CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World Study Notes

The Living World Class 11 Notes Biology Chapter 1

1.Living World: Characteristics

The earth serves as a home for diverse living organisms. The organisms live in various habitats like forests, mountains, deserts, oceans, freshwater bodies, hot springs, polar regions and almost every place of the earth. Living things possess certain characteristics, which makes
Some of these important characteristics are shown in the flowchart given below:
Major Characteristics of Living Organisms:
Major characteristics of living organisms are given below
1 Growth
Living things grow by increase in mass and increase in number of individuals/cells. In multi cellular organisms in particular, growth occur by cell division or increase in number of cells. Growth occurs continuously throughout life in plants, whereas, in animals, it occurs up to a certain age only. However, growing in certain body parts like nails, hair and replacement of lost cells, occurs throughout the life.
In unicellular organisms, growth can be observed under the microscope by simply counting the number of cells via in vitro experiment.
Non-living things like mountains, boulders, sand dunes also grow in size, but just by accumulating the material on their external surface. Thus, growth in living things is internal, while in non-living things, it is external. It is to be noted that a dead organism do not grow.
2. Reproduction
Reproduction, a characteristic of living organisms is the process of producing offsprings, possessing features similar to those of parents. In multicellular organisms, the mode of reproduction is generally sexual. Living organisms also reproduce by asexual means.
Some examples are given below
(i) Fungi spread and multiply fast by producing millions of asexual spores. Some fungi, the filamentous algae and the protonema of mosses multiply by fragmentation.
(ii) In yeast and Hydra, budding occurs to produce new organisms. While, in Planaria (flatworm),
regeneration of fragmented body parts occur. These parts inturn grow as a new organism.
(iii) Unicellular organisms like bacteria, algae and Amoeba reproduce by increasing the number of cells, i.e., through cell division (growth is synonymous with reproduction).
Some organisms like mules, sterile worker bees, infertile human couples, etc., do not reproduce. Hence, reproduction also cannot be an all-inclusive defining characteristic of living organisms.
3 Metabolism
Metabolism is an another characteristic and defining feature of all living things. The sum total of anabolic or constructive reactions (anabolism) and catabolic or destructive reactions (catabolism) continuously occurring inside the body is called metabolism.
Metabolism —> Anabolism + Catabolism Metabolism occurs in all unicellular and multi cellular organisms. Its two stages include, i.e., anabolism, the process of building up or synthesis of complex substances from simpler ones, e.g., Photo synthesis and catabolism, the process of breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances, e.g., Respiration, releasing waste outside.
Metabolic reactions can also be demonstrated outside the body in cell free systems, which are neither living nor non-living. Thus, these reactions in vitro are surely living reactions not living things. Hence, metabolism can be considered as a defining feature of all living organisms without exception.
The important differences between anabolism and catabolism are
Viruses are considered as non-living because they don’t need energy for their activities, i.e., metabolic activities are altogether absent in them.
4 Cellular Organisation
The cells are the building blocks of all living things whether plants, animals or humans. The unicellular organisms are made of a single cell, while multi cellular organisms are formed by millions of cells. The cells contain protoplasm (living matter) and cell organelles (inside the cells) which perform several activities at the cellular level and result into various life processes.
5 Consciousness
All living organisms have excellent ability to sense their environment. They respond to various physical, chemical and biological stimuli.
The various external factors to which living organisms respond are light, water, temperature, pollutants, other organisms, etc. Light duration or photo period affects many seasonal breeders, plants as well as animals. All living things respond to chemicals, entering their * bodies.
Humans are superior to all living things as they have an additional ability of self-consciousness. Therefore, consciousness can also said to be a defining property of living organisms.
However, in human beings, it is more difficult to define living state, e.g., Patients lying in coma supported by machines that replace heart and lungs, are brain-dead with no self-consciousness.
6 Body Organisation
The body of living organisms is organised, i.e., several component and sub-components cooperate with each other for the functioning of whole body.
Physical and Biological Hierarchies
There is a physical (non-living) hierarchy and biological hierarchy in the organisation of living body. In physical hierarchy, various non-living components aggregate to form compounds, which finally enter the living world in the form of cells. These cells organise to form tissues, that form organs and several organs combustive to form organ-systems. Finally, many organ systems organise and form a living organism.
The properties of tissues are not present in the constituent cells but arise as a result of interactions among the constituent cells. For example, bone is a hard tissue, which provides framework to the body. But, the cells present inside it do not have this property. This phenomenon of interactions between various components of the body results in the hierarchy of organisation.
The various life processes are the result of this interaction and coordination. The complexity in organisation enable living organisms as to be self-replicating, evolving, self-regulating and responding to external stimuli. All living organisms along with their ancestors and descendants are linked to one another by sharing of common genetic material in the form of DNA in varying degrees. This DNA is responsible for the expression of specific traits in organisms. Thus, Biology is the story of life on earth. It is the story of evolution of living organisms on the earth.
Some Other Characteristics of Living Organisms
We have discussed some important and defining characteristics of living things. However, organisms . also have many other features that differentiate them from non-living things, such as, shape & size, life cycle, movement, self-regulation, variations, adaptations, healing & repair, excretion and death.

