Sadao’s house? How did Hana react to the message and what did the messenger take exception to?
Ans. The messenger had arrived there to ask Dr Sadao to come to the palace as the old General was in pain again. In her anxiety for her husband’s safety, Hana asked if that was all. The messenger took exception to the word ‘all’ and enquired if that was not enough. Hana  apologised for the error.

Q37. Why did Dr Sadao tell the General everything about the man he had operated upon?
Ans. Dr Sadao could not report the arrival of the escaped prisoner at his doorstep. He wanted to get rid of the man for the sake of his wife. He explained his position to the General. He did not care for that man, but since he had operated upon the man he could not kill him. The
General praised his skill, called him indispensable and promised that he would allow nothing to happen to Dr Sadao.

Q38. Why, do you think, did the old General not want Dr Sadao to be arrested?
Ans. Dr Sadao had told the General that he could stand only one more such attack as he had that day. Then he would have to be operated upon. The General wanted Dr Sadao to operate upon him. He had no faith in the other surgeons trained by the Germans. So, he would not let Dr Sadao be arrested.

Q39. What plan did the old General suggest for getting rid of the ‘man’?
Ans. He thought that it would be best if the white man could be quietly killed—not by the doctor, but by someone who did not know him. He offered to send two of his private assassins any night to his home. These capable assassins would make no noise. They knew the trick of inward bleeding. They could even remove the body. Dr Sadao had to leave the outer partition of the room open and this made restless.

Q40. Why did Sadao sleep badly at night after meeting the General?
Ans. Sadao woke up time and again thinking he heard the rustling of footsteps, the sound of a twig broken or a stone displaced in the garden—or any noise such as men might make who carried a burden. This went on for three nights. Every night Sadao expected the assassins to come and this made him restless.

Q41. What plan did Dr Sadao devise to get rid of the man?
Ans. Dr Sadao devised the plan of letting the man escape to the nearest uninhabited island. He told the man everything. He put his boat on the shore with food and extra clothing. He advised the man to row to the little island not far from the coast. He could live there till he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by.

Q42. How was the plan of the prisoner’s escape executed?
Ans. Dr Sadao had put food and bottled water in his stout boat. He also put two quilts. After supper, he cheked the American again. He gave him his flashlight and told him to signal two flashes if he needed more food. One signal would mean he was OK He had to signal at sunset and not in the darkness. The man was dressed in Japanese clothes and his blond head was covered with a black cloth.

Q43. What did Sadao tell the General after a week? Why did he wait that long?
Ans. The General had undergone an emergency operation a week before. The gall bladder was involved. He was in critical state for twelve hours. Then he recovered slowly. After a week Sadao felt that the General was well enough to be spoken to about the prisoner. He told the General that the prisoner had escaped.

Q44. What did the General tell Dr Sadao about his promise to kill the prisoner for him?
Ans. Dr Sadao did not want to disturb the General much. So he simply said that the prisoner had escaped. The General at once remembered his promise. He confessed that he had been suffering a great deal. He thought of nothing but himself. He forgot his promise, but it was not lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty.

Q45. “I wonder why I could not kill him?” What makes Dr Sadao think so?
Ans. After the departure of the young American, Dr Sadao thinks of the other white faces he had “come across. The Americans were full of prejudice and he had found it bitter to live there. The white people were repulsive even in their kindness. It was relief to be openly at war with them. Then he remembered the youthful, haggard face of the prisoner. It was also white and repulsive. He thought it strange that he spared his enemy. He wondered why he could not kill him.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. Why did Sadao Hoki go to America? What do you learn about his experiences there?
Ans. Sadao’s education was his father’s chief concern. So he had been sent at twenty-two to America to leam all that could be learnt of surgery and medicine. He studied there for eight years and returned to Japan at thirty. Before his father died, Sadao had become famous not only as a surgeon, but also as a scientist.
He had had great difficulty in finding a place to live in America because he was a Japanese. The Americans were full of prejudice and it had been bitter to live in it, knowing himself to be superior to them. An ignorant and dirty old woman at last consented to house him in her miserable home. He found her repulsive to him even in her kindness.
One of his American professors and his wife were kind people. They were anxious to do something for their few foreign students. But their rooms were quite small, the food was very bad, the professor was a dull person and his wife was a silly talkative woman.

