NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Electoral Politics(Updated for 2021 – 22)

Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 4

In a democracy, people do not govern directly. They govern through the elected- representatives. Governing through elected representatives is the most common form of democracy.
Electoral politics is all about understanding election of representatives, need of elections and how to make election democratic. It also involves examining the role of the election commission in ensuring free and fair elections.

Elections
The mechanism or procedure by which people choose their representatives at regular intervals is called election. If people are not satisfied with the working of the government then they can change the government in the next term of elections.

Procedure of Elections
The procedure of election can be understood by the real example of Haryana Assembly elections. It will show how candidates standing in election become representatives and how power can be removed from their hands.

Assembly Election in Haryana
Formation of New Party ‘Lok Dal’ Haryana had been ruled by Congress party since 1982. At that time, Chaudhary Devi Lai was an opposition leader. He led movement called Nyaya Yudh (struggle for justice) and formed new party ‘Lok Dal’.

Election Campaign of Devi Lai In election campaign of 1987 Assembly election, Devi Lai promised voters that if his party win, he would give loans to farmers and small businessmen.

Voters favoured Lok Dal As people were unhappy with the existing government, they were attracted by Devi Lai’s promise. They voted in favour of Lok Dal and its partners won 76 out of 90 seats.

Results Announced Lok Dal won 60 seats that’s why it had a clear majority in the – Assembly. The party with a clear majority is invited by the governor to form the government. Congress got only 5 seats. As the election result was announced, the existing Chief Minister of Congress resigned.

Devi Lai became Chief Minister The newly elected Members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs) of Lok Dal chose Devi Lai as their leader. The Governor invited’ Devi Lai to be the new Chief Minister. After three days of the election result, he took the oath. Then his government issued a government order to give loans to small farmers, agricultural labourers and small businessmen.

Congress again forms Government Lok Dal ruled die state for 4 years. In 1991 election, the party did not win people’s support. This time Congress won the election and formed the government.

Need for Elections
Elections are needed to elect representatives. The need of elections can be understood by imagifufig of democracy without elections.

In the absence of the election, all the people have to sit together every day and take all the decisions. But this is not possible in any large community. Nor it is possible for everyone to have the time and knowledge to take decisions on all matters. Therefore, in most democracies, people rule through their representatives.
The elections are needed for any representative democracy because

  • They solve the problem of assessing people on the basis of education, knowledge or experience,
  • They help in analysing that people like their representatives or not.
  • They ensure that the representatives rule as per the wishes of the people and make sure that those who are not working for the people, do not remain their representatives.

In an election, the voters make many choices like

  • They can choose who will make laws for them.
  • They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
  • They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and lawmaking.

What Makes An Election Democratic?

Elections are held in all democratic countries and also in most of the non-democratic countries in many ways. But there is a simple list of the minimum conditions which make an election democratic like

  • Everyone should have the right to choose a representative. It means everyone has one vote and every vote has equal value.
  • Political parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and offer some real choices to the voters.
  • The choices should be offered at regular intervals. For that elections must be held regularly after a certain period.
  • The candidates preferred by the people only should get elected.
  • Elections are conducted in a free and fair manner where people choose those representatives whom they really wish.

Political Competition
Elections are all about competition. Without competition, elections would become meaningless. Political competition takes place when different political parties compete to gain confidence and ultimately the vote of the voters. They make promises and give incentives to motivate the voters.

This electoral competition has many demerits like

  • It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism (Groupism) and party-politics in every locality.
  • Different political parties and candidates often use dirty tricks like booth capturing to win elections.
  • The pressure to win electoral fights does not allow to- form useful long term policies.
  • The competition leads to the idea of being dragged into the unhealthy competition. That’s why good people do not enter and participate in political competition.

The electoral competition also has some merits like

  • Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. If they can satisfy the voters with their work, they will be able to win again.
  • If a political party is motivated only by the desire to be in power, even then it will be forced to serve the people.
  • It reveals the real motive of political parties.
  • It gives choices to voters to choose among the best.

System Of Elections In India
In India, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) elections are held regularly every five years. After five years, the term of all the elected representatives comes to an end. Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days. This is known as General Election. Sometimes an election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is known as a by-election.

Electoral Constituencies
In India, an area based system of representation is followed where the country is divided into different areas for purpose of elections. These are called Electoral Constituencies. Every voter who lives in an area elect one representative.

For the Lok Sabha election, India is divided into 543 constituencies. The representative elected from each constituency is called Member of Parliament or an MP. One of the features of a democratic election is that every vote has equal value.
For Vidhan Sabha election, each state is divided into a specific number of assembly constituencies and the elected representative of eaph assembly constituency is called the Member of Legislative Assembly or an MLA.

By-election: If a representative from a constituency dies while in office or if the office-falls are vacant because of reasons like resignation, fresh elections are held in that particular constituency. Such an election is called a by-election.
Constituency’ Voters in a geographical area who elect a representative to the Legislative Bodies.
Each parliamentary constituency has within it several assembly constituencies. The same principle applies for Panchayat and Municipal elections.

Each village or town is divided into different wards that are like constituencies. Each ward elects one member of the village or the urban local body. Sometimes these constituencies are counted as ‘seats’ and each constituency represents one seat in the assembly.
For example, when we say that ‘Lok Dal won 60 seats1 in Haryana, it means that candidates of Lok Dal won in 60 assembly constituencies in the state and thus Lok Dal had 60 MLAs in the State Assembly.

Reserved Constituencies
The Constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the lok Sabha and the state Legislative Assemblies.
If that happens, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population. That would make our democracy less representative and less democratic.

Reservation for SC and ST
The makers of our Constitution thought of a special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections. Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
In an SC reserved constituency, only someone who belongs to the Scheduled Castes can stand for election.
Similarly, only those belonging to the Scheduled Tribes can contest an election from a constituency reserved for ST.

