NCERT Solutions for class 9 Geography SST Chapter 6 Population Questions (Updated for 2021 – 22)

Population Class 9 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 6

People ate the nation’s most valuable resource. A well-educated, healthy population provides potential power to the nation. The people are important to develop the economy and society, they make resources and use them. The people are themselves a resource with varying qualities.

A census is an official enumeration (numbering) of population done periodically. The first census in India (partial) was done in 1872. While, the first complete census was done in 1881. It is done every 10 years. The recent census was done in 2011. The census of India provides information regaling the population.

The three aspects concerned about population are as follows

  • Size and distribution of population It refers to the total number of people in the country and where they are located.
  • Population growth and process of population change It refers to how the population has grown and changes in its composition.
  • Characteristics of qualifies of life population It refers to age, sex-ratio, literacy levels, occupational structure, health conditions of people.

Population Size And Distribution
Hie arrangement or a spread of people of a country in different places, is Catted population distribution.
Size of population and its distribution can be studied under two heads- one population size and distribution by numbers and other in population distribution by density.

India’s Population Size and Distribution by Numbers
As per 2011 Census, population of India stood at 1,210 million, which is  17.5% of the total world population.. It is unevenly distributed over the various states, with Uttar Pradesh having the highest population (199 million accounts for about 16.49 per cent of the countries population) and Sikkim the lowest population (0.6 million accounts for about 0.05 per cent of the country’s population). Among Union Territories, Delhi has the highest (16.75 million) and Lakshadweep the lowest (64,429) population.

Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states cpmpfisiog Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra. Pradesh, while Rajasthan being largest state accounted for only 6% of the total population.

India’s Population Distribution by Density
The uneven population distribution can be better judged by the population density in the various states. The number of people living per unit area (sq. km) in an area (state or country) is called population! density of that area.
India is one of the most destiny populated countries in the world. After Bangladesh and Japan, it is the third most densely populated country.

India’s population density in 2001 was 324 persons per sq km (this increased to 382 persons per sq km in the 2011 Census), with West Bengal having the highest density of 904 persons per sq km and Arunachal Pradesh the lowest With only 13 persons per sq. km.

According to 2011 Census, Bihar has the highest population density 1,102 persons per sq km and Arunachal Pradesh having the lowest population density of 17 persons per sq km.

On the basis of population density inhale country is divided in to three regions
High population density states These states are characterised by flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall, e.g. states of Northern Plains and Kerala.

Moderate population density states These states are characterised by hilly and rocky nature of terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soil. e.g. Assam and most of the peninsular states.

Low population density states States with – low population density below 250 person per sq. km are characterised by rugged terrain (mountainous and desert) and unfavourable climatic condition, e.g. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Jammu and Kashmir etc.

[Note: Jelangema became the 29th state of India on the 2nd June 2014 after the reorganisation of the type of Andhra Pradesh.]

Population Growth And Processes Of Population Change
Due to births, deaths and migrations the number, distribution and composition of population change continuously.

Population Growth
The change in the number of people of a country or state during a specific period of time is called growth of population. Usually, it is mostly calculated at the interval of 10 years. The change can be expressed either in terms of absolute numbers or in terms of annual growth rate.

Absolute Increase of Population It means the absolute numbers added each year or in each decade in the population. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population (e.g. that of 1991) from the later population (e.g. that of 2001).
Annual Growth Rate of Population The rate at which the number of individuals in a population increase in 1 year as a fraction of the initial population; is called annual growth rate of population. It is expressed in terms of per cent per annum. For example, a rate of increase of 2% per annum means that there was an increase of 2 persons for every 100 persons in the initial population.

Population Growth Rate Since Independence
India’s annual growth rate of population increased steadily till 1981. Since then, the annual rate of population growth started declining. Still the population growth of India in 1990s was 182 million (in terms of number). This addition of people was larger than ever before. Inspite of decreasing annual growth rate (in percent), the largest addition in people(in terms of number) is due to the large population of the country.

A low growth rate results a large absolute increase due to very high population. However, the declining growth rate is a positive indicator for the efforts of birth control but the total additions to the population continue to grow. If this rate of increase continues, then India will surpass China by 2045 to become the most populous country in the world.

