NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 What is Democracy? Why Democracy? (Updated for 2021 – 22)

What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Class 9 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 2

In the previous many years of examinations, significant importance has been given to the following topics from this chapter. The students are therefore asked to have a deep understanding as detailed answers (Long Answer Type) could be asked on these concepts.

  • Meaning and Features of Democracy
  • Importance of Democracy
  • Alternatives to Democracy

What is Democracy?
Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.

  • Myanmar where the army rules, Dictator Pinochet’s rule in Chile, or President Nkrumah’s rule in • Ghana was not democratic. They were not chosen by the people.
  • Hereditary kings, like the king of Nepal or Saudi Arabia, are also not democratic rulers. They rule because they were born into noble families.

In a democracy final, decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people.

  • In Pakistan, President Musharraf had the power to dismiss national and state assemblies; so the final powers rest with the army and the General himself. We cannot call it a democracy. Now Pakistan has an elected government.

Democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
For example, in Mexico elections have been held every six years since 1980. But the same party, PRI, has won the elections. Obviously, there has been rigging and malpractices, with freedom denied to the opposition. This is not what a democracy should be.

In a democracy, people’s will is ascertained by each adult citizen having one vote and each vote has one value. Democracy is based on the fundamental principle of political equality.

A democratic government rules within the limits set by constitutional and citizens’ rights.

  • A democratic government cannot do what it likes after winning the elections. It has to respect certain basic rules and is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.

The Pillars of Democracy are The Sovereignty of the people, Government based upon the consent of the government, Majority rule, Minority rights, Guarantee of basic human rights, Free and Fair elections, Equality before the law, Constitutional limits on government, Values of tolerance, Pragmatism, Cooperation and Compromise.

Why Democracy?

Points Against
There has been a criticism of democracy by various people. The charges are that:

  • It creates instability by changing its leaders frequently.
  • Democracy is about power play and political competition. There is no scope for morality.
  • So many people have to be consulted before any issue is resolved. It leads to delay.
  • Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people.
  • It leads to corruption for it is based on electoral corruption.
  • Ordinary people do not know what is good for them, so decision-making should not be left to them.

Alternative to Democracy
To overcome political instability and legislative gridlock associated with democratic rule, expansions of executive power and limits on democratic freedoms are been looked for.

An exceptional example is that of Russia’s transition from unstable democracy in the 1990s to economic growth and political stability.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Civics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 15

Exercises

1. Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country A: People who do not accept the country’s official religion do not have a right to vote.
(b) Country B: The same party has been winning elections for the last twenty years.
(c) Country C: Ruling party has lost in the last three elections.
(d) Country D: There is no independent election commission.

Answer

(a) Undemocratic
(b) Not sure
(c) Democratic
(d) Undemocratic

2. Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country P: The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the Chief of Army.
(b) Country Q: The parliament cannot pass a law reducing the powers of the judiciary.
(c) Country R: The country’s leaders cannot sign any treaty with another country without taking permission from its neighbouring country.
(d) Country S: All the major economic decisions about the country are taken by officials of the central bank which the ministers cannot change.

Answer

(a) Undemocratic
(b) Democratic
(c) Undemocratic
(d) Undemocratic

3. Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy? Why?
(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy.
(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.

Answer

Option ‘D’ Democracies are more prosperous than others is not a good argument in favour of democracy as there are many countries such as Sri Lanka, India which opted for democracy but not prosperous where other countries such as China or Saudi Arabia which have communist and monarchy rule respectively are more prosperous. The prosperity of any country depends on the correct policies of the government. It also depends on the availibility of natural resources not with the form of government. Democracy can’t guarantee prosperity.

Page No: 16

4. Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement.
(a) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
(b) The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency where large-scale rigging was reported.
(c) Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10 per cent. This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women.

Answer

(a) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament – Democratic element
to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). – Undemocratic element

(b) The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency – Democratic element
large-scale rigging was reported – Undemocratic element

(c) This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women. – Democratic element
Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10 percent. – Undemocratic element

5. Which of these is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country?
(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation.
(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of
the country.
(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.
(d) People are free to believe in and practise any religion.

Answer

Option ‘d’ is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country. This is because practising a religion has nothing to do with preventing famine.

6. There are 40 villages in a district where the government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need. Which of these is not a democratic method?
(a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part of right to life.
(b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to all parties.
(c) Organising public meetings against government’s policies.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.

Answer

Option ‘d’, which advocates paying the government officials money, is an undemocratic method.