2.Living World : Diversity and Taxonomy

The earth hosts an immense variety of living organisms. According to a survey, the number of species that are known and described are between 1.7-1.8 million.
This number refers to the biodiversity on the earth. The term Biodiversity or Biological diversity means the number and types of organisms present on the earth, forms of life in the living world. The living world includes all the living organisms, such as microorganisms, plants, animals and humans.
Biodiversity is not limited to the existing life forms. If we explore new areas and even old ones, new organisms are continuously being added. This huge available variety cannot be studied and identified without having a proper system of classification and nomenclature.
The word ‘Systematics’ is derived from the Latin word Systema, which means systematic arrangement of organisms. Linnaeus used Systema Naturae as the title of his book. He. coined the term Systematics in 1751.
Systematics is the branch of science that deals with unique properties of species and groups to recognise, describe, name and arrange the diverse organisms according to an organised plan.
In 1961, Simpson, defined systematics as the study of diversity of organisms and all their comparative and evolutionary relationships based on comparative’ anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and ecology. The word ‘Systematics’ and ‘Taxonomy’ are often used interchangeably by the biologists. Systematics includes the following:
It aims at finding the correct name and appropriate position of an organism. The morphological and anatomical characters are examined for proper identification.
It is almost impossible to study all the living organisms. So, it is necessary to devise some means to make this possible. This can be done by classifying the organisms.
Thus, classification is the process by which organisms are grouped into categories based on some easily observable characters.
Biological classification is the scientific arrangement of organisms in a hierarchy of groups and sub-groups on the basis of similarities and differences in their traits.
Advantages of Classification
(a) It helps to identify an organism easily.
(b) New organisms easily get correct place in their respective groups.
(c) It makes study of fossils easy.
(d) It also helps in building evolutionary pathways.
(e) It becomes easy to know the features of whole group by studying one or two organisms of the group.
Thus, based on these characteristics, all living organisms are classified into different taxa.
Nomenclature is the system of naming living organism in a way that a particular organism is known by the same name all over the world.
i. Common Names
The common names or vernacular names are the local names given to an organism in a specific language in a particular region. There are different names of a same organism in different regions even with in a country.
Advantages of Common Names
(a) Common names are easy to pronounce and are short, e.g., Cat or billi.
(b) People are familiar to these names since childhood.
(c) They are based on some features of organisms, e.g., Cowa (crow—Caawn-Caawn sound).
Dis-Advantages of Common Names
(a) All the organisms cannot be named by this method as there are organism of different sizes and shapes.
e.g., Microbes.
(b) An organism may have several names in a given language, e.g., 8 Hindi names of prickly poppy and water lily has 15 English names.
(c) A common names may have different meanings in different countries, e.g., Maize, means wheat and other grains in USA and it is called corn in common wealth countries.
(d) Common names may have little relevance, e.g., Lady’s finger (okra), widows tears (Tradescantia-Rhoeo), etc.
(e) Common names may be incorrect, e.g., Jelly fish (a coelenterate), silverfish (an arthropod), starfish (an echinoderm) are not real fishes.
(f) These names are not useful for scientific studies.
ii- Scientific Names
A scientific name is given by biologists. These names represent a particular organism in every part of the world. The system of providing scientific names is called binomial nomenclature.
The scientific names must be
(a) acceptable in every part of the world.
(b) assigned on agreed principles and criteria.
(c) different for each species and not used for other organisms earlier.
Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature was developed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1751 (Philosphica Botanica). All scientific names for animals under binomial nomenclature were given by Linnaeus in the tenth edition of his book Systerna Naturae (1758). Linnaeus named plants according to binomial nomenclature in his book Species Plantarum (1753). Binomial nomenclature is the system of providing distinct and appropriate names to organisms, each consisting of two words, first generic name {i.e., name of genus) and second specific epithet (i.e., name of species).
For example, Scientific name of mango is written as Mangifera indica. In this name, Mangifera represents the genus and indica is a particular species or specific epithet.
Rules of Binomial Nomenclature
Rules of binomial nomenclature were initially framed by Linnaeus in his books, Species Plantarum and Systema Naturae.
The rules were revised again by the following nomenclature codes
(i) International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
(ii) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
(iii) International Code of Bacteriological Nomenclature (ICBN).
(iv) International Code of Viral Nomenclature (ICVN).
(v) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).
The rules framed by Linnaeus and by these codes are as follows
(i) The names are generally in Latin and written in italics. They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin.
(ii) The first word in a biological name represent the genus while, the second component denotes the specific epithet.
(iii) Both the words in a biological name, when handwritten are separately underlined or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin.
(iv) The first word denoting the genus starts with capital letter while, the specific epithet starts with a small letter, e.g., Mangifera indica.
(v) Generic and common names may be same, e.g., Gorilla gorilla.
(vi) No names are recognised prior to those used by Linnaeus in 1753 for plants in Species Plantarum and in 1758 for animals in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae.
(vii) The name of categories higher than the rank of genus are not printed in italics. Bold letters can, however be used.
(viii) When a species is transferred or revised, the name of the original worker is retained but in parenthesis, e.g., Syzygium cumini (L) Skeels.
Advantages of Binomial Nomenclature
(i) Binomial names are universally acceptable and recognised.
(ii) They remain same in all languages.
(iii) The names are small and comprehensive.
(iv) There is a mechanism to provide a scientific name to every newly discovered organism.
(v) The names indicate relationship of a species with other species present in the same genus.
(vi) A new organism can be easily provided with a new scientific name.
It is the science of identification, classification and nomenclature. Based on their special / characteristics, all living organisms can be classified into different taxa. This process of classification is called taxonomy. Carolus Linnaeus is known as father of taxonomy.