Processes of Population Change/Growth
Population changes due to the processes of births, deaths and migrations. The natural increase of population or the growth rate is the difference between birth rates and death rates.

Birth Rate
The number of live births per thousand persons in a year is called birth rate. The birth rate is a major component of population growth as in India, it has been always higher than the death rate.

Death Rate
The number of deaths per thousand persons in a year is called death rate. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates. There has been a rapid decline in death rates during the last 50 years due to better healthcare and nutrition, which have made this factor also important for growth of population.

The trend of Population Growth Due to Birth Rate and Death Rate
High birth rates and declining death rates were the phenomena till 1980, which resulted date of birth population growth. After that due to government efforts and increased awareness, the birth fate also started to decline, resulting in gradual decline in the population growth rate.

Migration
It is the movement of people across regions and territories. The movement of people within the country (from one place to another) is called internal migration. It does not change the population size but it changes the population distribution of an area.

The movement of people from one country to other is called international migration. It changes population size of the country as well as population distribution.

Migration Pattern in India
In India, most of the recent migrations have been from rural areas to urban areas. This is due to poverty and unemployment in rural areas (Push factors) and increased employment opportunity and better living, conditions in urban places (Pull factors).
The urban population has increased from 17.29% of the total population in 1951 to 31.8% in 2011. There has been a significant increase in the number of million plus cities from 35 to 53 in just a decade, i.e. 2001 to 2011.

Characteristics Or Qualities Of The Population

Age Composition
The number of people in different age groups in a country is called its age composition. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. The age of a person influences his needs, purchases, his capacity to perform. Generally, in India, people are classified into the following three age groups. These are as follow

(i) Children (Generally below 15 years)
They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.

(ii) Working Age (15-59 years)
They are economically and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
The working age group is an economically productive group. In 2001, this group comprised 58.7% of the population, while children made up 34.4 % and the aged only 6.9%.

(iii) Aged (Above 59 years)
They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.

Dependent Population
The population of children and aged people together constitute the dependent population. They are termed dependent because they are not producers.

Sex Ratio
The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males in the population. It is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. In India, the sex ratio has always been unfavourable to females due to reasons of tradition and unscrupulous actions of people. Certain states which are progressive like Kerala, have a very favourable sex ratio. As per census 2011, the sex ratio of Kerala is 1084 compared to 940 for all of India. Puducherry has 1038 females for every 1000 males, while Delhi has only 866 females p*r thousand males and Haryana has just 877 females per thousand.

Literacy Rate
A person who can read and write any language with understanding by the age of 7 years is considered literate.
The total percentage of the population of an area at a particular time aged seven years or above who can read and write with understanding is called literacy rate.

Although there has been a regular increase in literacy rates in the country, rural literacy lags behind urban literacy significantly and female literacy lags behind male literacy by a huge margin.

According to Census 2011 literacy rate in the country is 74.04%. It has revealed that urban literacy rate was 84.98 %, while that in the rural areas was only 68.91 %. Similarly, female literacy was only 65.46 %, while that for males was 82.14 %.

Occupational Structure
Occupational structure referred to as the distribution’^ population according to various types of occupation. Economically active population percentage is an important index of development. There is a large variety of occupation in the country. The occupations are usually categorised into primary, secondary and tertiary occupations.

Primary occupations are those in which natural resources are extracted from the Earth. These include agriculture, fishery, forestry, mining, quarrying, etc.

Secondary occupations are those in which the extracted natural resources are processed into products for use. These include manufacturing, refining, construction, etc.

Tertiary occupations are those which support the primary and secondary occupations by providing services. This transportation, communications, commerce, administration, legal services, etc.

The pattern of the Working Population
The proportion of people working in different activities vary in developed and developing countries. The developing countries have more of their population working in primary occupations, whereas the developed nations have more of their population working in secondary and tertiary occupations.

In India, half of the population is engaged in agriculture alone. However, due to industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times, there has occurred a significant shift towards secondary and tertiary occupations which earlier stood about 13% and 20%, respectively.

