NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History SST Chapter 4 Forest society and Colonialism(Updated for 2021 – 22)

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes Social Science History Chapter 4

In the previous 3 years’ examinations, significant importance has been given to the following topics from this chapter. Therefore, students should have a deep understanding of these concepts.

  • Changes in Forest Societies under Colonialism
  • Location of Bastar people
  • Bastar Rebellion
  • Forest Rebellion in Java
  • World Wars and Deforestation.

Relationship Between Forest and Livelihoods

Forests give us a mixture of things to satisfy our different needs — fuel, fodder, leaves, trees suitable for building ships or railways, trees that can provide hardwood.

Forest products like roots, fruits, tubers, herbs are used for medicinal purposes, wood for agricultural implements like yokes, ploughs, etc.

Forests provide shelter to animals and birds. They also add moisture to the atmosphere.

Rainfall is trapped in forest lands.

Foresters and villagers had very different ideas of what a good forest should look like.

The forest department wanted trees which were suitable for building ships or railways.

They needed trees that could provide hardwood and were tall and straight. So particular species, like teak and sal, were promoted and others were cut.

The new forest laws meant severe hardship for villagers across the country. After the Act (Forest Act), all their everyday practices, cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal.

People were now forced to steal wood from the forests, and if they were caught they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.

Women who collected fuelwood were especially worried. It was also common for police constables and forest guards to harass people by demanding free food from them.

Deforestation: Deforestation is cutting down of trees indiscriminately in a forest area. Under colonial rule, it became very systematic and extensive.

Why Deforestation?

As the population increased over the centuries and the demand for food went up, peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation by clearing forests.

The British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton for their industries as raw material.

The British thought that forests were unproductive land as they yielded no revenue nor agricultural produce. Cultivation was viewed as a sign of progress.

Oak forests in England were disappearing. There was no timber supply for the shipbuilding industry. Forest resources of India were used to make ships for the Royal Navy.

The spread of railways required two things: land to be cleared to lay railway tracks, wood as fuel for locomotives and for railway line sleepers.

Large areas of natural forests were cleared for tea, coffee, and rubber plantations. Thus, the land was given to planters at cheap rates.

Changes in Forest Societies Under Colonialism

Shifting Cultivators: Forest management had a great impact on shifting cultivators. In shifting cultivation parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests. They felt that such land could not be used for growing trees for railway timber and was dangerous while being burnt as it could start a forest fire. This type of cultivation also made difficult for the government to calculate taxes.

Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities: Nomadic and pastoralist communities were also affected by changes in forest management. Their traditional customary grazing rights were taken away and their entry into the forests was restricted. Passes were issued to them which had details of their entry and exit into and out of the forests. The days and hours they could spend in the forest were also restricted. This was in contrast to the earlier system that allowed them unrestricted entry into forests.

Pastoralists had to lessen the number of cattle in their herds which reduced their income. Now they were deprived of this additional income. Some pastoralists even had to change their lifestyle, leave pastoralism and work in mines, plantations, factories. Some were branded as the ‘criminal tribes’.

Firms Trading in Timber/Forest Products: Firms trading in timber products were given the sole trading rights to trade in the forest products of particular areas. They made huge profits and became richer. The entire timber and forest trade passed on to them. They became powerful and began to cut down trees indiscriminately.

Plantation Owners: Plantation owners found that more and more forest land could be cleared for plantations. The British had made it very clear that their system of forestry would be scientific forestry, i.e., plantations. Plantation owners began to reap profits as the British government gave large areas of forest land to European planters.

Kings/British Officials Engaged in Shikar: The Kings/British officials engaged in shikar found that now the villagers were prohibited from entering the forests. They had the forest and wild animals to themselves. Hunting animals became a big sport for them. Thus, hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct.

Important Dates

1600: Approximately one-sixth of India’s landmass was under cultivation. The population of Java was 3.4 million.

1700-1995: 9.3% of the world’s total area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation pastures and fuel wood.

1770: Kalanga uprising which was suppressed.

1850: The spread of Indian Railways.

1864: The Indian Forest Service was set up.

1865: The Indian Forest Act was formulated.

