# NCERT Solutions and Notes for CBSE Class 11 Physics

### CBSE Class 11 Physics syllabus changes for 2020-21

Theory:

No change in syllabus.

Practicals:

1. From the earlier requirement of at least 15 experiments (minimum of 6 from each section) in total, now 12 experiments need to be done (minimum of 6 from each section).

2. From the earlier requirement of at least 5 activities (minimum of 2 each from Section A and Section B), now 6 activities need to be done (minimum of 3 each from Section A and Section B).

3. In evaluation scheme, ‘two experiments one from each section’ had the weightage of 8 + 8 marks. But now it has changed to a weightage of 7 + 7 marks.

4. In evaluation scheme, ‘Practical record’ had the weightage of 6 marks. But now it has changed to a weightage of 5 marks.

5. One activity has been be given in the CBSE Class 11 Physics Practical exam pattern for evaluation now. ‘One activity from any section’ having a weightage of 3 marks will be asked.

6. Activities were earlier supposed “to be demonstrated by teachers” as per the CBSE Physics syllabus. Now, activities have “to be performed by students.”

7. ‘For the purpose of understanding only’ section has been deleted after the heading Activities in Section A and Section B.

### CBSE Class 11 Physics Syllabus

#### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement: Physical World

• What is Physics?
• Scope and excitement of Physics
• Physics technology and society
• Fundamental forces in nature
• Nature of Physical laws

#### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement: Units and Measurement

• Introduction to International system of units
• Measurement of length
• Measurement of mass
• Measurement of time
• Accuracy and precision of measurements and errors in measurement
• Absolute error, relative error and percentage error
• Combination of errors
• Significant figures
• Dimension of physical quantity, dimension formula and equation
• Dimensional analysis and applicationn

#### Unit II: Kinematics: Motion in a Straight Line

• Position, path length and displacement
• Average velocity and average speed
• Instantaneous velocity and speed
• Acceleration
• Uniformly accelerated motion
• Relative velocity

#### Unit II: Kinematics:Motion in A Plane

• Scalars and Vectors
• Position and displacement vectors
• Equality of vectors
• Multiplication of vector by real number
• Addition and subtraction of vector: graphical method
• Resolution of vectors
• Vector and scalar product
• Motion in a plane with constant acceleration
• Relative velocity in two dimension
• Projectile motion
• Uniform circular motion

#### Unit III: Laws of Motion:Laws of Motion

• Aristotle Fallacy
• Law of inertia
• Newton’s first law of motion
• Newton’s second law of motion and momentum
• Newton’s third law of motion
• Conservation of momentum
• Equilibrium of a particle
• Static and kinetic friction
• Law of friction
• Rolling friction
• Circular motion
• Solving problems in mechanics

#### Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

• Work done by a constant force
• Work done by a variable force
• kinetic energy
• work-energy theorem
• power
• Notion of potential energy
• potential energy of a spring
• conservative forces
• conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies)
• non-conservative forces
• motion in a vertical circle
• elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions

#### Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rotational Motion

• What kind of a motion can a rigid body have
• Center of mass
• Motion of center of mass
• Linear momentum of system of particle
• Vector product of two vectors
• Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity
• Torque
• Angular momentum
• Torque and angular momentum of system, law of conservation of angular momentum
• Equilibrium of rigid body
• Moment of inertia
• Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes
• Kinematics of rotational motion around a fixed axis
• Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis
• Angular momentum in case of rotation about fixed axis
• Rolling motion

#### Unit VI: Gravitation

• Kepler’s law
• Universal law of gravitation
• The gravitational constant
• Acceleration due to gravity of earth
• Acceleration due to gravity above and below the earths surface
• Gravitational potential energy
• Escape speed
• Earth satellite
• Energy of an orbiting satellite
• Weightlessness

#### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter:Mechanical Properties of Solids

• Elastic behavior of solids
• Stress and strain
• Hooke’s law and the stress strain curve
• Elastic moduli: Young’s modulus
• Shear modulus
• Bulk modulus
• Elastic energy
• Application of elastic behavior of materials

#### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter: Mechanical Properties of Fluids

• Pressure
• Pascal’s law, variation of pressure with depth
• Atmospheric pressure and Gauge pressure
• Hydraulic machines
• Streamline flow
• Bernouli’s principle
• Speed of efflux, Venturimeter
• Dynamic lift
• Viscosity
• Reynold’s number
• Surface tension
• Surface energy
• Pressure in drop and bubbles, Capillary rise
• Detergents and surface tension

#### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter: Thermal Properties of Matter

• Temperature and heat
• Measurement of temperature
• Newton’s first law of motion
• Ideal gas equation and absolute temperature
• Thermal expansion
• Specific heat capacity
• Calorimetry
• Change of state: boiling point
• Change of state: melting point
• Latent heat
• Heat transfer: Conduction
• Convection
• Convection
• Black Body and Black Body Radiation
• Black Body Radiation – Wein’s displacement Law
• Black Body Radiation: Stefan Boltzmann law
• Newton’s law of cooling

#### Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

• Thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics
• Heat, energy and work
• First law of thermodynamics
• Thermodynamic state variable and equation of state
• Thermodynamic process
• Heat engines
• Refrigerator and heat pump
• Second law of thermodynamics
• Reversible and irreversible processes
• Carnot’s engine

#### Unit IX: Behavior of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

• Molecular nature of matter
• Behavior of gases
• Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions
• Kinetic theory of an ideal gas: Pressure of an ideal gas
• Kinetic interpretation of temperature
• Law of equi-partition of energy
• Mean free path

#### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves: Oscillations

• Periodic and oscillatory motion
• Simple harmonic motion
• Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
• Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion
• Force law for simple harmonic motion
• Energy in simple harmonic motion
• Some systems executing simple harmonic motion: oscillation due to spring
• The simple pendulum
• Damped simple harmonic motion
• Forced oscillation and resonance

#### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves: Oscillations

• Periodic and oscillatory motion
• Simple harmonic motion
• Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
• Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion
• Force law for simple harmonic motion
• Energy in simple harmonic motion
• Some systems executing simple harmonic motion: oscillation due to spring
• The simple pendulum
• Damped simple harmonic motion
• Forced oscillation and resonance

### Best Reference Books for CBSE Class 11 Physics besides NCERT Textbooks

Physics is considered as one of the most difficult subjects of CBSE Class 11. It is because one needs to have a good understanding of various concepts of Mathematics. Although this is very basic Mathematics which you can easily learn from the first chapter of Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics Vol 1. Here is the complete list of important books for CBSE Class 11 Physics. These books are also useful  for competitive exams like JEE Main & NEET.

 NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Physics Pardeep’s Fundamental Physics for Class 11 NCERT Exemplar Solutions for CBSE Class 11 Physics NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 11 Physics

### Class 11 Physics NCERT solutions and Notes

Physics is one of the core subjects for anyone who chooses to engineer. It is important to build your basics and have a strong foundation before you go for engineering. The NCERT solutions for class 11 physics given in this article is updated to the latest syllabus. Below we are providing an overview of each chapter that is available in NCERT textbook for physics.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 1  Physics World

This first chapter can help you build a good foundation in physics for class 11 and class 12. There are different topics in this chapter like nuclear force, gravitational force, electromagnetic force, etc. This chapter also explains the basic laws in physics that govern the natural phenomenon. There are different concepts from scientists like Faraday, Ampere, Newton, etc which is explained in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 2 Units and Measurement

This is a basic chapter that clears your doubts about units, derived units, base units, a system of units, and much more. This chapter will explain to you how is the international system of units decided and what is the need for it. Along with this, various methods like parallax angle, parallax method, will also be explained for measuring the length.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 3 Motion in a Straight Line