Q2. How can you say that Dr Sadao’s father was a Japanese to the core?
Ans. Dr Sadao’s father had high dreams about the future of Japan. There was no limit to their future as it depended on what they made it. He never played or joked with his only son. But he spent infinite pains upon him. For the sake of the best possible medical education, he sent his son to America. Sadao met Hana there, but waited to fall in love with her until he was sure she was Japanese. His father would never have received her unless she had been pure in her race. Their marriage was arranged in the old Japanese way only after Sadao’s father had seen her when both of them had come home to Japan after finishing their education.
He was a Japanese every inch. The floor of his room was deeply matted. He would never sit on a chair or sleep in a foreign bed in his house. The quilt was covered with flowered silk and the lining was pure white silk. In short, everything here had been Japanese to please him.

Q3. What do you learn about Dr Sadao and Harm from the story ‘The Enemy’?
Ans. Sadao and Hana represent modem, enlightened and educated Japanese who get the benefit of American training in medical science, yet retain love and respect for their moth¬erland and its customs and traditions. He was an obedient and caring son who had deep regard for his father. He married Hana only after his father had seen her. Their marriage was arranged in the old Japanese way. They were perfectly happy and had two children. Even years after their marriage they retained the same love and affection for each other. Since Japan was at war with America, they considered the Americans as their enemies. The waves of the ocean had flung up a wounded young American to their doorstep. They wanted to put him back into the sea, but neither of them was able to do so. They brought the wounded man inside their house in spite of repulsion for him. Sadao had been trained not to let a man die if he could help him. The ethics of the medical profession forced him to save even his enemy. His wife Hana obeyed all his commands and instructions like a child though she suffered a lot internally.

Q4. What was the dilemma that Sadao faced when he saw a wounded, young white man washed to his doorstep? What solution did his wife, Hana, offer to resolve his (Sadao’s) predica¬ment?
Ans. The young white man was bleeding. He had a bullet wound on his lower back. He needed immediate medical attention. Dr Sadao, an eminent surgeon, could do so. But if they sheltered a white man in their house, they would be arrested. On the other hand, if they tinned him over as a prisoner, he would certainly die. Neither of them could put him back into the sea and get rid of him. They were true humanist. So, they hesitated.
Sadao declared that being an American, the man was his enemy. He would have handed him over to the police if he had been hale and hearty. But since he was wounded… He left the sentence unfinished implying that he could not do so as he had been trained not to let a man die if he could help him.
Hana suggested that they must carry the man inside the house. They must tell the ser¬vants that they intended to hand him over to the police. She reminded her husband of his position and the children. It would endanger all of them if they did not hand that man over as a prisoner of war. His doubts were removed and they decided to carry the man into their house.

Q5. How did Dr Sadao take the man inside his house and try to save him?
Ans. Dr Sadao and Hana lifted the man together. He was very light. His arms were hanging
down. They carried him up the steps and into the side door of the house. This door opened •
into a passage. Down the passage, they carried him towards an empty bedroom. They laid the man on the deeply matted floor. The man was quite dirty, so Dr Sadao suggested that he should be washed.
The utter pallor of the man’s unconscious face moved Dr Sadao first to stoop and feel his pulse. It was faint, but it was there. Then he put his hand against the man’s cold breast.
The heart too was yet alive. He observed that the man would die unless he was operated upon immediately. He left the room to bring his instruments to perform an emergency operation to save the man’s life.