1878: The Indian Forest Act was amended and divided forests into Reserved, Protected and Village forests.

1890: Surontiko Samin started a movement against the state ownership of forests.

1899-1908: Terrible famines.

1910: Rebellion in the kingdom of Bastar.

1880-1920: India’s cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares. Terrible famines.

1946: The length of railway tracks laid by now was over 765,000 km.

1980: Introduction of scientific forestry and restriction imposed on the forest communities resulted in many conflicts.

Location of Bastar and Believe of the People of Bastar

Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and Maharashtra. The central part of Bastar is on a plateau.

A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas. They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.

The people of Bastar believed that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they had to look after the earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival. They show respect to the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain.

Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary. If people from a village want to take some wood from the forests of another village, they pay a small fee called devsari, Land or man in exchange.

Some villages also protect their forests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes some grain to pay them. Every year there is one big hunt where the headmen of villages meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests.

Causes for Bastar Rebellion

When the colonial government proposed to reserve two-thirds of the forest in 1905 and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce, the people of Bastar were very worried.

Some villages were allowed to stay on in the reserved forests on the condition that they worked free for the forest department in cutting and transporting trees, and protecting the forest from fire. So, these came to be known as Forest Villages.

People of other villages were displaced without any notice or compensation. Villagers had been suffering from increased land rents and frequent demands for free labour and goods by colonial officials.

Then the terrible famines came in 1899-1900 and again in 1907-1908. Rebellion became inevitable.

Results of the Bastar Rebellion

In a major victory for the rebels, work on the reservation was temporarily suspended.

The area to be reserved was reduced to roughly half of that planned before 1910.

Causes for Forest Rebellion in Java

The Dutch wanted timber from Java to build ships. They banned the practice of shifting cultivation. The Dutch enacted forest laws in Java, restricting villagers’ access to forests.

Now wood could only be cut for specified purposes like making riverboats or constructing houses, and only from specific forests under close supervision.

Villagers were punished for grazing their cattle in young stands, transporting wood without a permit, or traveling on forest roads with horse carts or cattle.

As in India, the need to manage forests for shipbuilding and railways led to the introduction of a forest service by the Dutch in Java.

The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the blandongdiensten system.

Forest Rebellion in Java or Saminist Movement in Java

In the 1890s, Surontiko Samin a teak forest villager began questioning state ownership of the forest. He argued that the state had not created the wind, water, earth, and wood, so it could not own it.

Soon a widespread movement developed. Amongst those who helped to organize it was Samin’s sons-in-law.

By 1907,3,000 families were following his ideas. Some of the Sam insists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour.

World Wars and Deforestation

The First World War and the Second World War had a major impact on forests. In India, working plans were abandoned at this time, and the forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs.

In Java, just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed a ‘scorched earth’ policy, destroying sawmills, and burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall into Japanese hands.

The Japanese then exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries, forcing forest villagers to cut down forests.

After the war, it was difficult for the Indonesian forest service to get this land back. As in India, people’s need for agricultural land had brought them into conflict with the forest department’s desire to control the land and exclude people from it.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism History Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 96

Questions

1. Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people :
(i) Shifting cultivators
(ii) Nomadic and pastoralist communities
(iii) Firms trading in timber/forest produce
(iv) Plantation owners
(v) Kings/British officials engaged in hunting.

Answer

(i) Shifting cultivators practice slash and burn agriculture. In this practice, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in a rotation. European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests. They felt that such land could not be used for growing trees for railway timber and was dangerous while being burnt as it could start a forest fire. This type of cultivation also made difficult for the government to calculate taxes. Thus, Colonial government banned shifting cultivation. As a result, many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests. Some had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small rebellions.
(ii) The reservation of forest areas by the British Government also sealed the fate of many nomadic and pastoral communities like the Korava, Karacha and Yerukula of the Madras Presidency lost their means of livelihood. Earlier these people and their cattle depended totally on the forest from which they were deprived because of the new forest management. Some of these communities began to be called ‘criminal tribes’ and were forced to work in factories, mines, and plantations under government supervision. Thus, these people were forced to operate within new systems and reorganize their lives.
(iii) Firms trading in timber products were given the sole trading rights to trade in the forest products of particular areas. They made huge profits and became richer. The entire timber and forest trade passed on to them. They became powerful and began to cut down trees indiscriminately.
(iv) Plantation owners found that more and more forest land could be cleared for plantations. The British had made it very clear that their system of forestry would be scientific forestry, i.e., plantations. Plantation owners began to reap profits as the British government gave large areas of forest land to European planters.