7.Write a response to the following arguments against democracy.
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation in the country. Therefore army should rule the country.
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers.
(c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.

Answer

A democracy is  government elected by the people, from among the people themselves. The Army is integral in protecting the country, but it is not elected by the people; hence, it cannot form a democratic government. The second statement is not true as all people are intelligent to some extent. The third statement is dangerous because bringing religion into politics can cause serious conflict.

8. Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why?
(a) Father to daughter: I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family children marry where the parents tell them to.
(b) Teacher to student: Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the classroom.
(c) Employee to the officer: Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.

Answer

(a) This statement of father is undemocratic as every adult has right to choose their life partner. The father does not have right to impose their choice on daughter.

(b) This statement also is not under democratic setup. The student have right to ask question. This is undemocratic if his right is denied.

(c) The third statement is democratic as it calls for a rule of law which is beneficial for the employees.

9. Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision.
(a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote Elections are held regularly.
(b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for given loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.
(c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available only in one language, the language spoken by 52 percent people of the country.
(d) Several organisations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nation wide strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.
(e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies and protests.

Answer

(a) This is democracy as only democratic setup allow right to vote and also election at regular time period.

(b) A democratic country has to look after the welfare of its people. The condition of reducing of expenses on health and education is against the welfare of the people.

(c) In democracy, education is available in all languages as it basic right. Official language can be the language of majority of people.

(d) In a democracy, people have right to express their opinion in peaceful manner. It is undemocratic behaviour.

(e) This is undemocratic nature as in democracy freedom of press and media is must. If government own radio and television then freedom of press violated.

Page No. 17

10. In 2004 a report published in USA pointed to the increasing inequalities in that country. Inequalities in income reflected in the participation of people in democracy. It also shaped their abilities to influence the decisions taken by the government. The report highlighted that:
• If an average Black family earns $ 100 then the income of average White family is $ 162. A White family has twelve times more wealth than the average Black family.
• In a President’s election ‘nearly 9 out of 10 individuals in families with income over $ 75,000 have voted. These people are the top 20% of the population in terms of their income. On the other hand
only 5 people out of 10 from families with income less than $15,000 have voted. They are the bottom 20% of the population in terms of their income.
• About 95% contribution to the political parties comes from the rich. This gives them opportunity to express their opinions and concerns, which is not available to most citizens.
• As poor sections participate less in politics, the government does not listen to their concerns – coming out of poverty, getting job, education, health care and housing for them. Politicians hear most
regularly about the concerns of business persons and the rich. 
Write an essay on ‘Democracy and Poverty’ using the information given in this report but using examples from India.

What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What does a candidate need before contesting elections in China?
Answer:
Approval of the Chinese Communist Party.

Question 2.
In a democracy, the final decision must rest with those leaders or representatives who are _______ .
Answer:
Elected by the people

Question 3.
What is peculiar with ZANU-PF?
Answer:
It has always won elections

Question 4.
The one of the main features of a democratic government is that it rules within the limits set by the constitutional law above _______ .
Answer:
Citizen’s rights

Question 5.
Why does a democratic government is a better government?
Answer:
Because it is more accountable form of government

Question 6.
Democracy offers _______ .
Answer:
Dignity of citizens and principle of political equality

Question 7.
Democracy cannot provide solution to all the problems, it is also a difficult form of government to implement. It is _______ .
Answer:
One of the weaknesses of democracy

Question 8.
The major challenges to democracy are _______ .
Answer:
Economic equality among people and abolition of casteism from society.

Question 9.
It is a system in which only those who are in power and their supporters are benefited, and excludes minorities and weaker sections.
Answer:
Dictatorship

Question 10.
It Is a system under which military chief enjoys all the powers and suppress all the protests against him by the people.
Answer:
Military

Question 11.
The strength of democracy is its ability to uphold the values for which it stands for. These values are _______ .
Answer:
Freedom, Equality and Justice

Question 12.
Who led a military coup iirPakistan in 1999?
Answer:
Pervez Musharraf

Question 13.
When did Zimbabwe attain independence and from whom?
Answer:
In 1980 from white minority rule

Question 14.
In which period did China face one of the worst famines that have occurred in the world?
Answer:
China’s famine of 1958-1961 was the worst recorded famine in the world history.

Question 15.
Democracy improves the quality of decision-making because
Answer:
Decisions are taken by consultation and discussion.

