NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Democratic Politics I Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World (Updated for 2021 – 22)

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World Civics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 3

1. Why did President Allende address himself mainly to workers? Why were the rich unhappy with him?

Answer

President Allende was a socialist and had taken many several policy decisions to help workers and poor. Thus, he addressed himself mainly to workers.
The rich were unhappy with him due to reform of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless. He was opposed to foreign companies taking away natural resources like copper from the country.

Page No: 4

1. Did the army have any legal right to arrest the defence minister of the country? Should the army have the power to arrest any citizen?

Answer

No, the army didn’t have any legal right to arrest the defence minister of the country It is totally against the law. They also don’t have the power to arrest any citizen. The main duty of army is to protect the country from external threats.

Activity

1. Locate and shade Chile on the map. Which state in our country has a shape similar to Chile?

Answer

In our country, Kerala has a shape similar to Chile.

 


Page No: 6

1. Why was an independent trade union so important in Poland? Why are trade unions necessary?

Answer
Poland at that time had only one workers union controlled by the Polish United Workers’ Party. So there was autocratic rule of this party. People could not form independent unions which voiced their grievances. There was no freedom of speech.
Trade unions are necessary as they help in maintaining or improving the conditions of the
workers. They represent the workers’ views and demands to the management and fight for their rights.
Page No: 10
1. Looking at these maps, which period do you find most important in the expansion of democracy. Why?

Answer
The period after 1975 till 2000 AD is the most important period in the expansion of democracy. In this period, most of the countries in Africa became independent and supported democratic governments. The USSR broke up and 15 independent states emerged in which most of them go with democracy. Many colonised countries also gained independence and marches towards democracy.

Page No: 11
1. Why were women given voting rights much later than men in most countries? Why did this not happen in India?
 
Answer
Many European countries became democratic by the beginning of the twentieth century but women didn’t have voting rights because they were being not considered equal. They thought women were not capable of making decisions. They should stay at home, did household works and look after children. Thus, they were given voting rights much later than men.
In India, constitutions makers didn’t make any discrimination against women and granted Universal Adult Franchise which gave voting rights to every c above the age of 18.
Page No: 13
1. What should be the policy of the government of India towards the military rulers of Myanmar?
Answer
The Government of India can support Suu Kyi in all international forums and demand her freedom without interfering in the domestic affairs of the government of Myanmar. It must fight for her freedom under Human Rights.
Page No: 14
1. Should there be a world government? If yes, who should elect it? And what powers should it have?
Answer
Yes, there should be a world government. It should have representatives of all the nations and every nation should have equal status. Each nation should send its own representatives, elected by their people. They should have powers to fight for Human Rights and Democracy.
 
Page No: 15
1. Should the permanent members of the UN give up the power to veto?
Answer

Yes, they should. The five veto powers should not be allowed to dictate terms to the rest of the world. They generally used this for their own interest.

Exercise
1. Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy?
(a) Struggle by the people
(b) Invasion by foreign countries
(c) End of colonialism
(d) People’s desire for freedom
► (b) Invasion by foreign countries
2. Which of the following statements is true about today’s world?
(a) Monarchy as a form of government has vanished .
(b) The relationship between different countries has become more democratic than ever before.
(c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people.
(d) There are no more military dictators in the world.
► (c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people.

Page No: 20

3. . Use one of the following statements to complete the sentence:
Democracy in the international organisations requires that …
(a) The rich countries should have a greater say.
(b) Countries should have a say according to their military power.
(c) Countries should be treated with respect in proportion to their population.
(d) All countries in the world should be treated equally..
► (d) All countries in the world should be treated equally..

4. Based on the information given in this chapter, match the following countries and the path democracy has taken in that country.