Q6. How did the servants initially react to the presence of a white man in their masters house?
Ans.When Dr Sadao told the cook and the gardener about the wounded young white man, they
had brought inside the house, the two servants were frightened and puzzled. The *
superstitious old gardener looked so annoyed that he pulled the few hairs on his upper lip.
He bluntly told Hana that the master ought not to heal the wound of that white man. He said that the white man ought to die. First he was shot. Then the sea caught him and wounded him with her rocks. If the master healed what the gun and the sea had done, they would take revenge on them.
Even the maid, Yumi, refused to wash the man though Hana cried at her severely and told her to do what the master had commanded her to do. The servants seemed to be in a defiant mood. The fierce look of resistance upon Yumi’s dull face frightened Hana. She thought that the servants might report something that was not as it happened. She main¬tained her dignity and told the maid that they wanted to bring him to his senses so that they could turn him over as a prisoner. Even this explanation failed to convince Yumi and she refused to do anything for the white man.

Q7. What was the change in the mood of open defiance of their master on the part of domestic staff as time passed and the white man was kept in Dr Sadao’s house ?
Ans. Dr Sadao not only kept the young white man at his home, but also operated upon him. It was the third day after the operation. The servants continued their open defiance of their master and did not enter the white man’s room. Hana served him herself. Hana told Sadao what the servants had conveyed through Yumi. The domestic staff felt that they could not stay there if their. master sheltered that man any more. They accused them of having forgotten to think of their own countiy because they had lived for a long time in America. They thought that their master and mistress liked Americans. Dr Sadao tried to clarify his position as a man and as a doctor. Hana told him that the servants could not understand this subtle distinction.
”Somehow the household dragged on. The servants grew more watchful day by day. They were careful in their courtesy as ever but their eyes were cold. The old gardener was the most vocal. He taunted that their master knew very well what he ought to do. He was sore why Sadao had not let the young man bleed when he was so near to death. The cook remarked contemptuously that the young master was so proud of his skill to save life that he saved any life. Yumi added that they must think of the children. She enquired: “What will be their fate if their father is condemned as a traitor?”
Since the white man was not handed over to the police, even after a week, all the servants left on the seventh day after that.

Q8. Hana was a loving, caring, devoted and obedient wife who was quite anxious about her husband’s wellbeing, position and reputation? Discuss.
Ans. Hana is the alter ego of her husband, Dr Sadao Hoki. She has adapted herself to his ways. She knows that saving a life is a mission for him and when he is attending on his patient, he forgets everything else—even Hana herself. Even years after their marriage, they retain the same love and affection for each other.
She cared for him a lot and would not let him stand outside in the cold foggy February night. She was a bit sentimental, yet pragmatic in her approach. She was quick to judge what went on in her husband’s mind and suggested solutions. She maintained her dignity when the servants showed resistance and open defiance. As an obedient and devoted wife, she carried out all the orders and instructions of her husband. She washed the wounded white man, gave him anaesthesia and later on food.
She was worried about her husband’s safety, position and reputation. Initially, she suggested to throw the man back into the sea. She was afraid that the servants might misreport. Her fears are exhibited clearly when a messenger in uniform arrives from the palace. In order to calm down her fears, Dr Sadao decides to get rid of the white man anyhow. In short, she is an ideal life partner.

Q9. What impression do you form of Dr Sadao as a man and as a surgeon from your reading of the story ‘The Enemy’?
Ans. Dr Sadao Hoki was a true Japanese like his father. He was a brave boy who obeyed and respected his father and loved Japanese culture, tradition and people. He was intelligent and hard working and studied surgery and medicine in America for eight years. He mar¬ried a Japanese girl, Hana, whom he had met in America. But he waited for his father’s approval and their marriage was arranged in the old Japanese way after they had re¬turned home to Japan. They had two children. He still loved his wife as warmly as ever. He returned home at fixed hours.
Dr Sadao was an eminent surgeon as well as scientist. The old General had full faith in him. He was not sent abroad with the troops because the old General might need an operation. Dr Sadao was called even at odd hours from the palace. Dr Sadao was a real doctor. He would not let a man die if he could help him. That is why he cured even an “enemy” of bullet wound and did not hand him over to the police. He faced a great risk to his position and life by sheltering the man. Since Dr Sadao could not kill the man himself, he sought the help of the old General to get rid of him. When that plan failed, he let the prisoner escape in order to calm down the fears of his wife and let the household run properly. It may be a blemish from a narrow patriotic angle but a sensitive soul can’t take back what he has given.