Question 16.
What is the most common form of democracy in modern world?
Answer:
Representative Democracy

Question 17.
Which body in the Indian political system is an example of direct democracy?
Answer:
Gram Sabha

Question 18.
What is ZANU-PF?
Answer:
Political party of Zimbabwe

Question 19.
Name the Chinese Parliament.
Answer:
The National People’s Congress

Question 20.
Give a definition of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.

Question 21.
What was the ‘Legal Framework Order’ passed by Pervez Musharraf in I August 2002?
Answer:
In August 2002, Musharraf issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the Constitution of Pakistan. According to this Order, the President can dismiss the national and provincial assemblies.

Question 22.
Name the country where women do not have the right to vote till 2015.
Answer:
Saudi Arabia

Question 23.
Media is not independent in Zimbabwe. How?
Answer:
Television and radio are controlled by the government and give only the ruling party’s version. There are independent newspapers, but the government harasses those journalists who went against it.

Question 24.
How can you say that China is not a democratic country?
Answer:
In China, the elections do not offer the people any serious choice. They must choose the ruling party and the candidates approved by it. That is why, we cannot say that China is a democratic country.

Question 25.
What is the role of citizen in promoting democracy?
Answer:
In a democracy, every citizen should be able to play equal role in decision-making. For this the citizen not only needs an equal right to vote but also equal information, basic education, equal resources and a lot of commitment.

What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are three features of democracy?
Answer:
Features of democracy are :

  • Rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions;
  • Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers;
  • This choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis;
  • The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights. (Any three)

Question 2.
Explain any three major political changes that took place recently in India’s neighbourhood.
Answer:

  • Pakistan-General Musharaf led a military coup.
  • Nepal-In 2005, the new king dismissed the elected government.
  • Iraq-Saddam Hussein’s regime was overthrown.

Question 3.
How does democracy improve the quality of decision making?
Answer:
Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. When a number of people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes in any decision. This takes time. But there is a big advantage in taking time over important decisions. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus, democracy improves the quality of decision-making.

Question 4.
How does democracy enhances the dignity of citizens?
Answer:
Even if democracy does not bring about better decisions and accountable government, it is still better than other forms of government. Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognising that the poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated. People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves. Even when they make mistakes, they are responsible for their conduct.

Question 5.
How is democracy better than other forms of government?
Answer:

  • It is correct that democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct its own mistakes. There is no guarantee that mistakes cannot be made in democracy.
  • No form of government can guarantee that. The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long.
  • There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is a room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. This cannot happen in a non-democratic government.

Question 6.
Democracy cannot get us everything and is not the solution to all problems.
Than why are we interested in democracy?
Answer:

  • It is clearly better than any other alternative form that we know. It offers better | chances of a good decision and it is likely to respect people’s own wishes and allows different kinds of people to live together.
  • Even when it fails to do some of these things, it allows a way of correcting its mistakes and offers more dignity to all citizens. That is why, democracy is considered the best form of government.

Question 7.
What does ‘one person, one vote, one value’ mean? Name the countries who deny the equal right to vote.
Answer:
Democracy is based on a fundamental principle of political equality. In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value. Democracy is linked to the demand for Universal Adult Franchise. Yet, there are many instances of denial of equal right to vote.

  • Until 2015, in Saudi Arabia, women did not have the right to vote.
  • Estonia has made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.
  • In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian-Fijian.

Question 8.
Is it correct that a democratic government cannot do whatever it likes? Explain.
Answer:

  • A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes because it has won an election. It has to respect some basic rules. In particular, it has to respect some guarantees to the minorities. Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations.
  • Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibilities assigned by the constitution and the law. Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.
  • A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens’ rights.

Question 9.
Pakistan under the General Pervez Musharraf is not called a democracy. Why?
Answer:
Pakistan under the General Pervez Musharraf is not called a democracy because :

  • The rulers are not elected by the people in Pakistan. People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really the rulers.
  • They cannot take the final decisions.
  • The power to take final excision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them are elected by the people.

Question 10.
How popular governments can be undemocratic? Explain with an example.
Answer:
In Zimbabwe, since it attained independence in 1980, elections have been held regularly and always won by ZANU-Ph the party that led the freedom struggle. Its leader, President Robert Mugabe, is popular but also uses unfair practices in elections. His government has changed the constitution several times to increase the powers of the President and make him less accountable. Opposition party workers are harassed. Public protests and demonstrations against the government are declared illegal. There is a law that limits the right to criticise the President. Television and radio are controlled by the government and give only the ruling party’s version.