Health
Health is an important component of population composition. It affects its development significantly. Due to the sustained efforts of government, healthcare programmes, life expectancy at birth has improved from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.7 years in 2011.

The death rate has declined from 25 per 1000 persons in 1951 to 7.2 in 2011. However, healthcare and nutrition are still major issues. Malnutrition in children afflicts a large percentage of the population.

Availability of safe drinking -water and proper sanitation are major problems in rural areas and need urgent action. Only one-third of the rural population has these basic amenities. The level of nutrition and per capital calorie consumption is much below the recommended level. This can be reduced by appropriate policy on population.

Adolescent Population
Adolescents are population aged from 10 to 19 years. They currently comprise about 20% of India’s population and are an important future resource for the country.

Their nutritional requirements are more than that of either adults or younger children, but it our country the diet available for them is usually inadequate for their requirements, which leads to deficiency and stunted growth. Many adolescent girls suffer from anaemia and they must be made aware of their requirements through better education and literacy they confront.

National Population Policy
After recognising that the family planning would improve individual health and welfare, the Government of India initiated its first Family Planning Programme in 1952. This, promoted responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis. In the year 2000, the government formulated the National Population Policy (NPP 2000), which had the following major objectives

  • Providing a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
  • Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
  • Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
  • Making family welfare a people-centred programme.

NPP 2000 and Adolescents
National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.

NPP 2000 put greater emphasis on the important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies,’ Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and risks of unprotected sex. It focussed on programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and childbearing, education of adolescents, providing food supplements and nutritional services, etc.

Summary
Human beings are important resources who not only utilise resources and but also create social and cultural environment.

‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and disasters’ becomes meaningful when taken in relation to a human being.

The number, distribution, growth and characteristics of human beings provide basic background for understanding and appreciating various aspects of the environment.

The census is official information about the population of a country done at regular interval (mostly 10 year period).

India has huge population of over a billion, and the population is distributed unevenly throughout the country.

The uneven distribution of population can be known by calculating population density of an area, which is the number of people per unit area.

More than half of India’s population resides in five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

India has the third highest population density in the world, which is just after Bangladesh and Japan.

Rugged terrain and unfavourable4climatic condition are reason for sparse population in some regions such as Arunachal Pradesh.

Assam and most of peninsular India has moderate population density.

The high population density in India is found in the Northern Plain and Kerala.

The flat plain area with fertile soils and abundant rainfall are major factors contributing to high population density.

The change in the number of inhabitants of a country at a particular period of time is called growth of population.

Growth of the population is affected by births, deaths, and migration.

The increase in the population calculated by subtracting the earlier population from the later is known as absolute increase in population.

The rate of increase of population per year is measured in terms of per cent per annum and known as the annual growth rate of population.

Although, India’s population is steadily increasing from 1951, but since 1981, the rate of growth has started to decline gradually.

The difference between birth rate and death rate gives a natural increase in population.

The number of live birth per thousand persons per year is termed as birth rate.

The number of deaths per thousand of persons per year is termed as death rate.

Migration is the third component of population growth which represent the movement of people from one place to another.

When the movement of people occurs within a country it constitutes internal migration but when the movement is between the country it constitutes external or International migration.

Most migration in India takes place from rural areas to urban areas due to push and pull factors.

Adverse condition, poverty, unemployment in rural areas are push factor of migration.

Greater employment opportunities, better living conditioks in the cities are pull factor of migration.

The age composition of population of nation is grouped into 3 categories : Children (0-14 years) Adult (15-59 years) and aged (60 – above).

Dependency ratio is the ratio of people of dependent age (Below 15 and above 60 years) to people of economically active ages (15-59 years).

The number of females per 1000 males in the population is called sex ratio and is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females.

State of Kerala and Union Territory of Puducherry has favourable sex ratio where as Delhi and Haryana has very adverse sex ratio.

A person of 7 years or above who can read and write and understand any one language is termed as literate.

Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing mining and quarrying are primary occupation.

The manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc. constitute secondary occupation.

Transport, communication, commerce, administration and other services are tertiary occupations.