Q10. Under what circumstances did Dr Sadao let the wounded white man escape? Was it lack of national loyalty, professional ego and sentimentality, human consideration or just an attempt to save his skin?
Ans. Hr Sadao had no love for the repulsive Americans and he considered them his enemies. Unfortunately, the sea-waves pushed a wounded white man to his doorstep. He knew that the best possible thing was to throw him back into the sea. He could not handover a wounded ‘enemy’ to police because he would certainly die. Being a doctor, he could save him and not kill him. His efforts to get him removed with the help of the old General’s private assassins did not bear fruit.
He was under a severe strain. His domestic servants had left him. His wife had to do unaccustomed labour and run the household. Moreover, his wife was anxious about his safety. They might be arrested for harbouring an enemy prisoner of war and condemned as traitors.
Dr Sadao let the man escape in the larger interest of professional ethics and human consideration. He rose above narrow national loyalty and sentimentality. He did not think of himself as the General had already assured him that no harm would be caused to him. The matter remained unreported and closed from public eyes and ears. The servants returned after the white man had “left”. Everything became normal again.

Q11. Comment on the role of the old General in the story ‘The Enemy’.
Ans. The old General plays an important role in the story. He is being treated medically for a condition which might need an operation any time. Since he has full faith in Dr Sadao, he is kept back in Japan. Dr Sadao is indispensable to the General. He assures Sadao that nothing will happen to him and he will not be arrested.
The arrival of the messenger rouses Hana’s worst fears. She thinks that police has come to arrest her husband. Dr Sadao gets distressed at her anxiety and decides to get rid of the white man for her sake. When Dr Sadao confides in the General, the latter promises to send two of his private assassins to remove the man from the scene.
The old General has an unsual sense of humour as well as frankness and ability to admit his mistake. Dr Sadao keeps on waiting for three nights for the assassins who fail to turn up. He loses sleep and rest. Finally he lets the white man escape.
When Dr Sadao tells the General that the man has escaped, the General admits that he forgot his promise. He was suffering a great deal and thought of nothing but himself. It was careless of him but not lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty, It is his self-absorption and instinct of preserving himself that saves Dr Sadao and his family from being arrested.

Q12. The ending of the story ‘The Enemy’ epitomises the attitude of a Japanese towards Americans during the war. Elucidate.
OR
Comment on the ending of the story ‘The Enemy’.
Ans. The ending of the story, ‘The Enemy’ is highly artistic. The old General, recovering from the operation, promises that Dr Sadao will be rewarded as he is a good man. Dr Sadao has his reward when he finds that his prisoner has gone away safely from the island. He now recalls all the other white faces he ever came across. The professor, at whose house he met Hana, was a dull man and his wife had been a silly, talkative woman, in spite of her wish to be kind. His old teacher of anatomy had been insistent on ‘mercy with the knife’. He remembered the face of his fat and slatterly landlady whom he had despised for being ignorant and dirty. He remembered the difficulties he faced in finding a place to live in America because he was a Japanese. The Americans were full of prejudice and, it had been bitter to live in America. He found the white people repulsive. It was a relief to be openly at war with them. Then he remembered the youthful, haggard face of the prisoner. It was also white and repulsive. He thought it strange that he spared his enemy. He is left wondering why he could not kill the white man “his enemy”.