(v) While the forest dwellers were deprived of their right to hunt deer, partridges and a variety of small animals, the Indian Kings and British officials were allowed to hunt freely in the reserved forests. Under the colonial rule, the hunting increased to such an extent that various species became extinct. A large number of tigers, leopards, wolves were killed as a sporting trophy. Hunting or shikar became a sport. Later the environmentalists and conservators realized many species of animals needed to be protected and not killed.

2. What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and in Java?

Answer

The similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and Java were :
→ Forest laws were enacted in Java and Bastar.
→ These laws restricted villagers’ access to forests.
→ Timber could be cut from only specified forests and under close supervision.
→ Villagers were punished for entering forests and collecting forest products without a permit.
→ Permits were issued to the villagers for entry into forests and collection of forest products.
→ Both had a forest service.
→ Both followed a system of forestry which was known as scientific forestry.
→ In both places, Forest Acts meant severe hardship for villagers. Their everyday practices — cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal.
→ Constables and forests guards began to harass people.

3. Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline :
(i) Railways
(ii) Shipbuilding
(iii) Agricultural expansion
(iv) Commercial farming
(v) Tea/Coffee plantations
(vi) Adivasis and other peasant users.

Answer

(i) Railways played a vital role in the decline of the forest cover in India. For laying railway tracks forest land had to be cleared. Apart from clearing area for tracks, railway locomotives required timber for fuel and sleepers. For all these needs forests had to be cut down. The British government gave contracts to individuals to supply the required quantity of timber. These individuals cut down trees indiscriminately.

(ii) By the end of 19th century, oak forests in England had almost disappeared. This created a shortage of timber for the Royal Navy. If the imperial power was to be protected and maintained, the building of ships was the first priority. So, search parties were sent to explore the forest resources of India. A large number of sleepers began to be exported to England annually. This further led to the indiscriminate cutting of trees year after year which caused deforestation on a massive scale.

(iii) The population was on the rise and the demand for food increased. Peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation by clearing forests. This gave them more land available for cultivation. In addition, there was great demand for cash crops such as tea, cotton, jute, sugar, etc., which were needed to feed the industries of England.

(iv) The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in the 19th century in Europe, where foodgrains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production. Hence, large tracts of forest land were cleared to make land available for commercial farming.

(v) The colonial state thought that forest land was unproductive. It did not yield agricultural produce nor revenue. Large areas of natural forests were hence cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The colonial government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. The areas were enclosed and cleared of forests and planted with tea or coffee.

(vi) The Adivasis and other peasant users, gather forest products and graze their cattle.  Their livelihood mainly came from forest produce. This does not destroy the forests except sometimes in shifting agriculture. In fact, now the new trends that promote forest conservation tend to involve local villagers in conservation and preservation. Adivasis and other peasant communities regard the forests as their own and even engage watchmen to keep a vigil over their forests.

4. Why are forests affected by wars?

Answer

Forests are affected by wars and this often leads to deforestation. Forests during wars are freely cut to meet the needs of war. Forests are an important resource and hence during wars they are destroyed by their own country under the ‘a scorched earth policy’. This prevents the enemy from using this resource. Many villagers used this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forest.

Forest society and Colonialism Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which new trade was created due to the introduction of new forest laws ?
Answer:
Collecting latex from wild rubber trees.

Question 2.
Name the communities living in Bastar.
Answer:
Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas.

Question 3.
Who was Dietrich Brandis ?
Answer:
Dietrich Brandis was a German forest expert, whom the colonial government invited for advice and made him the first Inspector General of forests in India.