Question 11.
Till 2000, Mexico was not a democratic country. Explain.
Answer:
In Maxico, people seemed to really have a choice but in practice they had no choice. There was no way the ruling party could be defeated, even if people were against it. These are not fair elections. But until 2000 every election was won by a party called PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party). ‘Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win. The PRI was known to use many dirty tricks to win elections.

Question 12.
What is the significance of the rule of law and respect for rights in democratic country?
Answer:
A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won an election. It must respect some basic rules. It must respect some guarantees to the minorities. Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations.

Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibilities assigned by the constitution and the law. Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.

Question 13.
Explain any three differences between democratic country and non-democratic country.
Answer:
In a Democratic Country :

  • Each adult citizen has a right to vote.
  • Each vote has one value.
  • Free and fair elections are held.

In a Non-democratic Country :

  • Elections do not offer a choice and fair opportunity.
  • Rulers are not elected by the people.
  • The rulers have unlimited power.

What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts”. Discuss.
Answer:
Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. In any society, people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. These differences are particularly sharp in a country like ours which has an amazing social diversity. People belong to different regions, and have different languages, practise different religions and have different castes. They look at the world very differently and have different preferences. The preferences of one group can clash with those of other groups. Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem. In democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser. Different groups can live with one another peacefully. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.

Question 2.
What are the various aspects of democracy?
Answer:
We may refer to three aspects of democracy—political, social and economic.

  • Political Aspect: Political democracy requires “government by consent and political equality.” Democracy, as a form of government, implies that elections must be held with reasonable frequency. Moreover, there should be more than one political party competing for political power.
  • Social Aspect: A democratic society is one in which an atmosphere of equality prevails. There should be no discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex. Every one should have equal access to shops, restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment. Our Constitution guarantees equality to every person before law.
  • Economic Aspect: Political democracy will be a reality only when it is supported by economic democracy. The most stable democracies of the world are those which have extensive welfare schemes for the poor people.

Question 3.
What are the merits of a democratic government?
Answer:
The merits of a democratic government are :

  • A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government.
  • Democracy improves the quality of decision-making.
  • Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.
  • Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens.
  • It is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.

Question 4.
Why has India not experiences a famine as severe as that of China in 1958-61?
Answer:
China’s famine of 1958-1961 was the worst recorded famine in the world history.
Nearly three crore people died in this famine. During those days, India’s economic condition was not much better than China. Yet India did not have a famine of the kind China had. Economists think that this was a result of different government policies in the two countries.

The existence of democracy in India made the Indian government respond to food scarcity in a way that the Chinese government did not. They point out that no large-scale famine has ever taken place in an independent and democratic country. If China too had multiparty elections, an opposition party and a press free to criticise the government, then so many people may not have died in the famine.

Question 5.
What are the drawbacks of a democracy.
Answer:
The following are the draw backs of a democracy :

  • Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.
  • Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.
  • So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays.
  • Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions.
  • Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.
  • Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them; they should not decide anything.

Question 6.
How far is it correct that no country has a perfect democracy?
Answer:
No country has a perfect democracy because :

  • Every democracy has to try to realise the ideals of a democratic decision-making. This cannot be achieved once and for all. This requires a constant effort to save and strengthen democratic forms of decision-making. What we do as citizens can make a difference to making our country more or less democratic. This is the strength and the weakness of democracy: the fate of the country depends not just on what the rulers do, but mainly on what we, as citizens, do.
  • This is what distinguished democracy from other governments. Other forms of government like monarchy, dictatorship or one party rule do not require all citizens to take part in politics.
  • In fact, most non-democratic governments would like citizens not to take part in politics. But democracy depends on active political participation by all the citizens. That is why, a study of democracy must focus on democratic politics.

Question 7.
Why did the Institutional Revolutionary Party in Mexico never lose any election till 2000?
Answer:
The Institutional Revolutionary Party in Mexico was very strong till 2000. There are many reasons behind it:

  • Until 2000, every election was won by Institutional Revolutionary Party in Mexico. Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win.
  • All those who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings. Teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI.
  • Media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticise them.
  • Sometimes, the polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute, which made it difficult for people to cast their votes.
  • The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates.

Question 8
What were the steps taken by Musharraf in Pakistan to empower himself?
Answer:
The following steps were taken by Musharraf in Pakistan to empower himself:

  • In Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup in October 1999. He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the ‘Chief Executive’ of the country.
  • Later, he changed his designation to President and in 2002, held a referendum in the country that granted him a five-year extension.
  • In 2002, he issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the Constitution of Pakistan. According to this Order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies.
  • The power to take final decision rested with army officials and with General Musharraf.
  • The work of the civilian cabinet was supervised by a National Security Council which was dominated by military officers.

