AP Chemistry Unit 4.6 Introduction to Titrations

Acid-Base Titrations

  • Neutralization reaction: acid base reaction; produces salt and water
    • Neutralized: when just enough base is added to react exactly with the acid in a solution
  • Titrant: solution of known concentration used in titration (in buret)
  • Analyte: substance of unknown concentration (is being analyzed; in the flask)
  • Endpoint: the indicator changes color so you can tell that the equivalence point has been reached
    • Can tell that a chemical change has occurred by a change in color or if solution feels warm (heat often associated with acid-base reaction)
  • Goal of titration is to reach equivalence (stoichiometric) point: enough titrant added to react exactly with the analyte
    • Equivalence point on graph = most vertical point on graph where the pH change is the greatest
      • “Neutralization “ means at eq. point 

 Redox Titration

  • Some might not need an indicator; eq point can be detected by observing a faint pink color persisting in the analyte

 Steps to Titration Calculation Questions

  1. Substance with molarity and volume will be the titrant → determine moles of titrant
  2. Substance with only volume given will be analyte
  3. Use balanced equation to determine moles of analyte reacted
  4. Determine the molarity of the analyte by using moles/liters
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