Question 4.
The forest management in Java was under the ________ .
Answer:
Dutch

Question 5.
After the Forest Act was enacted in 1865, ________ .
Answer:
It was amended twic

Question 6.
Who were ‘Kalangs’ of Java ?
Answer:
Skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators

Question 7.
What are wooden planks lay across railway tracks to hold these tracks in a position called ?
Answer:
Sleepers

Question 8.
Why did the government decide to ban shifting cultivation ?
Answer:
Because when a forest was burnt, there was the danger of destroying valuable timber.

Question 9.
Which type of trees were preferred by the forest department ?
Answer:
The trees those are suitable for building ships and railways.

Question 10.
Indian Forest Service was set up in the year ________ .
Answer:
1864

Question 11.
In shifting cultivation, seeds are sown ________ .
Answer:
After cleaning and burning the forest land.

Question 12.
Give any two local terms for swidden agriculture.
Answer:
Dhya, Penda, Jhum, Kumri (any 2).

Question 13.
Villagers were punished for ________ .
Answer:
Grazing cattle in young stands and cutting wood without a permit or travelling on forest roads with horse carts or cattle.

Question 14.
Which forest community is found in Central India ?
Answer:
Boigas

Question 15.
A British administrator killed 400 tigers. His name was ________ .
Answer:
George Yule.

Question 16.
The tribes recruited to work on tea plantation were ________ .
Answer:
Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand, and Gonds from Chhattisgarh.

Question 17.
The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at ________ .
Answer:
Dehradun.

Question 18.
Why cure Mahua trees precious ?
Answer:
Mahua trees are precious because they are an essential part of village livelihood.

Question 19.
What were siadi creepers used for ?
Answer:
They were used to make ropes.

Question 20.
Name the three categories of forests as mentioned in the Act of 1878.
Answer:
Three categories were : Reserved, Protected and Village Forests.

Question 21.
Which species of trees were promoted for the building of ships or railways ?
Answer:
Teak and Sal species were promoted for the building of ships or railways.

Question 22.
What was the effect of Forest Act on the people living nearby ?
Answer:
People were forced to steal wood from the forests, and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.

Question 23.
What steps were taken under the new scheme of scientific forestry ?
Answer:

  • Natural forests which had different types of trees, were cut down.
  • In their place, one type of trees were planted.

Question 24.
What was the main cause of worry for the people of Bastar ?
Answer:
People of Bastar were most worried because the colonial government proposed to reserve 2/3rd of the forests in 1905 and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce.

Question 25.
What do you mean by the reserved forests ?
Answer:
The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories : reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were called ‘reserved forests’.
Villagers could not take anything from these forests, even for their own use. For house building or fuel, they could take wood from protected or village forests.

Forest society and Colonialism Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is deforestation ? Why is it considered harmful ?
Answer:
(a) The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation. Forests are cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, pastures and fuelwood.
(b) Clearing of forests is harmful as forests give us many things like paper, wood that makes our desks, tables, doors and windows, dyes that colour our clothes, spices in our food, gum, honey, coffee, tea and rubber. Forests are the home of animals and birds. They preserve our ecological diversity and life support systems. That is why deforestation considered harmful.

Question 2.
What are the new development in forestry ?
Answer:
Since the 1980s, governments across Asia and Africa have begun to see that scientific forestry and the policy of keeping forest communities away from forests has resulted in many conflicts. Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber has become a more important goal.

In many cases, across India, from Mizoram to Kerala, dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in sacred groves known as sarnas, devarakudu, kan, rai, etc.

Some villages have been patrolling their own forests, with each household taking it in turns, instead of leaving it to the forest guards. Local forest communities and environmentalists today are thinking of different forms of forest management.

Question 3.
Why did the people of Bastar rise in revolt against the British ?
Answer:

  • They revolted because the British Government tried to reserve the forests which deprived the people of their rights to collect forest proc cts and to practise shifting cultivation.
  • Moreover, people were suffering from increased land rents and frequent demands for free labour and goods by colonial officials.
  • People of Bastar cannot collect forest products.
  • The terrible famines of 1839-1900 and 1907-1908 forced them to revolt against British authorities.

Question 4.
How did the spread of railways from the 1850s in India, create a new demand for timber ?
Answer:
The spread of railways from the 1850s created a new demand. Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel, and to lay railway lines sleepers were essential to hold the tracks together. Each mile of railway track required between 1,760 and 2,000 sleepers.

