NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
Get here the NCERT solutions for the class 10 History Chapter 3 – The Making of a Global World. Check the best and simplest answers to aid in quick and effective learning.
NCERT solutions for 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 – The Making of a Global World are provided here for academic session 2020-21. You will get here the accurate and comprehensive solutions that will be helpful in effective learning and enhance your interest in the subject. All the solutions have been prepared according to the rules of CBSE marking scheme and following the appropriate word limit. Option to download the NCERT Solutions is also provided here.
NCERT Solutions Class 10
Social Science – History
Chapter 3: The Making of a Global World
Write in Brief
1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Answer: Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century are:
- Example from the Americas: America was rich in foods and minerals. Today’s common foods like potatoes, tomatoes, chillies, soya, maize, groundnuts, etc., came to Europe and then Asia from America after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered this continent.
- Example from Asia: Noodles are believed to reach Europe from China. China exported pottery and textile to India and Southeast Asia. Precious metals like Gold and Silver flowed from Europe to Asia via Silk Route.
2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Answer: The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the native Americans had no immunity against the disease that came from Europe. Before the discovery of America, it had been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. So, they had no defence against the disease. In particular, Smallpox proved a deadly killer. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
(a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
Answer: (a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws resulted in the inflow of cheaper food in
Britain. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated. Thousands of men and women, who were thrown out of work, migrated to town and cities. This indirectly led to global agriculture and rapid urbanisation, a prerequisite of industrial growth.
(b) Rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. Within two years, it spread in the whole continent reaching Cape Town within five years. Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy. It killed about 90 percent of the cattle. Planters, mine owners and colonial governments became successful to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe, thereby reducing household income. Due to this the women stepped in to undertake the jobs that earlier only men were expected to do. It increased the role of women that led to a demand for their equal status in the society. It made the feminist movement even stronger.
(d) By the early twentieth century, the global economy had become an integral one. The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India was a British colony that exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods. Under the impact of Great Depression, the Indian economy was closely becoming integrated into the global economy. As international prices crashed so did the prices in India. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50 percent. The fall in agricultural price led to a reduction of farmers’ income and agricultural export. The government did not decrease their taxes due to which peasants’ indebtedness increased all across India. In these depression years, India became an exporter of precious metals, notably gold.
(e) The relocation of industry to the low-wage countries had the following impact:
- It provided a cheap source of labour for MNCs
- It stimulated world trade and increased capital inflow in the Asian Countries
- It brought about new technology and production methods to the Asian Countries.
- It produced greater employment opportunities for Asian countries.
4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Answer: Two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability were:
(i) Improvement in transportation system: Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped transport food more cheaply and quickly from production units to final markets.
(ii) Refrigerated ships: Refrigerated ships helped transport perishable foods like meat, butter and eggs over long distances.
5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
Answer: The Bretton Woods Agreement was signed between the world powers in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and shortages of its member-nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
I hope you all are fine there. I am working in Caribbean as an indentured labourer. Through this letter, I want to tell you about my work life and hardships. I have been hired by the colonisers under a contract which included wrong information regarding the place of work, mode of travel and living and working conditions. The contractor uses harsh and abusive language for us. There is a lot of work at the plantations with a heavy workload and sometimes I have to finish all of it in just one day. The contractor cuts my wages if he is not satisfied with my work. I am living here a slave’s life. I know you will be very upset to know my situation but the governments here are thinking to introduce new laws to protect the labourers like us. So, I hope this situation will pass soon.
7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Answer: The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are:
(i) Flow of trade (trade in goods such as cloth or wheat): India was involved in trade relations since ancient times. It exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe.
(ii) Flow of labour (the migration of people to new areas in search of work): In the nineteenth century, thousands of Indian labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. Indentured labourers were hired under contacts which promised their return to India after working for five years in the plantation. The living conditions were harsh and the labourers had very few legal rights.
(iii) Flow of capital (short-term and long-term loan to and from other nations): To finance the World War, Britain took high loans from the USA. Since India was under British rule, the impact of these loan debts was felt in India too. The British government increased taxes, interest rates, and lowered the prices of products it bought from the colony. This affected the Indian economy very strongly.
8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
Answer: The Great Depression was a result of a number of factors as mentioned below:
(i) Prosperity in the USA during the 1920s created a cycle of higher employment and incomes. It led to a rise in consumption and demands. More investment and more employment created tendencies of speculations which led to the Great Depression of 1929 upto the mid-1930s.