Adolescents constitute one-fifth of the total population of India and adequate attention has to be paid on their nutrition requirements.

Comprehensive family Planning Programme in India was started in 1952 and the National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 is a part of it.

NPP aims to impart free and compulsory education up to 14 years, reduce the infant mortality rate, deal with adolescent-specific problems etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 6 Population Geography Social Studies (S.St)


Page No: 54

1. What could be the reasons of uneven distribution of population in India.

Answer
The reasons of uneven distribution of population in India are:
(i) Topography
(ii) Climate
(iii) Basic Facilities such as education, health, electricity etc.
(iv) Employment opportunities

2. Table 6.1 reveals that despite the decline growth rates, the numbers of people being added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?

Answer
Increased facilities provided comfortable life to people and better medical facilities that have brought down the death rate is the cause for an increase in people being added every decade despite the decline in growth rate.

3. What could be the reasons for such (sex ratio) variations?
Answer
The reasons for such (sex ratio) variations due to:
→ Society structure: Indian society is male dominant society. The people here have remained in favour of a male child leading to female foeticide and dowry problems which make people think of female children as a burden.
→ Illiteracy: India’s literacy level is very low. They don’t have proper education and discriminate between male and female children. In states like Kerala there are well-educated people who also follow matriarchal society rules and sex ratio in Kerala is 1058 females per 1000 males.
 
Page No: 60
Exercise

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:
(a) the area of departure

(b) both the area of departure and arrival
(c) the area of arrival 
(d) none of the above
► (b) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates 
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates 
(d) more married couples

► (a) high birth rates

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to:
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
► (b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a literate person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 year old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows 3 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic)
► (c) is 7 year old and can read and write any language with understanding

2. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

(iv) How is migration a determinant of population change?


Answer
(i) The rate of population growth has been declining as a result of greater use of birth control measures.

(ii) The major components of population growth are Birth Rate, Death Rate and Migration. The difference between birth rate and death rate accounts for natural increase in population. Immigration refers to the inflow of people into a region from other regions.

(iii) The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in that population.
Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

(iv) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It is a determinant factor of population change as it changes the demographics (size and composition) of both the areas of departure and arrival.
3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Answer

Population Growth
Population Change
It refers to the increase in the number of inhabitants of a region during a specific period of time.It refers to the change in the distribution, composition or size of a population during a specific period of time.
Natural increase of population and immigration are the major components causing population growth.Natural increase, immigration and emigration are the major components causing population change.

4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Answer

Development is related to occupational structure of the population. Countries are less developed where a higher percentage of population is engaged in primary occupations like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing.
As development takes place more people move into secondary occupations like manufacturing.In highly developed societies, there are a high percentage of people involved in tertiary occupations like banking, commerce, transport and administration.

5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer
The advantages of having a healthy population are:
→ A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
→ He or she is able to realise his or her potential, and play an important role in social and national development.
→ Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy.

6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Answer
The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework for:
→ Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
→ Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
→ Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
→ Promoting delayed marriage and child bearing.
→ Making family welfare a people-centred programme.
→ Providing nutritional services and food supplements to adolescents.
→ Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases, and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex.
→ Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.

Population Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Only Bangladesh and Japan have higher average population densities than _______ .
Answer:
India

Question 2.
Which country may overtake China by 2045 to become the most populous country in the world?
Answer:
India

Question 3.
The main components of population change are _______ .
Answer:
Birth rate, death rate and migration

Question 4.
Internal migration does not change the population
Answer:
Size

Question 5.
The natural increase of population is the difference between
Answer:
Birth rate and death rate

Question 6.
In India, most migrations have been from _______ .
Answer:
Rural to urban areas

Question 7.
Name two factors that are serious obstacles for economic improvement.
Answer:
Illiteracy and malnutrition

Question 8.
The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its
Answer:
Adolescent population

Question 9.
What is the reason responsible for uneven population distribution in India?
Answer:
Variation in topography or relief in different parts of India and variation in climate and rainfall distribution

Question 10.
Which is the most populous country of the world?
Answer:
China

Question 11.
The number of people in different age groups is referred to as _______ .
Answer:
Age composition

Question 12.
When did the National Population Policy come into effect?
Answer:
2000

Question 13.
Birth rate is the number of live birth per thousand persons in :
Answer:
One year

Question 14.
What is the percentage of India’s area in comparison to the world’s total area?
Answer:
2.4 per cent

Question 15.
Name the state having the highest percentage of literacy level.
Answer:
Kerala

Question 16.
Which migration does not change the size of the population?
Answer:
Internal migration

Question 17.
Why is literacy rate low among the females?
Answer:
Due to lack of equal education opportunities.