From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. The length of the railway tracks increased tremendously. As railway tracks increased, the need of timber also increased. More and more trees were felled. Contracts were given to individuals to supply timber. These contractors cut down trees indiscriminately. Railway tracks were soon devoid of forests.

Question 5.
What was the Blandongdiensten system ?
Answer:
The Dutch wanted timber from Java for ship-building and railways. In 1882, 280,000 sleepers were exported from Java alone. However, all this required labour to cut the trees, transport the logs and prepare the sleepers. The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the blandongdiensten system.

Question 6.
Give any three reasons why cultivation expanded rapidly in the colonial period.
Answer:
Cultivation expanded rapidly in the colonial period because :

  • The British encouraged the cultivation of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton.
  • They tried to increase the yield of agricultural products.
  • They tried to increase their revenue and enhance the income of the state.

Question 7.
When was the Forest Act passed in India ? Why did it cause hardship for the villages across the country ?
Answer:
The Forest Act was enacted in 1865 and was amended twice in 1878 and 1927.

  • It divided the forests into three categories : reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were known as the reserved forests. Villagers were not allowed to take anything from these forests, even for their own use.
  • This caused great hardship for the villagers. All their daily practices such as cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal.
  • People were now forced to steal wood from the forests. If they were caught by the forest guards, they were punished. Women could not collect fuelwood from the forests, forests guards and constables harassed them.

Question 8.
Why the Dutch adopted the ‘scorched earth policy’ during the war ?
Answer:
The Dutch adopted the ‘scorched earth policy’ during the war because :

  • The First World War and Second World War had a major impact on forests. In India, working plans were abandoned and trees were cut freely to meet British demand for war needs.
  • In Java, just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed the ‘scorched earth policy’ destroying saw mills, burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they could not fall into Japanese hands.

Question 9.
What did Dietrich Brandis suggest for the improvement of forests in India ?
Answer:
Dietrich Brandis suggested that:

  • A proper system had to be followed. People had to be trained in the science of conservation.
  • Felling of trees and grazing land had to be protected.
  • Rules about use of forests should be made. Anyone who broke rules needed to be punished.
  • Brandis set up in 1864 the Indian Forest Service. He also helped to formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865.

Question 10.
Explain the term-scientific forestry.
Answer:
In scientific forestry, different types of natural forests were cut down. In their place one type of tree was planted in straight rows. This is called a plantation. Forest officials surveyed the forests, estimated the area under different types of trees and made working plans for forest management. They planned how much of the plantation area to be cut every year. The forest area was cut down then to be replanted.

Question 11.
Discuss in brief the Saminist movement of Indonesia.
Answer:
Around 1890, Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village, a teak forest village, began questioning state ownership of the forest. He argued that the state had not created the wind, water, earth and wood, so it could not own it. Soon a widespread movement developed. Amongst those who helped organise it was Samin’s sons-in-law. By 1907, 3,000 families were following his ideas. Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour.

Question 12.
“The people of Bastar speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs” Discuss.
Answer:
The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they look after the earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival. In addition to the Earth, they show respect to the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain. Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary. If people from a village want to take some wood from the forests of another village, they pay a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange.

Some villages also protect theiSPforests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes some grain to pay them. Every year there is one big hunt where the headmen of villages in a pargana (cluster of villages) meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests.

Question 13.
What were the different forest acts made by Britishers to control the forests ?
Answer:
The different forest Acts made by Britishers to control the forests were :
(a) In 1864 the Indian Forest Act Service was established.
(b) In 1865, the Indian Forest Act was passed.
(c) In 1878 and 1927 the India Forest Act was amended.
(d) The Act 1878 made three categories of forest that are Reserved Forests, Protected Forest and Village Forest.

Question 14
How did the changes in forest management in the colonial period affect the life of plantation owners ?
Answer:
The changes in forest management in the colonial period affect the life of plantation owners as :

  • The colonial power introduced plantation agriculture in India.
  • They flourished as large areas of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantation.
  • It was done to meet the demand of Europe. These areas were given to European planters for plantation at cheap rates.