(ii) The stock market crashed in 1929. It created panic among investors and depositors. They stopped investing and depositing which resulted in a cycle of depreciation.
(iii) Failure of the banks: The withdrawal of US loans had a worse impact on the money investment systems. In Europe, it led to the failure of most of the major banks. Some of the banks closed down when people withdrew all their assets, leaving them unable to invest. Some banks called back loans taken from them at the same dollar rate inspite of the falling value of dollar.
9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Answer: G-77 countries is a group of developing countries that demanded a new International Economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in the markets of the developed countries. The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members’ collective economic interests.
The Bretton Woods twins i.e., the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have been established by the developed countries. These institutions were set up to meet the financial needs of the industrialised countries and had nothing to do with the economic growth of the former colonial countries and developing nations. G-77 was created entirely to cater the needs of developing nations. Therefore, G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins.
NCERT Book Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
The Making of a Global World Chapter 3 discusses the making of the global world which had a long history – of trade, of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, etc. Globalisation is an economic system with the free movement of goods, technology, ideas and people across the globe. To understand the complex topics related to globalisation, silk routes, the role of technology, etc NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 will help you in the right approach. These solutions help students to have a deeper understanding of concepts covered in the chapter. Students can clear their doubts by referring to these solutions provided below written in a simple language.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Making of Global World
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social History Chapter 4 The Making of a Global World
Q.1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the 17th century, choosing one example from Asia, and one from the America.
(i) Exchange of food : Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange. It is believed that ‘noodles’ travelled west from China to become ‘spaghetti’.
(ii) Exchange of germs : The Portuguese and Spanish conquests and colonisation of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century. The European conquest was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person. Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any European reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
Q.3. Write a note and explain the effects of the following :
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
(c) (i) Reduction in the work force : Most of the killed and injured were men of working age. These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. With fewer numbers within the family, the household income declined after the war.
(ii) New Social Set-up : The entire societies were reorganised for war – as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
(e) (i) Wages are relatively low in Asian countries due to excess supply of workers.
(ii) Most of these economies have low cost structure.
(iii) Most of these countries have a huge market.
Q.4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of Science and Technology on food availability.
(i) Availability of cheap food in different markets : Improvements in transport; faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from the far away farms to the final markets.
(ii) Impact on meat : Till the 1870s, meat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals which were then slaughtered in Europe. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. But the invention of refrigerated ships made it possible to transport meat from one region to another. Now animals were slaughtered in America, Australia or New Zealand, and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. The invention of refrigerated ship had the following advantages :
- This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.
- The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet.
- To the earlier, monotony of bread and potatoes many, not all, could add meat, butter and eggs.
- Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country, and support for imperialism abroad.
Q.9. (i) Explain what referred to as the G-77 countries.
(ii) In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Twins ?
(ii) By establishing G-77, they could.
- Get real control over their natural resources.
- More assistance in their development.
- Fairer prices for raw materials.
- Better access for their manufactured goods.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Peoples livelihood and local economy of which one of the following was badly affected by the disease named Rinderpest
(d) South America
2. Which of the following powerful weapons were used by the Spanish Conquerors to colonise America during mid 17th century.