Question 18.
At the present rate of population growth of India and China, by which year does India likely to overtake China to become the world’s most populous country?
Answer:
2045

Question 19.
What is the overall literacy rate of India as per 2011 Census?
Answer:
73 per cent

Question 20.
Which is the second most populated Union Territory in India?
Answer:
Puducherry

Question 21.
Which state has the lowest literacy rate in India?
Answer:
Bihar

Question 22.
What do you mean by sex ratio?
Answer:
Number of females per thousand males

Question 23.
Kerala has a sex ratio of _______ females per 1000 males.
Answer:
1084

Question 24.
What is literacy rate of females as per 2011 Census?
Answer:
64.6 per cent

Question 25.
What do you mean by census.
Answer:
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, census are held regularly every tenth year.

Question 26.
Which age group does working population comprise of in India?
Answer:
Working population is aged between 15-59 years. They are economically productive and biologically reproductive.

Question 27.
What do you mean by density of population?
Answer:
The average number of persons per unit area, such as a square kilometer.

Question 28.
Name five states of India where almost half of India’s population lives.
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh

Question 29.
Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per 1000 males. What value do you think this ratio given to us? <@31
Answer:
There is gender equality.

Population Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the basic factors affecting the population of India.
Answer:
The basic factors affecting the population of India are as under :

  • Birth Rate: It is the number of live births per 1,000 individuals of a population per annum. It increases both population size and population density.
  • Death or Mortality Rate: It is expressed as the number of death per 1,000 individuals of a population per year. It decreases both population size and population density.
  • Migration: Migration is the movement of the people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international.

Question 2.
What is meant by population growth and how do you calculate it?
Answer:
Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period or time as an instance, during the last 10 years. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.

It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the later population. It is referred to as absolute increase.

Question 3.
Distinguish between Total Population and Average Density of Population.
Answer:

Total PopulationAverage Density of Population
(i) It is the number of people actually existing in the area.(i) It is the number of people in a unit area after the distribution of the total population uniformly.
(ii) Its unit of measurement is number of people.(ii) Its unit of measurement is the number of people per unit area.
(iii) Its value depends on the number of people only.(iii) Its value depends on both the number of people as well as the total area.

Question 4.
What are the push and pull factors of internal migration in India?
Answer:
In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the ‘pull’ of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

Question 5.
Why do we need high literacy rate in a country? Who is a literate person?
Answer:
Literacy is a very important quality of a population. Only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects.
Low levels of literacy are a serious obstacle for economic improvement.
According to the Census 2011, a person aged 7 years and above, who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate.

Question 6.
What are the factors that influence the population distribution in India?
Answer:
Factors that influence the population distribution are :

  • Type of Climate: Areas having moderate climate have more population than the areas having extreme climatic conditions. Leh and Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir and western Rajasthan have extreme type of climate. Therefore, these regions have less or sparse population.
  • Type of Soil: India’s northern plains and coastal plains are made up of alluvial soil which is very fertile. So, these areas are densely populated. On the other hand, hilly areas and deserts are thinly populated.
  • Opportunity for Jobs: The areas which have more opportunities of jobs are thickly populated, whereas areas which do not provide people with job opportunities are sparsely populated. Urban areas are thickly populated because of this factor.
  • Religious and Historical Places like Allahabad, Varanasi, Rameshwaram, Agra etc. are also thickly populated. (any three points)

Question 7.
How do you classify occupations?
Answer:
Occupations are, generally, classified as primary, secondary and tertiary activities.

  • Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, etc.
  • Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.
  • Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.