This chapter introduces the students to the world of kinematics. We have already learned about the fundamental properties of motion in earlier standards. This chapter will help you learn about rectilinear motion along with its measurement in technical and detailed vision. Furthermore, students will also learn about the reference point, and the frame of reference, the magnitude of displacement, path length, instantaneous velocity, relative velocity, retardation, acceleration, etc.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion in a Plane

This chapter you will learn about measuring motion in a plane as well as vector and scalar quantities. You will also get to learn about diagrammatic representation of derivative laws for the addition of vector and scalar quantities. There are topics like displacement and position vector, equality of vectors, vector multiplication by real numbers, the addition of vectors through analytical methods are the topics that will be discussed in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Law of Motion

As far as this chapter is concerned, students will learn about moving bodies and the factors that act on these bodies. Along with this, you will learn about the direction of these moving bodies and their corresponding motion, the gravitational effect on these bodies, etc. Motion is a very ancient topic on which great scientists like Newton, Aristotle, and Galileo have studied. This will also be discussed in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work, Energy, and Power

There are many basic terms of power, work, and energy that you have studied in earlier standards. But in this chapter, you will study about the relations of all these quantities. You will also have a chance to understand the scalar products and there are distributive laws taught in this chapter. This all forms the fundamentals for understanding in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 System of Particles and Rotational Motion

There are mathematical and theoretical concepts explained in this chapter related to rotational motion. These concepts are explained in a very comprehensive manner so that students can have a better understanding of these topics.

#### Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Gravitation

We all know that the objects get attracted to the earth. Thus, everyone is aware of the concepts in gravity and its effects and how it was discovered. However, in class 11 physics, this topic takes you in depths of the concepts related to gravitation. Furthermore, you will get a good grip on the technical basis for gravitation, Kepler’s laws, gravitational law, etc. There are other topics also like Gravitational acceleration, gravity due to earth, gravitational constant, earth satellites potential energy in gravitation, etc that are discussed in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Chapter 9 Mechanical Properties of Solids

In this chapter, you will study the physical properties of solids like elasticity, plasticity, and many other things. This chapter goes in depth to reach fundamental concepts like tensile stress, compressive stress, tangential stress, tensile stress, volume strain, etc. This chapter helps in building the foundation of various properties in solids.

#### Class 11 Chapter 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids

This chapter will introduce you to some physical properties like gases and liquids. What common characteristics are between gases and liquids? How does fluid differ from solids? The difference in solids with liquids and gases are some questions that will be answered using this chapter. External forces like pressure and tension and its effects on fluids using mathematical expressions are some of the topics you will understand in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of Matter

This chapter will teach you the exact meaning of heat and how this heat is measured. There are various topics related to heat flow that will be discussed in this chapter. Some of the interesting daily life phenomena like why the wind reverses its direction near a sea beach or why the blacksmiths healthier iron rings before they fit a rim on the wooden wheel will be explained through this chapter. You will also learn why the temperature does not change when the water boils even though it goes through a great of heat change in the process in this chapter.

#### Class 11 Chapter 12 Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics usually deals with the ideas related to the temperature and heat as well as interconversion of heat and other forms of energy. This is considered as a macroscopic science. Furthermore, it deals with the bulk systems and often it does not include the molecular constitution of the matters.

#### Class 11 Chapter 13 Kinetic Energy

This chapter will help you in understanding the favor of gases along with fast-moving molecules and atoms. Since the 19th century, Kinetic energy is being studied by some of the great scientists like Maxwell, Newton, Boyle, and many more. This and all is explained in this chapter of kinetic theory.

#### Class 11 Chapter 14 Oscillations

This chapter further dwells into projectile motion, rectilinear motion, and other similar motions that you have studied in earlier chapters. The study of oscillations is considered as very basic in physics. This chapter does into detail about the oscillation as well as oscillatory motion.

#### Class 11 Chapter 15 Waves

There different waves and its influences which will be understood through this chapter. Furthermore, this chapter will help you develop a conceptual study about the longitudinal and transverse waves, angular wave and wavelength number, frequency, and angular frequency, etc.

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