Country
Path to Democracy
(a) Chile
(b) Nepal
(c) Poland
(d) Ghana
(i) Freedom from British colonial rule
(ii) End of military dictatorship
(iii) End of one party rule
(iv) King agreed to give up his powers

Answer

Country
Path to Democracy
(a) Chile
(ii) End of military dictatorship
(b) Nepal
(iv) King agreed to give up his powers
(c) Poland
(iii) End of one party rule
(d) Ghana
(i) Freedom from British colonial rule

5. What are the difficulties people face in a non-democratic country? Give answers drawing from the examples given in this chapter.
Answer

The difficulties people face in a non-democratic country are:
→ No freedom to elect their rulers.
→ People can’t form organisation or organise protest against the rulers.
→ No freedom of speech and expression.
→ Don’t have any say in government policies
→ Civic rights are curtailed.

6. Which freedoms are usually taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military?

Answer

The freedoms which are taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military:
→ Freedom of electing their rulers.
→ Freedom of speech, expression and protest against any governmental policies.
→ People can’t form political parties or organisations.

7. Which of the following positions can contribute to democracy at the global level? Give reasons for your answer in each case.
a My country gives more money to international institutions. Therefore, I want to be treated with more respect and exercise more power.
b My country may be small or poor. But my voice must be heard with equal respect, because these decisions will affect my country.
c Wealthy nations will have a greater say in international affairs.They cannot let their interests suffer just because they are out numbered by poor nations.
d Big countries like India must have a greater say in international organisations.

Answer
a. If any country gives more money to international institutions and its citizens want more respect and more power, it would not contribute to democracy at the global level. Every country and its citizens enjoy equal status whether it is a poor or a rich country. Equality is the basic principle of democracy.

b. This position totally contributes to democracy at the global level as Democracy give equal right to every person. The wealth and size of a country don’t matter in a global democracy.

c. This position does not lead to democracy at the global level because there should be no distinction made between the rich nations and the poor nations. All nations are equal in a Democracy.

d. No, this position can’t contribute to democracy because the sizes or the geographical area of a country can’t determine the status of a nation in global democracy.

8. Here are three opinions heard in a television debate on the struggle for democracy in Nepal. Which of these do you agree with and why?
Guest 1: India is a democracy. Therefore, the Indian government must support the people of Nepal who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy.
Guest 2: That is a dangerous argument. We would be in the same position as the US was in Iraq. Remember, no outside force can promote democracy.
Guest 3: But why should we bother about the internal affairs of another country? We should be worried about our business interests there, not about democracy.

Answer
We can’t totally neglect our neighbours as what doing in their country as it must affect our behaviour also. So in my opinion, Guest 1 is right in some way. We have to adopt some measures that will support the people who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy. Not by using armed forces but by some other cooperations which will not hurt the sentiments of the people. This will also help India in maintaining a good relationship with a democratic country rather than a monarchical rule.

Page No: 21
9. In an imaginary country called Happyland, the people overthrew the foreign ruler and brought back the old royal family. They said: “After all their ancestors were our kings before foreigners started ruling us. It is good that we have one strong ruler, who can help us become rich and powerful”. When someone talked about democracy the wise men said it is a foreign idea. Their struggle was to throw the foreigners and their ideas out of the country. When someone demanded freedom for the media, the elders thought that too much criticism of the ruler would not help them improve their living standards. “After all, the king is so kind and interested in the welfare of all the subjects. Why create problems for him. Don’t we all want to be happy? ”

After reading the above passage, Chaman, Champa and Chandru made the following observations:

Chaman: Happyland is a democratic country because people were able to throw out the foreign rulers and bring back the king.
Champa: Happyland is not a democratic country because people cannot criticise the ruler. The king may be nice and may provide economic prosperity, but a king cannot give a democratic rule.
Chandru: What people need is happiness. So they are willing to allow their new ruler to take decisions for them. If people are happy it must be a democracy.

What is your opinion about each of these statements? What do you think about the form of government in this country?

Answer

Chaman’s statement is incorrect because the overthrowing of a foreign power just amounts to gaining sovereignty.

Champa’s statement is correct. A democracy is a rule of the people. The people should have the right to question their ruler.

Chandru’s statement is incorrect. Happiness of the people is only one factor of a democracy. The people might be happy with the king, but he is not an elected representative.

