AP Biology : 4.2 Introduction to Signal Transduction- Study Notes

B. GEnome Structure
➢ Genetic code is the sequence of the base pairs
➢ Gene codes for a specific protein
➢ Prokaryotes: single DNA molecule
➢ Eukaryotes: multiple DNA molecules
➢ An species entire DNA sequence is its genome
Chromosome is each separate chunk of DNA
➢ Prokaryotes have one circular chromosome, and eukaryotes have linear chromosomes
➢ chromosomes wrapped around proteins called histones, and histones are bunched in groups called a nucleosome
➢ How Tightly DNA is packaged depend on the section of DNA and what is going on in the cell at the time

  •  Euchromatin is extremely loose genetic material
  • Heterochromatic is extremely tight genetic material with inactive genes

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