The basis of modern taxonomy studies are external and internal structure (comparative morphology), along with the structure of cells (cytology), development process (embryology) and ecological information of organisms (ecology). It provide information according to similarities, dissimilarities and evolutionary relationships of various organisms.
The basic processes for taxonomic studies are
(i) Organisms are described on the basis of morphology and other characteristics.
(ii) The description of characteristics helps in the placement of the organism in various taxa.
(iii) A new taxon can be framed if the organism is different from the existing taxa.
(iv) The correct naming of an organism can be done after placing it in various taxon. A new organism can be given a new name after following the standardized rules.
Classical Taxonomy (Old Taxonomy)
The concept of classical or old taxonomy exists since, the time of Aristotle and Theophrastus and continued up to Linnaeus. It states that 4 .
(i) Species is the basic unit of taxonomy, that can be described on the basis of one or few preserved specimens.
(ii) Species are fixed and do not change with time.
(iii) A species is delimited based on morphological features.
(iv) Organisms are classified on the basis of some limited features such as root modification, leaf venation, floral structures, number of cotyledons in case of plants.
Due to the limited number of groups, many organisms could not be classified correctly. This finally led to artificial system of classification.
Modern Taxonomy (New Taxonomy)
The concept of modern taxonomy was given by Julian Huxley (1940). It uses evidences from all the areas of biology like morphology, anatomy, biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, genetics, evolution, etc.
The modem taxonomy is based on the following features
(i) The studies are done on a huge number of organisms based on all the variations.
(ii) Study is also focused on sub-species, varieties, races and populations.
(iii) Species are not isolated. They are related by common descent and vary from them due to accumulation of variations.
(iv) Species is considered as dynamic and ever-changing entity.
(v) Biological delimitation includes various branches of systematics, e.g., Cytotaxonomy, experimental taxonomy, numerical taxonomy, chemotaxonomy, etc. This led to the development of phylogenetic system or cladistics of classification.
Taxonomic Categories
Classification is not a single step process. It involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category. Since, the category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement, it is called the taxonomic category and all categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy.
Each category, referred to as a unit of classification, in fact, represents a rank and is commonly termed as taxon (Pi. taxa). The term Taxon was first introduced by ICBN during 1956.
According to Mayr (1964) taxon is a group of any rank that is sufficiently distinct to be worthy of being assigned a definite category. In simple words, taxon refers to a group of similar, genetically related individuals having certain characters distinct from those of other groups.
A taxon that includes a common ancestral species and all the species descended from it is called a clade or a monophyletic taxon.
Taxonomic Hierarchy
The taxonomic hierarchy is the system of arranging taxonomic categories in a descending order. It was first introduced by Linnaeus (1751) and hence, it is also known as Linnaen hierarchy.
Groups represent category and category further denotes rank. Each rank or taxon represents a unit of classification.
These taxonomic groups/categories are distinct biological entities and not merely morphological aggregates.
Obligate/Common Categories
The taxonomic categories, which are always used in hierarchical classification of organisms are called obligate or common categories.
They are seven in number. In descending order, these are kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus and species.
All the members of taxonomic categories possess some similar characters, which are different from those of others. The maximum similarity occurs in species, which is also the lowest category in the hierarchy of categories. Similarity of characters decreases with the rise in hierarchy.
i. Species
Taxonomic studies consider a group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities as a species (John Ray).
Species is considered as the lowest or basic taxonomic category, which consists of one or more individuals of a populations that resemble one another more closely than individuals of other species. The members of species interbreed freely and are reproductively isolated from others. For example, Mangifera indica (mango), Solarium tuberosum (potato) and Panthera leo (lion).
All the three names indica, tuberosum and leo represent the specific epithets while, the first words Mangifera, Solanum and Panthera are genera and represents another higher level of taxon or category.
Each genus may have one or more than one specific epithets representing different organisms, but having morphological similarities. For example, Panthera has another specific epithet called tigris and Solanum includes species like nigrum and melongena.
Genus (John Ray) comprises a group of related species, which has more characters common in comparison to species of other genera. In other words, genera are aggregates of closely related species.
iii. Family
Family (John Ray) is a group of related genera with less number of similarities as compared to genus and species. All the genera of a family have some common or correlated features. They are separable from genera of a related family by important differences in both vegetative and reproductive features.
A plant family ends in a suffix -aeae and sub-family -oideae. While, an animal family has a suffix -idae and sub-family -inae.
iv. Order
An order (Linnaeus) is a group of one or more related families that possess some similar correlated characters, which are lesser in number as compared to a family or genera.
Plants and Animal Orders with their Respective Families
Order Animals and Families
Carnivora Canidae (dog, wolf and fox), Felidae (cat, leopard, tiger and lion), Ursidae (bear) and Hyaenidae (hyaena)
Polemoniales Solanaceae (potato and tomato), Convolvucaceae (sweet potato and morning glory), Polemoniaceae (herbs, shrubs and small trees) and Hydrophyllaceae (water leaf).
Primates Lemuridae (lemurs), Cebidae (new world monkeys), Pongidae (apes) and Hominidae (humans).
v. Class
Class (Linnaeus) is a major category, which includes related orders. For example, order-Primata comprises monkey, gorilla & gibbon and is placed in class—Mammalia along with order—Carnivora that includes animals like tiger, cat and dog.
Class-Mammalia has other orders also.
vi.Phylum or Division
Phylum or Division (Cuvier, Eichler) is a taxonomic category higher than class and lower” in rank to kingdom. The term Phylum is used for animals, while division is commonly employed for plants.
It consists of more than one class having some similar corelated characters.
For example, Phylum— Chordata of animals contain following classes, e.g., Pisces, amphibians, reptiles, aves and mammals.
vii. Kingdom