Democracy in the Contemporary World Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Civics Chapter 1

Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World

Question 1
Write a short note on Salvador Allende.
Answer:
Salvador Allende was the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile. He led the Popular Unity coalition party to victory in the presidential election in the year 1970. He was then elected President of Chile. After his election, Allende passed many reforms for the betterment of the poor people of his country.

Salvador Allende reformed the educational system and ensured that free milk was provided for all the children. He also redistributed land to the landless farmers.

As President he did not allow foreign companies to take away natural resources like copper, from the country.
There was a lot of opposition for Salvador Allende’s policies from the rich landlords, the Church and other political parties.

Question 2.
What was the out come of the Military Coup of 1973 ,in Chile ?
Answer:
A coup is the sudden overthrow of a government illegally, it may or may not be violent in nature’.
There was a Military coup in Chile, in the year 1973. The military coup took place under General Augusto Pinochet. Salvador Allende’s government, that was elected by people, was overthrown by the military, through conspiracy and violence. On the 11th of September, 1973, the military took over the seaport. The Defence Minister was arrested by the military.

Then the military surrounded the President’s house and started bombing it. President Allende died in the military attack. General Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years. Supporters of Allende were tortured and put to death.

Question 3.
How was democracy restored after the coup, in Chile?
Answer:
General Augusto Pinochet, the military ruler of Chile, decided to hold a referendum in 1988. The General was very confident that he would win the referendum, and that the people would want him to continue in power.
But the people of Chile wanted a democratic rule. General Pinochet lost the referendum, thus losing his political and military powers. The brutal and cruel dictatorship came to an end.

Michelle Bachelet, a medical doctor and a moderate socialist, was elected the President of Chile, in the free Presidential elections, which was held in January 2006. Democracy was restored in Chile.

Question 4.
What was the situation in Poland in the 1980s?
Answer:
In the 1980s Poland was ruled by the Polish United Workers’ Party. This was a Communist party. The government of the Soviet Union controlled the government in Poland. In a Communist Country people could not choose their leader or speak freely against their leader. People were put in prison for opposing the government. Independent Trade Unions were not allowed in Poland
On 14 August 1980, the workers of Lenin Shipyard, in Gdansk, went on a strike. This shipyard belonged to the Government and strikes were illegal. The strike started because a women crane operator was dismissed from service in an unjust manner. Soon Lech Walesa, joined the strike.

Lech Walesa was an electrician in the shipyard. He was dismissed from service, many years ago, because he had demanded higher wages.
The strike began to spread across the whole city. The workers started raising greater demands.
They wanted the right to form independent trade unions.
They wanted the release of political prisoners.
They wanted an end to censorship of the press.

Question 5.
Describe a Communist State.
Answer:
A Communist state is a state governed by a communist party without allowing other parties to compete for power. The state controls all the big property and industry

Question 6.
What was the out come of the strike in Poland ?
Answer:

Under the guidance of Lech Walesa, the strike became a great movement. Soon the Communist government relented and signed a 21-point agreement with Lech Walesa.
The main features of the 21- point Agreement were as follows

  • The Government recognized the workers’ right to form independent trade unions
  • The government also granted trade Unions the right to strike
  • A new trade union called Solidarity was formed for the first time.
  • Solidarity swept across Poland and had about one crore members.

Question 7.
What was the plight of the Solidarity Trade union in Poland?
Answer:
Solidarity Trade Union brought to light the widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government. The Polish government was not happy with this. In the year 1981, the government imposed martial law in the country.
Thousands of Solidarity members were jailed. Freedom to organise, protest and express opinions was once again taken away from the people.

Question 8.
What were the similarity between the two Governments in Chile and Poland?
Answer:
The Government in Chile under General Augusto Pinochet and the Government in Poland under the Polish United Workers’ Party, were both non- democratic governments. There were many similarities between these two governments.
The similarities were:-

  • The people could not choose or change their rulers.
  • There was freedom of expression.
  • People could not form political associations.
  • People were not permitted to organize protests or initiate political action.