Question 15.
Who were the Kalangs ? Why did they attack the Dutch forts at Joana ?
Answer:

  • The Kalangs were a community of Java. They were skilled forests cutters and shifting cultivators. They were so valuable that teak could not be harvested without them, nor could kings build their palaces.
  • When the Mataram Kingdom of Java split, the families of the Kalang community were divided equally between the two kingdoms. When the Dutch colonised Java they forced the Kalangs to work under them. The Kalangs resisted by attacking the Dutch fort at Joana, put the uprising was supressed.

Question 16.
What were the consequences of the forest laws which the Dutch enacted in Java ?
Answer:
In the 19th century, when it became important to central territory and not just people, the Dutch enacted forest law in Java. These laws restricted villagers’ access to forests. After these acts were imposed, wood could only be cut for specified purposes such as making river boats or constructing houses and that too only from specific forests and under close supervision. Those villagers who grazed cattle in young stands, transported wood without permit or travelled on forest lands with horse carts or cattle were punished.

Forest society and Colonialism Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did commercial forestry become important during the British rule ?
Answer:
The commercial forestry become important during the British rule because :

  • By the early nineteenth century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy.
  • English ships could not be built without a regular supply of strong and durable timber neither could imperial power be protected and maintained without ships.
  • For above both factors, before 1850, the commercial forestry was considered important in India. By the 1820s, search parties were sent to explore the forest . resources of India. These parties gave a green signal for commercial forestry in India. Within a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and large quantities of timber were being exported from India.
  • The spread of railway from the 1850s created a new demand for wood. In India the colonial government felt that railways were essential for effective colonial internal administration, colonial trade and for the quick movement of imperial troops. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines, sleepers were also essential to hold the track together.

Question 2.
How are forests useful for the villagers ?
Answer:
The forests useful for the villagers as :

  • In forest areas, people use forest products—roots, leaves, fruits and timbers—for many things. Fruits and roots are nutritious and good for health, especially during the monsoons before the harvest has come in.
  • Herbs are used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas.
  • A dried scooped-out gourd can be used as a portable water bottle. Almost everything is available in the forest-leaves can be stitched together to make disposable plates and cups, the siadi (Baubinia uablii) creeper can be used to make ropes, and the thorny bark of the semur (silk-cotton) tree is used to grate vegetables.
  • Oil for cooking and lighting lamps can be taken by pressing the fruit of the mahua tree.

Question 3.
Where is Bastar located ? How did the people by Bastan react against the British forest policies ?
Answer:
Bastar is situated in the southern part of Chhattisgarh and borders Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The river Indrawati flows from east to west across Bastar. The central part of Bastar is a plateau. To the north of this plateau is the Chhattisgarh plain and to its south is the Godavari plain.

The people of Bastar were very worried when the colonial government proposed to reserve two-thirds of the forest in 1905, and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce.

  • People began to gather and-‘discuss these issues in their village councils, in bazaars and at festivals or wherever the headmen and priests of several villages were assembled.
  • In 1910, mango boughs, a lump of earth, chillies and arrows, began circulating between villages. These were messages inviting villagers to rebel against the British.
  • Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses. Bazaars were looted, the houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt and robbed, and grain redistributed.
  • Most of those who were attacked were in some way associated with the colonial state and its oppressive laws.

Question 4.
Mention the causes of deforestation in India under the colonial rule.
Answer:
During the colonial rule deforestation was more systematic and extensive. In the colonial period, cultivation expanded rapidly for various reasons.

  • The British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in the 19th century and forests were cleared to meet the foodgrains and raw materials needed for industrial growth in Europe where foodgrains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production.
  • The spread of railways from 1850 created a new demand. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines sleepers were necessary to hold the tracks together. From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. By 1890, about 25,500 km of track had been laid.
  • The government gave out contracts to individuals and the contractors began cutting the trees rapidly. Forests around the tracks disappeared.
  • Large areas of natural forests were cleared for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities.

Forest society and Colonialism Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
Mention a few products that are got from forest.
Answer:
Forests provide us with innumerable products. Forest trees provide wood or timber as it is called. We make furniture, like tables and chairs from wood. Wood is also used to make doors and windows. Paper is made from wood pulp. Forests are a store –house for many herbs which are used as medicine. We get gum and rubber from forest trees. Rubber is a very important industrial raw material. So it is our duty to protect forests.