It is known to be the highest category in taxonomy. This includes all the organisms, which share a set of distinguished characters. For example, all the animals belonging to various phyla are assigned the highest category called kingdom.
For example, Animalia in the classification system of animals. Similarly, all the plants are kept in kingdom—Plantae.
RH Whittaker. (1969) assigned five kingdom classification of organisms.
These are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
Intermediate Categories
The taxonomic categories from species to kingdom are broad categories or obligate categories. However, taxonomists have also developed sub-categories in this hierarchy to facilitate more sound and scientific placement of various taxa. These sub-categories are sub-species (or varieties), sub-genera, sub-families, sub-orders, sub-classes and sub-phyla.
These sub-categories are referred to as intermediate categories.
Taxonomical Aids
Taxonomical aids are techniques and procedures to store information as well as specimens or identification and classification of organisms.
The taxonomic studies of various plants, animals and other organisms are useful in areas like agriculture, forestry, industry and knowing our bioresources. All these studies need correct identification and classification of organisms. Identification of organisms requires intensive laboratory and field studies. The collection of actual specimens of plants and animal species, knowing their habitats and other traits are essential and are the prime source of taxonomic studies. All this information is used in classification of an organism and is also stored along with the specimens. Sometimes, specimens are also preserved for future studies.
Some of the taxonomical aids developed by Biologists include Herbarium, Botanical gardens, Museum, Zoological parks, Key, etc.
1 Herbarium
Herbarium (Pi. Herbaria) is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets. These sheets are arranged further according to a universally accepted system of classification. The institutes and universities maintain their own herbarium by collecting specimens from local and far away places.
Uses of Herbaria
The uses of herbaria are listed below
(a) These are used for identification of plants.
(b) Compilation of floras, monographs and manuals are mainly based on the specimens in herbaria.
(c) Herbaria are useful in locating wild varieties and relatives of economically important plants.
(d) They help in knowing the morphological variations found in species.
(e) Herbaria are useful for research in plant taxonomy, morphology, ecological distribution, etc.
2. Botanical Gardens
Botanical gardens are specialised gardens that have collections of living plants for reference. These gardens generally have facilities like library, laboratory, herbarium and museum. The botanical gardens are maintained by government, semi-government and other private organisations. Botanists and gardeners look after plants in botanical gardens.
Role of Botanical Gardens
A botanical garden has following important roles
(a) Botanical gardens have aesthetic appeal and provide recreation facility to people.
(b) A wide variety of plant species grow there, so they provide ready material for research.
(c) These gardens also play an important role in conservation of endangered plant species and genetic diversity.
(d) There are more than 500 botanical gardens all over the world. These provide free exchange of seeds.
(e) These improve the environment, provide greenery, help in creating pollution free environment and some serves as habitat for animals.
Knowledge Plus
Indian Botanical Garden-Largest Botanical Garden of Asia.
First Botanical Garden-Pisa Botanical Garden, Italy established by Luca Glini (1490-1556).
3. Museums
Museum is a place for collections of preserved plants and animal specimens for study and reference. The universities and educational institutes maintain their own museums in their botany and zoology departments. Plants, which cannot be kept in herbaria are preserved in museums.
For example, algae, fungi, mosses, ferns, fruits, etc. Specimens are preserves in containers or jars in preservative solutions. Plant and animal specimens may also be preserved as dry specimens. Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting killing and pinning. While, the larger animals are stuffed and preserved in skeletal forms.
4. Zoological Parks
Zoological parks or zoo are the places where wild animals are kept in protected environments under human care and which enable us to learn about their food habits and behaviour. Zoological parks provide natural habitat to the animals.
In India there are about 200 zoological parks. These zoos are managed by the Central Zoo Authority of India. The World Zoo Conservation Strategy (WZCS) refer to all these zoological institutions as zoos.
Role of Zoological Parks
(a) The zoological parks increase understanding of wildlife.
(b) These are the centres for recreation and education.
(c) Zoos are the centres for conservation of threatened and rare animal species.
(d) These provide sites for ex situ breeding of endangered animals. conservation through captive breeding of endangered animals.
5. Key
Key is also a taxonomical aid used for identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and dissimilarities.
It helps in the identification of plants and animals by selecting and eliminating the characters according to their presence or absence in the organism under study.
The keys generally use two contrasting characters called couplet. This results in acceptance of one present in organism and rejection of the other. Each statement in the key is called a lead.
These taxonomic keys are of two types
Indented Key
The indented key or yolked key provides a sequence of choices between two or more characteristics. By careful selection of characters at each sub-division, the exact name of the organism can be arrived at.
Bracketed Key
The bracketed key also uses contrasting characters like the indented key. But in, these characters are not separated by intervening sub-dividing characters. Each character in this case is given a number in brackets.
Other Means of Recording Descriptions
Apart from the all mentioned means of keeping records of description. Some other means are also present.
These are of following types
Floras are the important resource that provide information on the taxonomy, nomenclature and descriptive data for the taxa covered.
The floras also include information on the biology, distribution and habitat preferences of the taxa, as well as illustrations, identification keys and other notes. These provide index to the plant species found in a particular area.
Manuals and Catalogues
These are other means of recording descriptions. They also help in correct identification. Manuals are useful in providing information for identification of names of species found in an area.
A monograph is a comprehensive treatment of a taxon in biological taxonomic studies. These contain information on any one taxon. Monographs revise all known species within a group, add any newly discovered species, collect and organise available information on the ecological associations, geographic distributions and morphological variations within the group.
The first ever monograph of a plant taxon was given in Robert Morison (1672) Plantarum Umbelliferarum Distributio Nova.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter-1 Important Questions

