NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws
Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.
Law is a system of rules, usually imposed through a Government or Institution and is applied to govern a group people. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways.
The most common example of a violation of the rule of law can be seen on the roads. Motorists and pedestrians do not follow the traffic rules.
Motorists do not adhere to speed limits nor do they stop behind the line at traffic signals. Pedestrians rarely use the zebra crossing and cross the road at will causing harm not only to themselves but also to other road users.
State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.
Two reasons why the historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India are:
- Sedition Act of 1870—under this act any person who protested or criticized the British Government could be arrested without any trial.
- Indian Nationalists played an important role for the development of the legal sphere in British India.
Re-read the storyboard; on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.
Domestic violence against women was very common in India in the early 1990s. Throughout the 1990s, the need for a new law was raised in different forums like Public Meting and women’s organisations. In 1999, Lawyers Collective, a group of lawyers, law students and activists, after nation-wide consultations took the lead in drafting the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill. This draft bill was widely circulated. Meetings were held all over the country supporting the introduction of this Act.
The Bill was first introduced in Parliament in 2002, but it was not to the satisfaction of all. Several women’s organisations, like the National Commission for Women made submissions to the Parliamentary Standing Committee requesting changes in the Bill. In December 2002, after reviewing the request made by the National Commission for Women, the Parliamentary Standing Committee submitted its recommendations to the Rajya Sabha and these were also tabled in the Lok Sabha. The Committee’s report accepted most of the demands of the women’s groups.
Finally, a new Bill was reintroduced in Parliament in 2005. After being passed in both houses of Parliament, it was sent to the President for his assent. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act came into effect in 2006.
Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence.
‘They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.’
The Sedition Act of 1870 was a turning point in the struggle for freedom in India. According to the Sedition Act any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial. Indian nationalists began protesting and criticising this arbitrary use of authority by the British. They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.
By the end of the nineteenth century, the Indians started asserting themselves in the colonial courts. The Indian Legal profession began emerging as a force to reckon with and the Indians demanded respect in the courts. Indians started using law to defend their legal rights. Indian judges began to play a greater role in making decisions. Thus the Indians played a major role in the evolution of the rule of law during the colonial period.
Understanding Laws NCERT Class 8 Social and Political life Extra Questions
Mention the different categories under which Law can be classified.
Some of the categories under which law can be classifies are…
Equity and Trust Laws
Write a short note on Lady Justice.
Lady Justice or Justitia is the Roman Goddess of Justice. It is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. Her blindfolded eyes symbolize equality under the law and impartiality towards all the people who are governed by it. The weighing scales represent the balancing of people’s interests under the law, and her sword denotes the law’s force of reason.
Mention some of the common laws that govern us.
Some of the common laws that govern us are…
The age at which a person can vote
Specific age for marriage
Laws governing the selling and buying of property
What is a constitution?
A Constitution is a document outlining the basic laws or principals by which a country is governed.
State Article 14 of the Indian constitution
Article 14 – Equality before law. – The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
How was the system of law during ancient times in India?
In ancient India, there were countless and overlapping local laws. Different communities were given the liberty to enforce the laws according to their need. In some cases, the punishment that two persons received for the same crime varied depending on their caste. The lower castes were punished more harshly.
When was the Hindu Succession Amendment Act revised?
The Hindu Succession Amendment Act was revised in 2005.
What was the Sedition Act?
According to the Sedition Act of 1870 any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.
Write a brief note on the Rowlatt Act.
The Rowlatt Committee was a Sedition Committee appointed in 1918 by the British Indian Government with Mr. Justice Rowlatt, an English judge, as its president.
The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Black Act, was instituted on the Rowlatt Committee’s recommendations. It had a significant impact on the political situation of India, placing her on a path of political movement headed by Gandhi that ultimately dominated the Indian Independence movement for the next 20 years. The Act gave the Viceroy’s government powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining the political activists without trial, and arresting without warrant any individuals suspected of sedition or treason. In protest, a nationwide cessation of work was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, popular discontent.
The agitation unleashed by the Act culminated on 13 April 1919, in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab.
How is a new law introduced in Parliament?
Parliament of India consists of the President and two Houses—the Council of States or the Rajya Sabha and the House of the People or the Lok Sabha.
A Bill can be introduced in either House of Parliament. A Bill introduced by the Minister is known as Government Bill and a Bill introduced by a private member is known as Private Member’s Bill.
The procedure for the passage of the Bills is similar in both the cases. A Bill has to pass through three stages in each House of Parliament and receive Presidential assent before it becomes an Act of Parliament. In the event of a deadlock between the two Houses on a Bill, the issue is resolved at a joint sitting of the two Houses.