Question 9.
What is ‘universal adult franchise’
Answer:
The right to vote, granted universally to all adults, whether they are men or women, rich or poor, white or black is called ‘universal adult franchise’. It is also known as ‘universal suffrage’.
India gained ‘universal adult franchise’ in the year 1950.

Question 10.
Trace the expansion of Democracy across the globe.
Answer:
The journey of modern democracy started two centuries ago. During the 19th century, democracy was overthrown and restored several times, in France. The French Revolution that took place in 1789 inspired many struggles for democracy all over Europe.
In Britain, though the progress towards democracy was very slow, it started much before the French Revolution. Series of political events reduced the power of the monarchy and the feudal lords in the nineteenth centuries.

In the United States, the British colonies in North America declared themselves independent in 1776. In the next few years, these colonies came together to form the United States of America. They adopted a democratic constitution in 1787.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, many countries had governments elected by the people and had political freedom in some measure.

Question 11.
Describe the end of Colonialism.
Answer:
Many countries in Asia and Africa were colonies under the control of European nations. People in these countries wanted independence.
India was one of the few colonies where people led a nationalist struggle of non- violence, to liberate the country from the colonial rule. India achieved its independence in 1947. From a subject country India has emerged into a democratic country. India continues to be a democracy.
By the end of the Second World war many of the countries became independent. Ghana was one of the first few countries which became independent. It gained independence in the year 1957. It inspired other African countries to struggle for freedom.

Question 12.
Trace the Political developments in Myanmar.
Answer:
Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, gained freedom from Colonial rule in 1948 and became a democracy.
The following are the political developments that took place in Myanmar since 1948:-

  • A military coup over threw the democratic government in the year 1962.
  • In 1990, elections were held for the first time after almost 30 years.
  • The National League for Democracy, which was led by Aung San Suu Kyi , won the election.
  • The military leaders of Myanmar did not accept the results of the election.
  • San Suu Kyi was put under house arrest.
  • Political activists were jailed for minor offenses.
  • People were oppressed and not given any freedom of expression.
  • Lakhs of people in Myanmar were driven away from their homes by the military-ruled government.
  • The people in Myanmar are still struggling for a democratic government in their country.

Question 13.
Write a short note on the United Nations and its General Assembly.
Answer:
The United Nations is a global association of nations of the world. It promotes cooperation in international law, security, economic development, and social equity. The UN Secretary-General is the head of the UN.
The UN General Assembly has 192 member countries. Each country has one vote in the UN General Assembly. The General Assembly meets regularly.

The President of the Assembly is elected from among the representatives of the member countries. General Assembly is like the parliament where discussions take place and decisions are made. The General Assembly does not have the power to interfere in a conflict between different countries.

Question 14.
How does the International Monetary Fund function?
Answer:
International Monetary Fund can be considered as one of the biggest moneylenders for the world. It provides loan to countries for their developmental projects.

The IMF has 173 member states. All these states do not have equal voting rights. The vote of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF.

SolutionAlmost half of the voting power in the IMF is in the hands of the G7 nations. The G7 nations are, the US, Japan, France, UK, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia. The remaining 166 countries have very little say in the decisions the IMF takes.

Question 15.
What is a referendum?
Answer:
A Referendum is ‘a direct vote in which the people are asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be adoption of a new constitution, a law or a specific governmental policy.’

Democracy in the Contemporary World Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
“Workers of my homeland! I have faith in Chile and its future…… It will be a moral lesson to castigate felony, cowardice, and treason.” Who said this?
(a) General Augusto Pinochet
(b) General Alberto Bachelet
(c) Salvador Allende
(d) Michelle Bachelet

Answer

Answer: (c) Salvador Allende


Question 2.
Who led the military coup in Chile in 1973?
(a) General Alberto Bachelet
(b) Michelle Bachelet
(c) General Augusto Pinochet
(d) Salvador Allende