1 Marks Questions

1.Name the three fields of systematics.

Ans. Nomenclature, classification & taxonomy.

2.Give the two name system of organisms?

Ans. Binomial Nomenclature

3.Write the correct order of sequence of taxonomical categories?


4.Give the unit of classification?

Ans. Rank / category

5.Who gave binomial name of classification?

Ans. Carolus Linnaeus

6.What is meant by identification of a species?

Ans.The identification is aimed at finding correct name & proper position of a species in established scheme of classification.

7.Name the highest categories of classification?

Ans. 1 Kingdom.

8.What are the three codes of nomenclatures?

Ans.International code of botanical, zoological & bacteriological nomenclature.

9.What do you mean by “chemotaxonomy?

Ans.Understanding taxonomic relationships based on the distribution of certain characteristic chemical constituents is called chemotaxonomy.

10. Define species

Ans. Members that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

11. What is systematic

Ans. Systematic  arrangement which also takes jute account evolutionary rela-tionships between organisms.

12. Give lbs names of two famous  botanical gardens.

Ans.  Kew (England) and National Botanical Research Institute (Lucknow) Indian Botanical Garden (Howrah)

2 Marks Questions

1.What are the advantages of giving scientific names of the organisms?

Ans: (i) Scientific names are universally accepted in the world because they are based on same principles that are universal.

(ii) The advantage of a technical term is the relationship & comparison too the others.

2.Give the role of botanical gardens?


(i) Botanical gardens provide plant materials for taxonomic studies.

(ii) Plant species are grown for identification.

(iii) Plants are grown for research.

(iv) To maintain records of local flora.

3.Differentiate between species & taxon?




i)It is the basic taxonomic category

i)It is a level of taxonomic category

ii)It is a rank

ii)  It is a group of concrete biological aspects



iii) It is monophylectic

iii) It may be mono or polyphylectic.

4.Why are classification systems changing every now & then?

Ans:The organisms are classified on the basis of characteristics. Earliest classification were based on the uses of various organisms but now the humans are interested in knowing more about different kinds of organisms & their diversities & their relationship also.

5.Differentiate between taxon & category?




i)  Taxon represents to a group of organisms.

i) Category refers to a rank of status of taxon.

ii) It is only of one eg. Dicots, Monocots,

ii) Category is of two types i.e.

a)  Major rank – kingdom, division, class.

b)  minor rank – Genus & species

6.Describe the role of museum in studying systematic?

Ans: (i)  Museums have collections of plants & animals

(ii)  These are used to deposit type specimens.