What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
The word ‘Democracy’ comes from the Greek word –
(a) Democracia
(b) Demokratia
(c) Demos
(d) Kratia

Answer

Answer: (b) Demokratia


Question 2.
The head of the government in Nepal is the:
(a) President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) King
(d) Vice President

Answer

Answer: (a) President


Question 3.
In which case was the real power with external powers and not with the locally elected representatives?
(a) India in Sri Lanka
(b) US in Iraq
(c) USSR in Communist Poland
(d) Both (b) and (c)

Answer

Answer: (d) Both (b) and (c)


Question 4.
How many members are elected to the National People’s Congress from all over China?
(a) 3050
(b) 3000
(c) 4000
(d) 2000

Answer

Answer: (b) 3000


Question 5.
Which party always won elections in Mexico since its independence in 1930 until 2000?
(a) Revolutionary Party
(b) Mexican Revolutionary Party
(c) Institutional Revolutionary Party
(d) Institutional Party

Answer

Answer: (c) Institutional Revolutionary Party


Question 6.
When did Zimbabwe attain independence and from whom?
(a) 1970, from Black minority rule
(b) 1880, from White minority rule
(c) 1980, from Americans
(d) 1980, from White minority rule

Answer

Answer: (d) 1980, from White minority rule


Question 7.
which of these features is/are necessary to provide the basic rights to the citizens?
(a) Citizens should be free to think
(b) should be free to form associations
(c) Should be free to raise protest
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 8.
What is Constitutional Law?
(a) Provisions given in the Constitution
(b) Law to make Constitution
(c) Law to set up Constituent Assembly
(d) none of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Provisions given in the Constitution


Question 9.
Some of the drawbacks of democracy is
(a) Instability and delays
(b) corruption and hypocrisy
(c) Politicians fighting among themselves
(d) all the above

Answer

Answer: (d) all the above


Question 10.
In which period did China face one of the worst famines that have occurred in the world?
(a) 1932-36
(b) 1958-61
(c) 2001-2002
(d) 2004-2007

Answer

Answer: (b) 1958-61


Question 11.
Democracy improves the quality of decision-making because
(a) Decisions are taken by educated people
(b) Decisions are taken by consultation and discussion
(c) Decisions are taken over a long period of time
(d) All decisions are approved by judiciary

Answer

Answer: (b) Decisions are taken by consultation and discussion


Question 12.
The most common form that democracy takes in our time is that of
(a) Limited democracy
(b) representative democracy
(c) Maximum democracy
(d) none of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) representative democracy


Question 13.
Which of these is an example of perfect democracy?
(a) USA
(b) UK
(c) India
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (d) None of the above


Read the Cartoon (From the NCERT Textbook)

Question 1.
Look at the Cartoon (From the NCERT textbook on page 25) given below:

This cartoon was drawn when elections were held in Iraq with the presence of US and other foreign powers. What do you think this cartoon is saying? Why is ‘democracy’ written the way it is?

Answer

Answer:
The cartoon is saying that democracy is being set up in Iraq with the help of the US and other foreign powers.

Democracy is being ridiculed in this cartoon. The way the word is written shows that it is not a true democracy because the real power is with some external powers and not with locally elected representatives. This cannot be called people’s rule.


Question 2.
Look at the cartoon (From the NCERT textbook on page 27) given below:

This cartoon was drawn in the context of Latin America. Do you think it applies to the Pakistani situation as well? Think of other countries where this would apply? Does this happen sometimes in our country as well?

Answer

Answer:
The cartoon suggests the scene of booth capturing at gunpoint during elections. Yes, it applies to the Pakistani situation as well. Here, General Pervez Musharraf established army rule and controlled the elected representatives.

This could be applied in countries like China, Iraq, etc. Booth capturing remained an important feature of the Indian elections sometimes ago. But nowadays this rarely happens.


Question 3.
Look at the cartoon (From the NCERT Textbook on page 28) given below:

This cartoon was titled ‘Building Democracy’ and was first published in a Latin American publication. What do moneybags signify here? Could this cartoon be applied to India?

Answer

Answer:
This cartoon suggests that elections cannot be held without money. Different political parties spend a lot of money during election period to win the election. The government also spend money profusely to conduct free and fair election.

Moneybags signify here that money is the real strength in democracy. Without it, it is difficult for a political party to exist or win in the election.

This cartoon can could be applied to India also. Whenever there is an election in the country, money is spent recklessly inspite of EC’s warnings.


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