Q13. Do you think the title ‘The Enemy’ is appropriate? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. The title ‘The Enemy’ is quite appropriate and highly suggestive. It focuses our attention on the wounded man who is incidentally washed ashore to the doorstep of a famous Japanese surgeon, Dr Sadao Hoki during the war.
The first reaction of the Japanese pair is typical of average, patriotic Japanese who hate their white enemies. However, the doctor in Sadao prompts him to bring the man inside his house and cure him. The doctor’s involvement with the white enemy annoys the domestic staff who show open defiance and resistance. The doctor faces grave danger to his position, safety, name, fame and family by harbouring the enemy. He could be condemned as a traitor and killed.
In spite of all the odds, the doctor finds himself emotionally unable to hand him over to the police. He has no love for the man. He regards him his enemy, yet he can’t kill him. He tells the old General how he operated on the white man and saved him. The General is all praise for his skill, hopes for his own successful operation at his hand, and promises to kill the man for him.
The doctor faces a lot of tension—mental, emotional and physical. He passes sleepless nights waiting for the assassins, who never turn up. Meanwhile, ‘the enemy’ recovers and the doctor devises means to let him escape in order to get rid of him. At the end of the story he is left wondering why he could not kill that man.

Q14. What was the General’s plan to get rid of the American prisoner ? Was it executed ? What traits of the General’s character are highlighted in the lesson ‘The Enemy’?[All India 2014]
Ans. The General made a plan to get rid of the American prisoner by sending his personal assassins to kill the prisoner. He also wanted to remove the body of American prisoner from Sadao’s house. But, unfortunately he could not succeed in his attempt. The plan was i not executed. The General could not send the assassins.
The General had an unusual sense of humour as well as frankness and ability to admit his mistake. Dr. Sadao keeps on waiting for three nights for the assassins who fail to turn up. He loses his rest and sleep. Finally he lets the white man escape. When Dr. Sadao tells the General that the man has escaped, the General admits that he forgot his promise. It was carelessness of him but not the lack of patriotism. It is his self-absorption and instinct of preserving himself that saves Dr. Sadao and his family being arrested.

MCQ Questions for Class 12 English Vistas Chapter 4 The Enemy with Answers

Question 1.
The American landlady had once helped Sadao when
(a) she nursed him through influenza
(b) she gave him food for a month
(c) she had mended his clothes
(d) had not taken rent for a month

Answer

Answer: (a) she nursed him through influenza


Question 2.
Sadao got his reward when
(a) the prisoner could escape
(b) when he got an award from the government
(c) when his servants returned
(d) when his wife appreciated him

Answer

Answer: (a) the prisoner could escape


Question 3.
Sadao made the prisoner dress up in
(a) Korean clothes
(b) Chinese clothes
(c) Indian clothes
(d) Japanese clothes

Answer

Answer: (d) Japanese clothes


Question 4.
The young prisoner was asked to flash the light if food ran out
(a) twice
(b) thrice
(c) once
(d) not at all

Answer

Answer: (a) twice


Question 5.
When the assassins did not come, Sadao decided to
(a) kill the prisoner himself
(b) help him to escape
(c) hand him over to the police
(d) send him to America

Answer

Answer: (b) help him to escape


Question 6.
The General only wanted Sadao to operate upon him because
(a) Sadao was very skilled
(b) General did not like any other doctor
(c) General was his close friend
(d) General did not want to go abroad for surgery

Answer

Answer: (a) Sadao was very skilled


Question 7.
’Why are we different from other Japanese?’, this was said by
(a) the servant
(b) the General
(c) Sadao
(d) Hana

Answer

Answer: (d) Hana


Question 8.
The day Sadao opened the soldier’s stitches, he
(a) called the police
(b) typed out a letter to the Chief of Police
(c) made him run away
(d) tied him up

Answer

Answer: (a) called the police


Question 9.
All the servants in Sadao’s household
(a) were happy with their master
(b) felt that he deserved a reward
(c) were very critical of him
(d) wanted him to let the soldier die

Answer

Answer: (c) were very critical of him


Question 10.
The recovering soldier was fed by
(a) Sadao
(b) Sadao’s servant
(c) Yumi
(d) Hana

Answer

Answer: (d) Hana


Question 11.
Sadao removed the bullet from close to soldiers
(a) heart
(b) liver lungs
(c) Kidney
(d) lungs

Answer

Answer: (c) Kidney


Question 12.
While Sadao operating upon the wounded soldier, Liana had to rush out to
(a) drink water
(b) rest for a while
(c) to vomit (retch)
(d) to check on the babies