Question 8.
Write a short note on adolescent population.
Answer:
The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescents are generally, grouped in the age-group of 10 to 19 years. They are the most important resource for the future. Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. But in India, the diet available to adolescents is inadequate in all nutrients. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. Their problems have so far not received adequate attention in the process of development. The adolescent girls have to be sensitised to the problems they confront. Their awareness can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them.

Question 9.
What are the improvements made in the health status of people of India?
Answer:
Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population. Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 7.2 per 1000 in 2011 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 67.9 years in 2012.

The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.

Question 10.
Categorize the population of a nation into three broad categories based on age composition.
Answer:
The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories :

  • Children (below 15 years): This group is economically unproductive. They need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
  • Working Age (15 to 59 years): They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. This group bears the burden of children and aged people.
  • Aged (above 59 years): They can be economically productive through they may have retired.

Question 11.
What are the reasons for the steep rise in the population of India since 1921?
Answer:
After 1921, India’s population has been constantly increasing due to the following reasons:

  • Early marriage of men and women.
  • Lack of literacy, particularly among females.
  • High birth rate and low death rate.
  • Lack of proper family planning techniques.

Question 12.
What factors should be considered while studying about population?
Answer:
The following factors should be considered while studying about population :

  • Population size and distribution : How many people are there and where are they located?
  • Population growth and processes of population change : How has the population grown and changed through time?
  • Characteristics or qualities of the population : What are their age, sex composition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health conditions?

Question 13.
What are the measures taken by the NPP 2000 to protect adolescent population?
Answer:
The NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major section of the population that need greater attention :

  • The policy puts greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescent including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
  • It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing.
  • Education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
  • Providing food supplements, nutritional services, and strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.

Question 14.
Write a short note on the density of population of India.
Answer:
Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world.

The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.

Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some areas.
The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.

Population Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you understand sex ratio? What are the reasons for low sex ratio in India?
Answer:
Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. The sex ratio in India is 943 in 2011. It is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. The sex ratio in India has always remained unfavourable to females. The main reasons behind the low sex ratio in India are :

  • Unequal social treatment.
  • Discrimination against girl child.
  • Low literacy rates and lack of social awareness.
  • Evil effects of early marriage and deaths in large numbers during child birth.
  • Insufficient attention to care of girls after birth, during adolescent period and during motherhood.
  • Poverty leads to preference for male child as they become breadearners. These factors lead to more deaths among females and affects the sex ratio of the country.

Question 2.
Describe the size and distribution of population of India.
Answer:
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210.6 million, which accounts for 17.5 per cent of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion people are unevenly distributed over our country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s area.

The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 199 million is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the country’s population. On the other hand, the Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64,429 people. Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total population of India.

Question 3.
Why is population important for a country?
Answer:
The people are important to develop the economy and the society. The people make and use resources, and are themselves resources with varying quality.

It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning. ‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all meaningful only in relation to human beings.

Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment. Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics.

Question 4.
What do you know about the occupational structure of population?
Answer:

  • The percentage of population that is economically active is an important index of development. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. An enormous variety of occupations are found in any country. Occupations are, generally, classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
  • Primary; activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc. Secondary; activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc. Tertiary; activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.
  • The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary, and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20 per cent respectively. There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times.

Question 5.
What are the three main determinants of the density of population in India?
Answer:
There are several factors responsible for fluctuating the density of population. Out of them, following are the major three factors attributing to variation at large :

(i) Physical Factors: The areas uninhabitable to human beings are responsible for lowering down the density of population thereon, e.g., hot tropical deserts like the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, the tropical rain forests and rugged mountains of north-east India. In these are&s, there is low density of population. Contrary to it, coastal lands, river valleys and fertile soil lands have high density of population, e.g., Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar and West Bengal.

(ii) Human Factors: Human factors include the establishment of manufacturing industries, excavation of mines, etc. These attract the people to come and settle there and thus, the population density of that industrial area spurts, e.g., Delhi, Mumbai, Jharkhand, etc. The density of population is high in these regions because of a number of manufacturing industries established there.

