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# NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy

 NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Economics – Understanding Economic Development Chapter 1: Development -Access in pdf

### NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development PDF

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 in PDF here. All these NCERT Solutions are explained in simple language and are best for quick and active learning.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development

Get here the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 of Class 10 Understanding Economic Development textbook. All the NCERT solutions for Chapter- Development are explained in the simplest manner to make learning easy and effective for students. All the solutions are available here in a readable and downloadable format. Check the best explained answers to all the exercise questions given in the NCERT book here.

NCERT Solutions Class 10

Social Science – Economics

Chapter 1: Development

1. Development of a country can generally be determined by

(i) its per capita income

(ii) its average literacy level

(iii) health status of its people

(iv) all the above

2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?

(ii) Sri Lanka

(iii) Nepal

(iv) Pakistan

3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

(i) Rs 7500

(ii) Rs 3000

(iii) Rs 2000

(iv) Rs 6000

Explanation:

Let x be the income of the fourth family.

So, according to the question,

(4000 + 7000 + 3000 + x) ÷ 4 = 5000

14000 + x = 5000 × 4

x = 20000 – 14000

x = 6000

4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Answer: World Bank classifies different countries on the basis of the per capita income or the average income of a person in the country. It is calculated by dividing the total income of the country by the population of the country.

The limitations of the criterion are:

• It does not give any information about the distribution of the average income among the people in a country.
• It ignores important factors like literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare, etc. which play a crucial role in the development of a country.

5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer: The criterion used by UNDP is different from the one used by the World Bank because World bank only uses per capita income for measuring the development of a country while UNDP besides considering per capita incomes, compares countries on the basis of the educational level of the people, healthcare facilities and infant mortality rate which are important in improving the quality of life and making the citizens more productive.

6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer: We use averages as they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. This does not show the distribution of things between people. There are limitations of calculating averages because this does not give any information about the distribution of a thing between people. For example, the per capita income does not show the distribution of income. It does not show the percentage of the poor in the population.

7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer: No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Though per capita income is not the only criterion and it has limitations, we cannot say that it is not useful at all. because human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health status, education level, and income. However, per capita income is one of the factors used to calculate development and cannot be neglected.

8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

Answer: The present sources of energy used by people in India include firewood, coal, petroleum, crude oil and natural gas. The other possibilities fifty years from now could be using solar energy, wind energy, nuclear energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, tidal energy, wave energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass energy, etc., as source of energy for varied purposes. This is because the current usage of sources of energy may result in loss of these resources for future generations.

9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Answer: Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The issue of sustainability is important for development because if the natural resources are not used carefully, they may not be available for future generations. The depleting resources of a country may ultimately result in a lack of development of the country.

10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

Answer: The statement, “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” is completely relevant in terms of the development of a country because both resources and development go hand in hand. For the sustainability of development, the maintenance of resources is very crucial. All the natural resources are non-renewable and will exhaust if not used cautiously. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the people to use them only to meet their needs and not to satisfy their greed. If natural resources are not used wisely now, the future generations may not be able to use them to meet their needs that will ultimately result in the downfall of the development of a country.

11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.

Answer: A few examples of environmental degradation that we can observe around us are:

• Decreased level of air quality
• Water pollution
• Deforestation
• Soil Erosion
• Falling level of ground water

### NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Economics Chapter 1 Development

Page 16
Q1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
(iv) all the above

Q2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(ii) Sri Lanka
(iii) Nepal
(iv) Pakistan
(ii) Sri Lanka

Q3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000
(iii) Rs 6000

Q4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

The average income, i.e. per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries.
According to World Development Report 2006, published by the World Bank, countries with per capita income of $10066 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich or developed countries. On the other hand, countries with per capita income of$825 or less are called low-income countries.
Limitations: It does not tell us about how the average income is distributed among the people in the individual countries. The countries with the same per capita income might be very different with regard to income distribution. One might have equitable distribution of income, while the other might have great disparities between the rich and the poor.

Q5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development is different from the one used by the World Bank in the following respects:
The World Bank – The World Bank uses per capita income as the sole criterion for measuring development.
The UNDP – It uses the Human Development Index (HDI) based on a combination of factors such as health, education, and income as the criterion for measuring development.
Thus, the UNDP does not rely solely on per capita income, as the criterion for measuring development, as in the case with the World Bank.

Q6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development
We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people. However, there are limitations to the use of averages. Even though they are useful for comparison, they may also hide disparities. For example, the infant mortality rate of a country does not differentiate between the male and female infants born in that country. Such an average tells us nothing about whether the number of children dying before the age of one are mostly boys or girls.

Q7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab because, human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health, education, and income. So, this does not imply that per capita income is not useful. Rather, per capita income is one of the development factors and can not be neglected. The World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development and comparing states. But this criterion has certain limitations because of which determination of Human Development Index (HDI) is done using this criterion along with some other development factors like health, education etc.

Q8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cowdung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and a better utilisation of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

Q9. Why is the issue of sustainability is important for development?
Sustainability for development or sustainable development refers to the development which is done without damaging the environment and other resources. In other words, balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for future is known as sustainable development.
The issue of sustainability is important for the development because development must happen in tandem with future. If natural resources are not sustained, it will cause a stagnation of development after a point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. This is because in future, those resources will not be available for further progress.