(iii)  Important centres for taxonomic studies.

(iv)  Provide information about local flora & fauna as well as of other areas.

7.“Botanical gardens are living herbaria”. Comment ?

Ans:  Botanical gardens are repositories of information useful for taxonomic studies. Herbaria are most permanent records of plant specimens. Living plants are maintained in botanical gardens. They play key roles in conservation, research, ecology, library & herbaria etc.

8.Why are living organisms classified?

Ans:There are various kinds of life that differ in shape, size & colour etc. The biological diversity is the range of life occurring in biological world. The diversity develops due to the evolution and development of adaptations to overcome competitions among life forms due to limited resources.

9.What is Taxonomic key? How is it helpful in the identification & classification of an organism?

Ans:Key is a taxonomic aid for identification of unknown organisms based on similarities & dissimilarities. It is a taxonomic literature based on couplet. These are analytical in nature & separate keys are needed for every taxonomic category eg. genus, order, family etc & species for identification of organisms.

10.Differentiate between taxonomy & systematic.




i) The science of identification, nomenclature & classification is called taxonomy. 

i)  It refers to the science of identification description, nomenclature & classification.

ii)  It deals with the rules & the principles of classification.

ii)  It deals with unique characteristics at every level of classification.

11.What is a taxon? Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with a suitable example?

Ans:Taxon is “a unit of classification of organisms which can be recognized & assigned a definite category at any level of classification” eg. order primates & carnivores are included in mammala. Various classes eg. Pisces, animals, reptilia aves & mammalia form phylum- chordata. All phyla are included in kingdom animalia.

12. What is the basis of modem taxonomical studies ?

Ans: External and internal structure, structure of celI, development process and ecological information

13. Why growth and reproduction cannot bc taken as defining property of all living

Ans: • Non-living things can also Increase in mass by accumulation of material on surface.

• Many  organisms do not reproduce (e.g,. mules sterile worker bees)

14. How is axon (p tax defined

Ans: Each category n a taxonomical hierarchy represents a rank and is called taxon.

3 Marks Questions

1.Name the guidelines for naming of organisms?

Ans:Guidelines for naming of organisms include :-

(i)A scientific name generally has two words in Latin or derived from latin irrespective of their origin.

(ii)First word denotes the genus where as second word for species.

(iii)Names are printed in italics or are separately underlined to indicate the Latin origin.

(iv)Each taxonomic group has only one correct name.

(v)The name must be short, precise and easy to pronounce.

(vi)Generic name begins with a capital letter & the specific name with small letter eg. Homo sapiens.

The name of author is written in abbreviated form after species name & it is printed in Roman.

2.What is Biological classification? What is the need of classification?

Ans:Biological classification is the naming of organisms by two words. One is generic name & other is specific name for eg. Man is called Home sapiens classification becomes essential for the following reasons:-

(i)It is very essential for the systematic study of living beings. Without this study of different organisms would be in confusion.

(ii)It is impossible to study each & every organism.

(iii)All the types of organisms do not occur in a given locality.

(iv)Without a proper system so classification, it is impossible to recognize or identify different types of organism.

(v)Classification helps in knowing the relationships among different groups of animals & plants.

(vi)Classification makes the study of organisms easier & gives a comparative account of them.

3.State any five objectives of classification.

Ans:Objectives of classification:-

(i)Development of a system for easily identifying a species if known or unknown

(ii)The description of various species.

(iii)Recognition of different species.

(iv)To bring circulated characteristics at various levels in hierarchy.

(v)The grouping of species in taxonomic classification.

(vi)To establish natural relationship board on phylogeny on the basis of resemblances of the organisms of the organisms.

4.Explain the utility of systematic & mention the characterstics of new.

Ans:Systematics is defined as “the study of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships”.

(i)It provides useful information about organism, its evolution & adaptation name & classification etc.

(ii)Systematics helps us in the identification of useful & harmful animals or plants in applied field of biology.

(iii)It plays economical role.

New systematics has the following features:-

(a)Species are regarded as dynamic unit & not as static unit of classical systematic.

(b)The importance of species as such is reduced since most of the work is done with sub-divisions of species.

(c)The morphological species definition has been replaced by a biological one which takes ecology, genetics, geography, cytology & behaviour into consideration.

5.What are the major divisions of classification, classify man.


(i)Kingdom:- It is the highest category of classification. There are 2 kingdom – Animal & plant kingdom.

(ii)Phylum:- A group of closely related classes having certain common characters.

(iii)Class:- A group of closely related orders having certain common characters.

(iv)Order:- A group of closely related families having certain common characters.

(v) Family:- A group of closely related genera having certain common characters.

(vi) Genus:- A group of closely related species having certain common characters.

(vii) Species:- Individuals having certain common characters.

Classification of man:-















6.What are taxonomic aids? Mention some of the taxonomic aids for identification

Ans:Taxonomic aids are devices used to study, Identification & classify organism, some of these are:-

(i)Herbarium :- collections of present /preserved or mounted plant specimens. arranged systematically to provide information on sheets

(ii)Botanical gardens :- specialized gardens for collection of living plants, it is maintained for references & identification purposes in which each plant is labelled showing its biological name.