(iii) Cultural Factors: The cultural factor is also responsible for the fluctuation in density of population. We see that low density of population is found in areas where primitive people are engaged in primary activities like pastoral nomadism, food gathering and fishing, etc.

Population Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) none of the above

Answer

Answer: (c) both the area of departure and arrival


Question 2.
A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectances
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples

Answer

Answer: (a) high birth rates


Question 3.
The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males

Answer

Answer: (a) the total population of an area


Question 4.
According to the census 2001, a ‘literate’ persons is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3‘R’s (readings, writing, arithmetic)

Answer

Answer: (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding


Question 5.
Which one of the following country has higher population density than India?
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Nepal
(c) Korea
(d) Canada

Answer

Answer: (a) Bangladesh
Explanation:
Only Bangladesh and Japan have higher average population densities than India. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.


Question 6.
What percentage of India’s population resides in the most populated state of India, Uttar Pradesh?
(a) 38.96 per cent
(b) 14.37 per cent
(c) 16.16 per cent
(d) 20.56 per cent

Answer

Answer: (c) 16.16 per cent
Explanation:
Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 166 million people is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the Country’s population.


Question 7.
Which state has the lowest population in India?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Sikkim
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Sikkim
Explanation:
On the other hand, the Himalayan state Sikkim has a population of just about 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has only 60 thousand people.


Question 8.
India accounts for what percentage of the world population?
(a) 16.7 per cent
(b) 20 per cent
(c) 15 per cent
(d) 18.6 per cent

Answer

Answer: (a)16.7 per cent
Explanation:
India’s population as on March 2001 stood at 1,028 million, which account for 16.7 per cent of the world’s population.


Question 9.
Which is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed?
(a) Fauna
(b) Population
(c) Flora
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Population
Explanation:
Population is the pivotal element in social studies. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed.


Question 10.
Which one of the following state of India has very low population density?
(a) Arunachal Pradesh
(b) Sikkim
(c) Orissa
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (a) Arunachal Pradesh
Explanation:
Densities vary from 904 persons per sq km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.


Question 11.
What do you mean by the magnitude of population growth?
(a) The total population of an area
(b) The number of females per thousand males
(c) The number of persons added each year
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) The number of persons added each year
Explanation:
The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population.


Question 12.
Which one of the following state has a population density below 100 persons per square kilometre?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Nagaland
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (a) Jammu and Kashmir
Explanation:
Jammu and Kashmir has a population density below 100 persons per square kilometre; there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population.


Question 13.
Which one of the following state has very high population density in India?
(a) West Bengal
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (a) West Bengal
Explanation:
Densities vary from 904 persons per sq. km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.


Question 14.
Who is resource creating factors as well as resources themselves?
(a) Animals
(b) Human beings
(c) Plants
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Human beings
Explanation:
The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality. The people are important to develop the economy and society.


Question 15.
In how many years is the official enumeration of population carried out for census?
(a) 5 years
(b) 16 years
(c) 2 years
(d) 10 years

Answer

Answer: (d) 10 years
Explanation:
In every 10 years is the official enumeration of population carried out for census. The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.


Question 16.
What is the average sex ratio of India as per 2001 census?
(a) 956
(b) 973
(c) 933
(d) 945

Answer

Answer: (c) 933
Explanation:
The average sex ratio of India as per 2001 census is 933. Kerala has a sex ratio of 1058 females per 1000 males; Pondicherry has 1001 females for every 1000 males.


Question 17.
Which one of the following state in India has a population density below 250 persons per square km?
(a) Punjab
(b) Haryana
(c) Chhattisgarh
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Chhattisgarh
Explanation:
Chhattisgarh is the state with population densities below 250 persons per square km. rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions.


Question 18.
A large proportion of children in a population is a result of:
(a) High death rate
(b) High married rate
(c) High birth rate
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) High birth rate
Explanation:
High birth rate is the result of a large proportion of children in a population. The percentage of children and the aged affect the dependency ratio because these groups are not producers.


Question 19.
What is the main cause for the high growth of our population?
(a) Rise in death rate
(b) Decline of death rate
(c) Decline of birth rate
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Decline of death rate
Explanation:
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.


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