Page 17:
Q10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
This statement is relevant to the discussion of development since both resources and development go hand in hand. As the statement claims, our earth has enough resources – renewable and non-renewable to satisfy everyone’s need if we use them in an economic manner. For the sustainability of development, the consumption and maintenance of resources is also crucial. We have to use the resources keeping our environment protected and clear so that there is a balance between the development and use of our resources. As otherwise after a certain point of time in future the development will be stagnated.

Q11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Environmental degradation manifests itself in different ways. Deforestation, falling levels of ground water, soil erosion, water pollution, burning of fossil fuels, the hole in the ozone layer and combustion from automobiles causing extreme air pollution especially in urban areas are some of the examples of environmental degradation.

Multiple Choice Questions

Previous Years’ Questions
1. Which one of the following countries has the largest size of illiterate population in the age group of 15 + in the world ?
(a) India
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Myanmar

2. Development of a country can generally be determined by its:
(a) per capita income
(b) average.literacy Ieve4
(c) health status of its people
(d) none of these

3. We can obtain per capita income of a country by calculating:
(a) the total income of a person
(b) by dividing the national income by the total population of a country
(c) the total value of all goods and services
(d) the total exports of the country

4. Kerala has low infant Mortality Rate because:
(a) it has good climatic condition
(c) it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities
(d) it has poor net attendance ratio

NCERT Questions
5. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India ?
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan

6. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family ?
(a) ₹ 7,500
(b) ₹ 3,000
(c) ₹ 2,000
(d) ₹ 6,000

7. According to World Development Report 2004, low-income countries are those which have per capita income of
(a) $900 or less. (b)$ 1000 or less
(c) $825 or less (d)$ 500 or less

8. Identify which of the following cannot be a development goal for a landless rural labourer?
(a) More days of work
(b) Better wages
(c) Quality education for children
(d) Foreign tours

9. Besides seeking more income, one way or the other, people also seek things like
(a) equal treatment
(b) freedom
(c) security
(d) all of them

10. Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development. A fair and just path for all should be achieved. Interpret the concept being discussed here.
(a) Social development
(b) Cultural development
(c) National development
(d) Economic development

11. List how many tonnes of liquid toxic wastes a vessel dumped in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa ?
(a) 500 tonnes
(b) 600 tonnes
(c) 900 tonnes
(d) 1000 tonnes

12. Countries with higher income are ………….. than others with less income.
(a) Less developed
(b) More developed
(c) Less stronger
(d) More organised

13. Income of the country divided by its total population is known as
(a) Capital Income
(b) National Income
(c) Per capita income
(d) GDP

14. In World Development Report 2006, Rich Countries were those which in 2004 had the per capita income of
(a) ₹ 2,53,000 per annum & above
(b) ₹ 14,50,000 per annum & above
(c) ₹ 4,53,000 per annum & above
(d) ₹ 13,53,000 per annum & above

15. In World Development Report 2006, low-income countries were those which in 2004 had the per capita income of
(a) ₹ 37,000 or less
(b) ₹ 47,000 or less
(c) ₹ 50,000 or less
(d) ₹ 39,000 or less

16. In 2004, India came in the category of
(a) Rich countries
(b) Low-income countries
(c) Developed countries
(d) Medium income countries

17. Comparing all states, identify the state which had the highest per capita income in 2002 – 2003.
(a) Kerala
(b) Punjab
(c) Delhi
(d) Bihar

18. Which state had the least per capita income in 2002-03 ?
(a) Bihar
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Kerala
(d) Delhi

19. Number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year is known as
(a) Death rate
(b) Survival rate
(c) Infant mortality rate
(d) Life death rate

20. Proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group is called as
(a) Knowledge rate
(b) Literacy rate
(c) Attendance rate
(d) Excellence Rate

21. Which age group of children is included for calculating Net Attendance Ratio?
(a) 6 – 10
(b) 7 – 11
(c) 5 – 9
(d) 10 – 15

22. In 2003, Infant Mortality Rate in Kerala was
(a) 49
(b) 11
(c) 60
(d) 22

23. For the year 1995 – 96, Net Attendance Ratio for class I to V in Bihar was
(a) 81
(b) 51
(c) 41
(d) 31

24. Literacy rate for rural male population of Uttar Pradesh is
(a) 62 %
(b) 59 %
(c) 52 %
(d) 42 %

25. For calculating Body Mass Index (BMI), weight of the person is divided by the
(a) Square of the weight
(b) Square of the height
(c) Square root of the height
(d) Square of the sum of height and weight

26. If BMI is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered
(a) over weight
(b) long height
(c) under nourished
(d) short height

27. Report published by UNDP which compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income is
(a) Human Education Report
(b) Human Development Report
(c) Human Population Report
(d) Human Quality Report

28. HDI Rank of India in the world out of 177 countries in 2004 was
(a) 93
(b) 126
(c) 130
(d) 125

29. India’s per capita income in US \$ is …………… Sri Lanka (in 2004)
(a) less than
(b) more than
(c) equal to
(d) less than or equal to

30. Nepal has nearly ……………. the per capita income of India (in 2004)
(a) one – fourth
(b) three – fourth
(c) equal
(d) half

31. What proportion of the country is over using their groundwater reserves ?
(a) One – Fourth
(b) One – Tenth
(c) One – Third
(d) half

32. Resources which will get exhausted after years of use is called ……………
(a) Renewable resources
(b) Non – durable resources
(c) Non – renewable resources
(d) Competing resources