(iii)Zoological parks:- places with live animals are called zoos or zoological parks. The animal live in their natural habitat there are separate places for birds, tigers, lions, reptiles etc.

(iv)Museums :- These are mostly set up in institutions where collection of preserved plants & animals for reference & taxonomic studies are placed in preservatives eg. Alcohol & formalin.

7.How would you set up a herbarium?

Ans:SETTING UP OF HERBARIUM involves the following steps:-

(i)Visit to a specific area to get intact part or plant, seeds or flowers.

(ii)Information about habitat, season & time of collection as well topography etc.

(iii)For collection, some tools are needed, notebook, digger, scissor, knife polyethene, newspaper etc.

(iv)Spreading of specimens & drying, change the paper sheets after 3-4 days, plant press may be used for it. The dried specimens are pasted on herbarium sheets & pesticides like CS2, naphthalene Hgcl2etc.

(v)Put label on specimen & mention its place of collection, time of collection, common name scientific name etc.

8.Differentiate between classical taxonomy & Modern taxonomy.




(i) It is called old taxonomy or systematic

(i)It is called Neo- systematic or Bio- systematic.

(ii)The species was considered a basic, concrete & separate unit that was fixed or static entity & the work of creator.

(ii)The species is considered related to one another, mutable & the work of gradual modification as wall as dynamic & ever- changing.

(iii)In it, classification was based on the morphological features only

(iii)In it, classification was based on phylogenetic relationships of the organisms.

(iv) Few individuals were studied.

(iv) large number of individuals are studied

(v) The species was delimited on morphological characters.

(v) Emphasis in population instead of species. Morphological delimitation was replaced by biological delimitation.

9. What is the difference between Botanical Garden and Herbarium?

Ans:Botanical Garden Collection of living.; plants.

Herbarium: Collection of dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens on sheet

10. Keys arc analytical in nature and are helpful in identification and classification of organisms. How?

Ans:Refer page no. [ Text Rook of Biology for Class X1.

11.Define (a) Genus (b) Family (c) Order

Ans:Genus Group of related species; Family Group of related genera; Order Group of re1a families.

12 .What is Binomial system of nomenclature? Who proposed this system? Why is binomial nomenclature the most acceptable mode of naming organism?

Ans. Naming of plants & animals with two words one generic & other specific name is called binomial system of nomenclature. Carolus Linnaeus introduced this scientific system to name a species. He gave two names to a species eg. Mangifere is generic name and  indica is the specific name.

Binomial nomenclature is universally accepted all over the world because it is written according to universal rules of nomenclature framed by ICBN, ICZN, & ICNPC etc. It has two parts generic name & specific name followed by name if scientist who discovered it at last in abbreviated form. It must be in Latin or derived from Latin. It must be binomial. The genus starts with capital letter while species by small letter. Handwritten name is underlined it indicates relationship with other species present in same genus.

The rules & regulations present of binomial nomenclature must be observed before a taxonomist names a new found organism. This maintains stability in taxa, avoids the use of names that may cause error ambiguity & confusion.


1. Why are living organisms classified?
Soln. Living organisms are classified because of the following reasons:
(i) Easy identification.
(ii)Study of organisms of other places.
(iii)Study of fossils
(iv)Grouping helps in study of all types of organisms while it is impossible to study individually all of them.
(v) Itbringsoutsimilaritiesanddissimilarities. They help in knowing relationships among different groups.
(vi)Evolution of various taxa can be known.

2. Why are the classification systems changing every now and then?
Soln. From very early days till now biologists use several characters for classification system. These are morphology, anatomy, cytology, physiology, ontogeny, phylogeny, reproduction, biochemistry, etc. But day by day biologists are learning something new about organisms from their fossil records and using” advanced study techniques such as molecular phylogeny, etc. So their point of view about classification keeps changing. Thus the system of classification is modified every now and then.

3. What different criteria would you choose to classify people that you meet often?
Soln. The various criteria that may be chosen to classify people whom we meet often include behaviour, geographical location, morphology, family members, relatives, friends etc.

4. What do we learn from identification of individuals and populations?
Soln. The knowledge of characteristic of an individual or its whole population helps in identification of similarities and dissimilarities among the individuals of same kind or between different types of organisms. It helps us to classify the organisms in various categories depending upon these similarities and dissimilarities.

5. Given below is the scientific name of mango. Identify the correctly written name.
Mangifera Indica Mangifera indica
Soln. The correctly written scientific name of mango is Mangifera indica.

6. Define a taxon. Give some example of taxa at different hierarchical levels.
Slon. A taxonomic unit in the biological system of classification of organism is called taxon (plural taxa). For example a phylum, order, family, genus or species represents taxon. It represents a rank. For example, all the insects form a taxon. Taxon of class category for birds is Aves and taxon of Phylum category for birds is Chordata. The degree of relationship and degree of similarity varies with the rank of the taxon. Individuals of a higher rank, say Order or Family, are less closely related than those of a lower rank, such as Genus or Species.