Answer

Answer: (c) to vomit (retch)


Question 13.
When Yumi, the servant refused to help Hana told her that
(a) she could get out of the house
(b) go back to the baby’s room
(c) go and cook food
(d) she and Sadao would hand him over as a prisoner after making him conscious

Answer

Answer: (d) she and Sadao would hand him over as a prisoner after making him conscious


Question 14.
The reaction of the servants, when told about the injured person, was
(a) they got angry
(b) they were frightened
(c) they were willing to help
(d) they ran away

Answer

Answer: (b) they were frightened


Question 15.
The first treatment Sadao gave the wounded soldier was
(a) his wounds were washed
(b) he was operated upon
(c) he was fed
(d) his wounds were dressed

Answer

Answer: (a) his wounds were washed


Question 16.
Both Sadao and Hana thought that keeping the wounded soldier in their house would
(a) win them a reward
(b) endanger all of them
(c) arouse police suspicion
(d) make the servants angry

Answer

Answer: (b) endanger all of them


Question 17.
The wounded soldier belonged to
(a) The Russian army
(b) U.S. Navy
(c) The British army
(d) The Japanese army

Answer

Answer: (b) U.S. Navy


Question 18.
The soldier had been
(a) stabbed
(b) shot
(c) beaten up
(d) slapped hard

Answer

Answer: (b) shot


Question 19.
At first, Sadao thought, he was an
(a) fisherman
(b) a criminal
(c) a politician
(d) a singer

Answer

Answer: (a) fisherman


Question 20.
Sadao and his wife had
(a) two children
(b) one child
(c) three children
(d) no children

Answer

Answer: (a) two children


Question 21.
Sadao met his wife in
(a) Japan
(b) China
(c) America
(d) India

Answer

Answer: (c) America


Question 22.
He was not sent abroad with the troops because
(a) the General needed an operation
(b) his wife did not let him go
(c) he wanted to stay back
(d) his father did not allow him to go

Answer

Answer: (a) the General needed an operation


Question 23.
Sadao went to America to learn
(a) psychiatry
(b) surgery and medicine
(c) music
(d) fine arts

Answer

Answer: (b) surgery and medicine


Question 24.
The chief concern for Sadao’s father was
(a) Sadao’s wedding
(b) Sadao’s education
(c) Sadao’s migration
(d) Sadao’s treatment

Answer

Answer: (b) Sadao’s education


Question 25.
The name of the main character in ‘The Enemy’ is
(a) Dr Huen Tsang
(b) Dr Sadao Hoki
(c) Dr Chung Wa
(d) Dr Hao Chi

Answer

Answer: (b) Dr Sadao Hoki


Question 26.
How many children Dr. Sadao has?
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 3
(d) 2

Answer

Answer: (d) 2


Question 27.
At what age Dr. Sadao went to America?
(a) 22
(b) 32
(c) 12
(d) 42

Answer

Answer: (a) 22


Question 28.
Where did Dr. meet Hana?
(a) in Japan
(b) in his neighbour
(c) in the battlefield
(d) at professor Harley’s house in America

Answer

Answer: (d) at professor Harley’s house in America


Question 29.
What does this chapter revolve around?
(a) war
(b) war between Israel and America
(c) war between Malasia and America
(d) war between Japan and America

Answer

Answer: (d) war between Japan and America


Question 30.
Why did Dr. Sadao go to America?
(a) to meet the soldiers
(b) to meet his friends
(c) to travel
(d) to study surgery and medicine which was his father’s wish

Answer

Answer: (d) to study surgery and medicine which was his father’s wish


Question 31.
What idea do you form of Drafter reading the lesson?
(a) an excellent doctor
(b) a compassionate human being
(c) Sincere and responsible citizen
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (d) All these


Question 32.
How did Dr emerge successfully out of all the conflicts?
(a) by throwing the patients out of his house
(b) by sending his servants out of the house
(c) by succumbing before the general
(d) By saving soldier’s life as a sincere doctor and helping him to escape