Question 2.
What is Deforestation?
Answer:
The cutting down and clearing of the forests is referred to as deforestation. Deforestation is an age old practice. It started many centuries ago.

During the period of industrialization, forests were cleared for industries to flourish. Deforestation took place to expand cultivation. Deforestation brought a lot of ecological changes in our planet. During the colonial rule it became more systematic and extensive.

Question 3.
What are ‘ railway sleepers’? How many sleepers are required for 1 mile of railway track?
Answer:
Railway Sleepers are wooden planks laid across railway tracks; they hold the tracks in position . Between 1,760 and 2,000 sleepers are needed to lay 1 mile of railway track . A single sleeper is approximately 10 feet by 10 inches by 5 inches that is 3.5 cubic feet. Wood for these sleepers came mainly from the Sind Forests. As the railway was fast expanding, there was need for more and more trees to be cut. In the Madras Presidency alone, 35,000 trees were cut annually for making sleepers.

Question 4.
Mention a few commercial crops. Why are they called so?
Answer:
Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton are called commercial crops. These crops are used in industries as raw material, so they are called commercial crops. Cotton is used in the manufacture of textiles. Sugar is used to make chocolates and various other confectionery products. Wheat, like sugar is used in the confectionery industry, with biscuits and bread being the major product.

Question 5.
Why did Britain turn to India for timber supply for its Royal Navy?
Answer:
The disappearance of the oak forests in England, created problems in timber supply for the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy could not survive without a regular supply of timber. So, the British started their search in all the colonial countries for a regular supply of timber. Their search resulted in the cutting down forests in India. Within a decade, a large amount of timber was exported from India.

Question 6.
Write a note on Dietrich Brandis.
Answer:
Dietrich Brandis was a German National and an expert in forest development. The British invited him to India , to seek his advise and he was made the first Inspector General of Forests in India, as the indiscriminate felling of trees worried the British .

Mr. Brandis thought that there should be some proper system to manage forests and the people have to be trained in scientific conservation. They restricted cutting of forest trees and grazing. Anybody who cut trees without permission was punished.

Mr. Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864. He also formulated the Indian Forest Act in 1865. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. Mr. Brandis introduced the method of Scientific forestry. In this method, instead of different types of trees, only one type of tree is planted. Every year specific areas of the forest are cut and it is replanted. The trees are cut again after they grow.

The amendment to the Indian Forests Act , implemented by Mr. Brandis was enforced in 1878 . According to this amendment the forests were divided into three categories – reserved, protected and village forests.

Villagers were not happy with the Forest act that promoted only particular species like teak and sal which were needed for hard wood, as they were tall and straight. Villagers who use forest products like roots, leaves and fruits wanted forests with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs like fuel, fodder and food.

Question 7.
Where and when was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up ?
Answer:
The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.

Question 8.
Write a brief note about the geographical location of Bastar.
Answer:
Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh. It is surrounded by Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra. The central part of Bastar is situated on a plateau. Chhattisgarh plain and the Godavari Plains are to the north and south of the plateau, respectively. The river Indrawati passes through Bastar from east to west.

Question 9.
Give a brief account of the people of Bastar.
Answer:
The people of Bastar belonged to different communities such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas. Though they spoke different languages they shared common customs and beliefs. The people of Bastar believed that the Earth was sacred and made offerings during agricultural festivals. In addition to the Earth, they respected the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain.

The boundaries of each village was well marked and the people looked after all the natural resources within that boundary. If people from one village wanted to take some wood from the forests of another village, they paid a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange. Some villages protected their forests by engaging watchmen and each household had to contribute some grain to pay them.
Every year a big meeting is organised, where the headmen of villages meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests.

Question 10.
What was Samin’s Challenge?
Answer:
Surontiko Samin belonged to the Randublatung village in Java. The Randublatung village was a teak forest village. Samin challenged the Dutch saying that the state had not created the wind, water, earth and wood, so it could not own it.