7. Can you identify the correct sequence of taxonomical categories?
(a) Species —> Order —> Phylum —> Kingdom
(b) Genus—) Species—> OrderKingdom
(c) Species —> Genus —>Order —> Phylum
Slon. The correct sequence of taxonomical categories is
(c) i.e., Species —>Genus —> Order —> Phylum.

8. Try to collect all the currently accepted meanings for the word ‘species’. Discuss with your teacher the meaning of species in case of higher plants and animals on one hand, and bacteria on the other hand.
Slon. Species occupies a key position in classification. It is the lowest taxonomic category. It is a natural population of individuals or group of populations which resemble one another in all essential morphological and reproductive characters so that they are able to interbreed freely and produce fertile offsprings. Each species is also called genetically distinct and reproductively isolated natural population. Mayr (1964) has defined species as “a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups”.
In higher plants and animals the term ‘species’ refers to a group of individuals that are able to interbreed freely and produce fertile offsprings. But, in case of bacteria interbreeding cannot serve as the best criteria for delimiting species because bacteria usually reproduce asexually. Conjugation, transformation and transduction, which are termed as sexual reproduction methods in bacteria, also do not correspond to true interbreeding. Thus, for bacteria many other characters such as molecular homology, biochemical, physiological, ecological and morphological characters are taken into consideration while classifying them.

9. Define and understand the following terms:
(i) Phylum (ii) Class (iii) Family
(iv) Order (v) Genus
Slon. (i) Phylum – Phylum is a category higher than that of Class. The term Phylum is used for animals. A Phylum is formed of one or more classes, e.g., the Phylum Chordata of animals contains not only the class Mammalia but also Aves (birds), Reptilia (reptiles), Amphibia (amphibians), etc. In plants the term Division is used in place of Phylum.
(ii) Class – A Class is made of one or more related Orders. For example, the Class Dicotyledoneae of flowering plants contains all dicots which are grouped into several orders (e.g., Rosales, Sapindales, Ranales, etc.).
(iii) Family, – It is a taxonomic category which contains one or more related genera. All the genera of a family have some common features or correlated characters. They are separable from genera of a related family by important and characteristic differences in both vegetative and reproductive features. E.g., the genera of cats (Fells) and leopard (Panthera) are included in the Family Felidae. The members of Family Felidae are quite distinct from those of Family Canidae (dogs, foxes, wolves).
Similarly, the family Solanaceae contains a number of genera like Solanum, Datura, Petunia and Nicotiana. They are distinguishable from the genera of the related family Convolvulaceae (Convolvulus, Ipomoea).
(iv) Order – The category includes one or more related families. E.g., the plant Family Solanaceae is placed in the Order Polemoniales alongwith four other related families (Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Hydrophyllaceae and Polemoniaceae). Similarly, the animal families Felidae and Canidae are included under the Order Carnivora alongwith Hyaenidae (hyaenas) and Ursidae (bears).
(v) Genus – It is a group or assemblage of related species which resemble one another in certain correlated characters. Correlated characters are those similar or common features which are used in delimitation of a taxon above the rank of species. All the species of genus are presumed to have evolved from a common ancestor. A genus may have a single living species e.g., Genus Homo. Its species is Homo sapiens – the living or modem man. The Genus Felis has many species, e.g., F. domestica – common cat, F. chaus (jungle cat) etc.

lO.How is a key helpful in the identification and classification of an organism?
Slon.‘Key is an artificial analytic device having a list of statements with dichotomic table of alternate characteristics. Taxonomic
keys are aids for rapid identification of unknown plants and animals based on
the similarities and dissimilarities. Keys are primarily based on stable and reliable characters. The keys are helpful in a faster preliminary identification which can bebacked up by confirmation through comparison with detailed description of the taxon provisionally identified with. Separate taxonomic keys are used for each taxonomic category like Family, Genus and Species.

11.Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal.
Slon. The arrangement of various taxa in a hierarchical order is called taxonomic hierarchy. The hierarchy indicates the various levels of kinship. The number of similar characters of categories decreases from lowest rank to highest rank. The hierarchical system of classification was introduced by Linnaeus.
The hierarchy of major categories is:
Species —►Genus-►Family —► Order—► Class
Kingdom -4— Phylum or Division
Increasing specificity – ► Decreasing specificity
Classification of a plant (Wheat):
Kingdom  –  Plantae
Division   –  Angiospermae
Class         –  Monocotyledonae
Order        –  Poales
Family      –  Poaceae
Genus       – Triticum
Species     –  aestivum
Classification of an animal (Housefly):
Kingdom  –   Animalia
Phylum    –   Chordata
Class        –   Insecta
Order       –   Diptera
Family     –  Muscidae
Genus      –   Musca
Species    –   domestica

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