Answer

Answer: (d) By saving soldier’s life as a sincere doctor and helping him to escape


Question 33.
Why did Dr. help an enemy soldier?
(a) because he was an ethical and sincere doctor
(b) because he was his friend
(c) because he knew him
(d) none

Answer

Answer: (a) because he was an ethical and sincere doctor


Question 34.
Why did the servants leave Dr.’s House?
(a) Because he was wounded
(b) because he was dirty
(c) Because he was an American Soldier and they didn’t like him
(d) All

Answer

Answer: (c) Because he was an American Soldier and they didn’t like him


Question 35.
Why did Dr. Give his flashlight to the enemy soldier?
(a) to help him
(b) to show him the way in the dark
(c) so that he could send him signal in case of any distress
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (c) so that he could send him signal in case of any distress


Question 36.
How did Dr get rid of the American Soldier?
(a) by giving him instructions
(b) by giving him flashlight to use in times of distress
(c) by asking him to row to the island
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (d) All these


Question 37.
What kind of person The General was?
(a) a kind hearted
(b) a wise man
(c) a selfish man
(d) none

Answer

Answer: (c) a selfish man


Question 38.
Why did the messenger come to the doctor?
(a) to meet him
(b) for checkup
(c) to inform about the General’s pain
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (c) to inform about the General’s pain


Question 39.
Why did Sadao marry a Japanese girl only?
(a) because he liked Japanese
(b) he didn’t like any other nationality
(c) Because of his father’s fear
(d) because he didn’t want to upset his father

Answer

Answer: (d) because he didn’t want to upset his father


Question 40.
Why did the servants refuse to help ?
(a) out of fears
(b) because of superstitions
(c) because he was an American Soldier
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (d) All these


Question 41.
What was Hana’s reaction over her husband’s words?
(a) She held her mouth with her hands and vomited outside the operation room
(b) she shouted
(c) she cried
(d) she stopped helping him

Answer

Answer: (a) She held her mouth with her hands and vomited outside the operation room


Question 42.
Why did Dr.’s wife feel distressed?
(a) seeing many patients
(b) Seeing General’s reaction
(c) Seeing the orders
(d) Seeing Whiteman’s blood

Answer

Answer: (d) Seeing Whiteman’s blood


Question 43.
Why did the General not pass orders to arrest Dr. Sadao for giving space to a white man?
(a) because he trusted him
(b) because he needed him
(c) General was not in good health and needed his services
(d) None

Answer

Answer: (c) General was not in good health and needed his services


Question 44.
Who was Dr. Sadao?
(a) An Iranian Doctor
(b) An American doctor
(c) A Japanese doctor
(d) None

Answer

Answer: (c) A Japanese doctor


Question 45.
Who is the author of the lesson The Enemy?
(a) Pearl S. Buck
(b) Dickens
(c) D.H.Lawrence
(d) None

Answer

Answer: (a) Pearl S. Buck


Question 46.
What does Dr. Sadao remember towards the end of the story?
(a) five American faces which had a lion’s share in his
(b) which had a lion’s share in his life
(c) his first landlady, who was full of prejudice, yet saved his life when he was suffering from influenza.
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (d) All these


Question 47.
At what age he came back to Japan?
(a) 20
(b) 40
(c) 50
(d) 30

Answer

Answer: (d) 30


Question 48.
Why did Dr feel alone at the beach?
(a) for not bringing his wife with him
(b) for not listening to General
(c) for saving an American soldier’s life
(d) none

Answer

Answer: (c) for saving an American soldier’s life


Question 49.
What does the narrator speak about in the beginning of the chapter?
(a) the war
(b) the General
(c) Dr. Sadao’s childhood and his father.
(d) the servants and Dr’s wife

Answer

Answer: (c) Dr. Sadao’s childhood and his father.


Question 50.
What did Dr give to the soldier?
(a) his boat
(b) food to eat
(c) flashlight to use in distress
(d) All these

Answer

Answer: (d) All these


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