Samin’s Challenge developed into a widespread movement. Samin was supported by his family members. Soon 3000 families followed his ideology and protested against the forest laws of the Dutch, by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it. Many other villagers refused to pay taxes or fines . Some of them even refused to work for the Dutch in cutting trees.

Question 11.
What are the New Developments in Forestry ?
Answer:
Environmentalists have realised the need for ecological balance . Conservation of forests is now seen as an important requirement than growing trees for timber. In order to conserve forests the people living near the forests have to be involved. In India dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in sacred groves known as sarnas, devarakudu, kan and rai. Villages patrol their own forests, with each household taking turns to do it. They do not leave it to the forest guards.

Local forest communities and environmentalists today are thinking of different forms of forest management and conservation.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
Tendu leaves are used in making
(a) bidis
(b) plates
(c) baskets
(d) umbrellas

Answer

Answer: (a) bidis


Question 2.
The railway network expanded rapidly in India from the
(a) 1820s
(b) 1830s
(c) 1850s
(d) 1860s

Answer

Answer: (d) 1860s


Question 3.
The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at
(a) Allahabad
(b) Darjeeling
(c) Dehradun
(d) Shimla

Answer

Answer: (c) Dehradun


Question 4.
Baigas are a forest community of
(a) Central India
(b) North India
(c) South india
(d) North-east india

Answer

Answer: (a) Central India


Question 5.
The colonial power in Indonesia were the
(a) English
(b) Dutch
(c) French
(d) Portuguese

Answer

Answer: (b) Dutch


Question 6.
Who were the colonial power in Indonesia?
(a) British
(b) Dutch
(c) French
(d) Portuguese

Answer

Answer: (b) Dutch


Question 7.
Where did the Dutch start forest management in Indonesia?
(a) Java
(b) Sumatra
(c) Bali
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Java


Question 8.
The Kalangs resisted the Dutch in
(a) 1700
(b) 1750
(c) 1770
(d) 1800

Answer

Answer: (c) 1770


Question 9.
What was the system of ‘blandongdiensten’?
(a) A system of education
(b) Industrialisation
(c) First imposition of rent on land and then exemption
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (c) First imposition of rent on land and then exemption


Question 10.
What was the policy followed by the British in India towards forests during the First and the Second World Wars?
(a) The forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs
(b) Cutting of trees was strictly prohibited for everyone, including the British
(c) More and more trees were planted to give employment to Indians
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) Cutting of trees was strictly prohibited for everyone, including the British


Question 11.
Who wrote the book ‘The Forests of India’ in the year 1923?
(a) David Spurr
(b) E.P. Stebbing
(c) Verrier Elvin
(d) John Middleton

Answer

Answer: (b) E.P. Stebbing


Question 12.
Indian Forest Service was set up in the year:
(a) 1865
(b) 1864
(c) 1854
(d) 1884

Answer

Answer: (b) 1864


Question 13.
The system of scientific forestry stands for:
(a)System whereby the local farmers were allowed to cultivate temporarily within a plantation
(b) System of cutting old trees and plant new ones
(c) Division of forest into three categories
(d) Disappearance of forests

Answer

Answer: (b) System of cutting old trees and plant new ones


Question 14.
In South-East Asia shifting agriculture is known as:
(A) Chitemene
(b) Tavy
(c) Lading
(d) Milpa

Answer

Answer: (c) Lading


Question 15.
Forests consisting of which type of trees were preferred by the Forest Department?
(a) Forests having trees which provided fuel, fodder and leaves
(b) Forests having soft wood
(c) Forests having trees suitable for building ships and railways

Answer

Answer: (c) Forests having trees suitable for building ships and railways


Question 16.
Which of the following is a community of skilled forest cutters?
(a) Maasais of Africa
(b) Mundas of Chotanagpur
(c) Gonds of Orissa
(d) Kalangs of Java

Answer

Answer: (d) Kalangs of Java


Question 17.
Wooden planks lay across railway tracks to hold these tracks in a position are called:
(a) Beams
(b) Sleepers
(c) Rail fasteners
(d) none of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Sleepers


Question 18.
Which of the following is a commercial crop?
(a) Rice
(b) Wheat
(c) Cotton
(d) Maize

Answer

Answer: (c) Cotton


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