Answer

Answer: (c) General Augusto Pinochet


Question 3.
Who was elected as President of Chile in Jan. 2006?
(a) Michelle Bachelet
(b) General Bachelet
(c) General Pinochet
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Michelle Bachelet


Question 4.
The workers of Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk went on a strike on
(a) 14 Aug 1980
(b) 15 Aug 1980
(c) 14 Sept 1980
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) 14 Aug 1980


Question 5.
The three governments of Allende’s Chile, Walesa’s Poland and Michelle’s Chile had a
(a) Democratic form of government
(b) Martial law
(c) Communist form of government
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Democratic form of government


Question 6.
What is meant by Universal Adult Franchise?
(a) Right to vote to property owners
(b) Right to vote to women
(c) Right to vote to all adults
(d) Right to vote to blacks

Answer

Answer: (c) Right to vote to all adults


Question 7.
After Independence, who became the first Prime Minister and then the President ofGhana?
(a) Patrice Lumamba
(b) Jomo Kenyatta
(c) Sam Nujoma
(d) Kwame Nkrumah

Answer

Answer: (b) Jomo Kenyatta


Question 8.
Which award has been won by Suu Kyi?
(a) Literary Award
(b) Oscar Award
(c) Nobel Peace Prize
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (c) Nobel Peace Prize


Question 9.
Name the body of the U.N. which acts like a Parliament.
(a) General Assembly
(b) Security Council
(c) International Court of Justice
(d) Social and Economic Council

Answer

Answer: (a) General Assembly


Question 10.
Name the five permanent members of the Security Council.
(a) US, Germany, France, China, Italy
(b) US, Britain, Germany, Italy, France
(c) US, France, Switzerland, China, Russia
(d) US, France, Britain, Russia, China

Answer

Answer: (d) US, France, Britain, Russia, China


Question 11.
The President of the World Bank has always been from
(a) U.K.
(b) U.S.A.
(c) France
(d) Russia

Answer

Answer: (b) U.S.A.


Question 12.
What is the territory under the immediate political control of another state called?
(a) Communist state
(b) Colony
(c) Democratic state
(d) none of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) Colony


Question 13.
Which one of the following situations is democratic?
(a) General Pinochet, an Army General of Chile, led a coup and became the President of the country.
(b) In China, always the Communist Party only wins in elections and forms the government.
(c) The government led by Jaruzelski in Poland, imposed martial law and imprisoned thousands of Solidarity members who took part in strike.
(d) The African National Congress of South Africa drew up a constitution which gave most extensive rights to its citizns.

Answer

Answer: (d) The African National Congress of South Africa drew up a constitution which gave most extensive rights to its citizns.


Question 14.
How many member states are there in the International Monetary Fund?
(a) 173
(b) 192
(c) 200
(d) 190

Answer

Answer: (a) 173


Question 15.
Which country supported and controlled the autocratic government in Poland?
(a) USA
(b) China
(c) Russia
(d) UK

Answer

Answer: (c) Russia


Question 16.
Who among the following in UN has always been a citizen of the US?
(a) Treasury Secretary
(b) President of the World Bank
(c) Finance Secretary
(d) Secretary General

Answer

Answer: (b) President of the World Bank


Question 17.
Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy?
(a) Struggle by people
(b) Invasion by foreign country
(c) End of colonialism
(d) People’s desire for freedom

Answer

Answer: (b) Invasion by foreign country


Question 18.
Why was International Monetary Fund established?
(a) To maintain peace and security among the countries
(b) Lends money to governments of member nations when in need
(c) To implement and formulate trade agreements
(d) To take decision regarding misery and poverty of western countries

Answer

Answer: (b) Lends money to governments of member nations when in need


Question 19.
First Prime Minister of Ghanawas :
(a) Augusto Pinochet
(b) Nkrumah
(c) General Bachelet
(d) Allende

Answer

Answer: (b) Nkrumah


Question 20.
How many members’ countries are there in Security Council of UN?
(a) 25
(b) 20
(c) 15
(d) 10

Answer

Answer: (c) 15


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