(a) Coventional Military weapons
(b) Modern Military weapons
(c) Biological weapons
(d) Nuclear weapons
3. Why did the wheat price fall down by 50 per cent between 1928 and 1934?
(a) Due to less production
(b) Due to floods
(c) Due to great depression
(d) Due to droughts
4. Most Indian indentured workers came from
(a) Eastern Uttar Pradesh
(b) North-eastern states
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) None of these
5. Who adopted the concept of an assembly line to produce automobiles ?
(a) Henry Ford
(b) T. Cuppola
(c) V.S. Naipaul
(d) Samuel Morse
6. In ancient period the cowries were used as
(c) unit of Weight
7. Which of the following diseases killed the majority of America’s original inhabitants ?
(b) Small Pox
8. In which place of India were the ‘canal colonies’ set up ?
(c) Uttar Pradesh
9. The fast spreading disease of cattle plague is known as
(a) cattle fever
(b) bubonic plague
(d) chicken pox
10. Which of the following place was an important destination for indentured migrants ?
(c) Carribbean island
11. At which of the following states in USA was the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944?
(a) New Hampshire
(b) New York
(c) San Francisco
(d) New Jersey
12. Which two institutions are well-known as Bretton Wood Institution ?
(a) UNICEF and IMF
(b) WHO and World Bank
(c) IMF and World Bank
(d) UNESCO and UNICEF
13. Who introduced the assembly line method for producing automobiles on a large scale ?
(a) V.S. Naipaul
(b) Henry Morton Stanley
(c) Henry Ford
(d) James Watt
14. Newly irrigated areas to settle peasants of Punjab were known as
(a) Watered colonies
(b) Canal colonies
(c) Punjab colonies
(d) Canalised colonies
15. The group of powers collectively known as the Axis power during the 2nd World War were
(a) Germany, Italy, Japan
(b) Austria, Germany, Italy
(c) France, Japan, Italy
(d) Japan, Germany, Turkey
16. Who among the following is a Nobel prize winner ?
(a) V.S. Naipaul
(b) J.M. Keynes
(c) Shivnarine Chanderpaul
(d) Ramnaresh Sarwan
17. Which of the following combination correctly indicates the three flows of international economic exchange ?
(a) Capital, goods, raw material
(b) Goods, metal, labour
(c) Goods, labour, capital
(d) Labour, capital, food grains
18. Which of the following statement correctly identifies the corn laws ?
(a) Restricted the import of corn to England.
(b) Allowed the import of corn to England.
(c) Imposed tax on corn.
(d) Abolished the sale of corn.
19. Which of the following refers to El Dorado ?
(a) A mythical animal
(b) A legendary god
(c) A fabled city of gold
(d) A sacred place of worship
20. Until 18th century which two countries were considered the richest in the world ?
(a) India and China
(b) China and Japan
(c) England and France
(d) England and Italy
21. Which of the following reflects the cultural fusion between India and Trinidad ?
(a) Native dancing
(b) Chutney music
(c) Religious practices
(d) Cottage industries
22.Transport of perishable goods over long distance was possible because of
(a) improved railways
(b) airline services
(c) refrigerated ships
23. Which of the following sustained the African lives for centuries ?
(a) Industries and mines
(b) Mines and agriculture
(c) Land and livestock
(d) Production of consumer goods
24. In Trinidad what was referred as Hosay ?
(a) Annual Muharram procession marking a carnival
(b) Christmas Celebration
(c) Easter Festival
(d) New Year Celebration
25. What is meant by tariff ?
(a) Tax imposed on goods.
(b) Tax imposed on a country’s import from the rest of the world.
(c) Tax imposed on countries’ export to other countries.
(d) Tax imposed on handmade goods.
26. The World Bank was set-up to
(a) finance rehabilitation of refugees.
(b) finance post war construction.
(c) finance industrial development.
(d) help third world countries.
27. Mark the correct response out of the following :
(a) The silk route acted as a link between different countries.
(b) The silk route helped in cultural and commercial exchange.
(c) The silk route acted as a route for west bound silk cargos from China.
(d) All the above.
28. Why was the 19th century indenture described as a system of slavery ? Mark the most suitable statement.
(a) Lots of slaves worked in the plantation.
(b) The living and working condition of the indentured labourers were harsh.
(c) The indentured labourers did not have any rights and lived like slaves.
(d) The indentured labourers were not paid any salary.
29. Why did the export of fine Indian textile to England decline in 19th century ?
(a) Production of cotton declined
(b) Demand of Indian textile in England declined
(c) British government imposed heavy tariff on import of cotton textile
(d) Indian merchants refused to sell cotton to the British merchants
30. Which of the following resulted in Britain’s trade surplus ?
(a) British export to India was much higher than British imports from India.
(b) Britain’s export of opium from India increased.
(c) British import from India became higher than British export to India.
(d) Import of cotton from India was profitable for the British merchants.
31. Which of the following factor compelled the Africans to work for wages ?
(b) Loss of livestock
(c) Oppression by colonisers
(d) Willingness to work for wages
32. Which of the following is the most important cause for the Great Depression ?
(a) Decline in agricultural production
(b) Agricultural overproduction leading to fall of prices in agricultural goods
(c) Loss of employment leading to poverty
(d) Closure of banks and factories
33. Why were the Europeans attracted most to Africa ?
(a) By its natural beauty
(b) By the opportunities for investment
(c) For its vast land resources and mineral wealth
(d) For recruitment of labour
34. Which of the following enabled the Europeans to conquer and control the Africans ?
(a) Victory in war
(b) Control over the scarce resource of cattle
(c) Death of Africans due to rinderpest
(d) Lack of weapons in Africa to fight against the Europeans
35. Which of the following is the direct effect of Great Depression on Indian Trade ?
(a) Peasants and farmers suffered
(b) Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934
(c) Peasants’ indebtedness increased
(d) Led to widespread unrest in rural India