Reservation in Lok Sabha/ District/Local Level
A few seats in Lok Sabha are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). This number is in proportion to their share in the total population.

In the year 2012, 84 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes (in Lok Sabha).
Thus, the reserved seats for SC and ST do not take away the legitimate share of any other social group. This system of reservation was extended later to other weaker sections at the district and local level. In many states, seats in rural (panchayat) and urban (municipalities and corporations) local bodies are now reserved for Other Backward Classes (OBC) as well.
However, the proportion of seats reserved varies from state to state. Similarly, one-third of the seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for women candidates.

Voters List
When the constituencies are decided, the next step is to decide who can and who cannot vote. In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone. This list is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voters’ List.

This is an important step as it is linked to the first condition of a democratic election i.e. everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representatives. All the citizens are human beings with their own needs and views. That is why all of them deserve to have an equal say in decisions that affect them. Therefore everyone is given the right to vote.
The right to vote falls under Universal Adult Franchise. It means all the citizens aged 18 years and above can vote in an election regardless of his or her caste, religion or gender.

Maintaining of Voters’ list
It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all the eligible voters put on the voters’ list. As new persons attain voting age, names are added to the voters’ list, names of those who move out of a place or those who are dead are deleted. A complete revision of the list takes place every five years. This is done to ensure that it remains up to date.
[Note Some criminals and persons with unsound mind can be denied the right to vote, but only in rare situations.]

Election Photo Identify Card (EPIC)
In the last few years, a new system of Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) has been introduced. The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote so that no one can vote in their place. The card has not been made compulsory for voting, and. voters can show many other proofs of identity like the ration card, driving’ licence or Adhar Card.

Nomination Of Candidates
The system of our country provides almost no restrictions on anyone to contest the election. This only makes any election a democratic election.
Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections. The only difference to be a voter is that the minimum age is 18 years while to be a candidate in the election the minimum age is 25 years. There are also some other restrictions on criminals but these apply in very extreme cases.
Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party support and symbol. Party’s nomination is often called Party Ticket. The candidate has to fill a nomination form and give some money as a security deposit.

Moreover, every candidate has to make a legal declaration giving full details of

  • Educational qualifications of the candidate
  • Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his/her family; and
  • Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate.

The information provided has to be made public in order to provide an opportunity to the voters to make their decision on the basis of the information provided by the candidates.
Electoral Roll It is the voters’ list prepared by a door to door survey to include only bonafide voters and minimise the role of bogus voters. Universal Adult Franchise Every Indian citizen of 18 years and above have the right to vote irrespective of caste, creed and sex.

Educational Qualifications for Candidates
There is no educational qualification for candidates for being an MP or an MLA. However, the relevant qualification for candidates is the ability to understand people’s concerns, problems and to represent people’s interests.

Putting an educational qualification would go against the spirit of democracy because it would deprive a majority of the citizens right to contest elections. This is because still, the majority of the Indian population is uneducated.

Election Campaign
Election campaign means the promotion (or propaganda) of the policies, offers and promises that the candidates make to voters to fulfill if they are elected. In this way, voters can decide the candidate to vote for. They vote for the candidate whose policies they like.

In our country, election campaigning takes place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list’of candidates and the elate of polling.

During this period, the candidates contact their electorate, political leaders, address. ..election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters. This is also the period when Print Media and television news are full of election-related stories and debates.

The election campaign is not limited to these two weeks only. Political parties start preparing for elections months before they actually take place.

They prepare their election manifestos. In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues. They want to attract the public to that issue and get them to vote for their party on that basis.

Slogans Given by Different Political Parties
Some of the successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections are given below

  • The Congress party led by Indira Gahdhi gave the slogan of ‘Garibi Hatao’ (Remove poverty) in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. The party promised to reorient all the policies of the government to remove poverty from the country.
  • ‘Save Democracy’ was the slogan given by Janata Party in the next Lok Sabha election held in 1977. Hie party promised to undo the .excesses committed during Emergency and restore civil liberties.
  • The Left Front used the slogan of ‘Land to the Teller’ in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
  • ‘Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus’ was the slogan used by N.T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.

Code of Conduct and Laws
To regulate the election campaign, there are some election laws. According to these laws, no party or candidate can

  • bribe or threaten voters,
  • appeal to them in the name of caste or religion,
  • use government resources for election campaign and
  • spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency in an Assembly Election.

If any party or candidate is found practising any of the above, their election can be rejected by the court even after they have won the election. In addition to the laws, all the political parties in our country have agreed to a Model code of conduct for an election campaign.

According to this, no party or candidate can

  • use any place of worship for election propaganda
  • use government vehicles, aircraft and officials for elections
  • once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any project, take any big policy decision or make any promise of providing public facilities.

Polling
On the day when dying voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote is called an Election Day. Every person whose name is on the voters’ list can go to a nearby potting booth and cast his/her vote through a Secret ballot. Once the voter goes inside the booth, the election official identify him/ her, put a mark on the voter’s finger and allow him/ her to cast his/ her vote.

An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way. Earlier voting was done, by putting a stamp on the ballot paper. A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which die names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed. Now Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. The voter has to press the button against the name of the candidate, he/she wants to cast his/her vote.

Counting of Votes
Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. A few days later, oft a fixed date, all the EVMs are opened and the votes secured by each candidate are counted. The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected. Within a few hours of counting, all the results are declared. In general elections, the counting of votes in all constituencies takes place at the same time, on the same day. Within a few hours of counting, all the results are declared and it becomes clear as who will form the next government. This event is reported by television channels, radio and newspapers.

What Makes Elections In India Democracy?
There are many factors which ensure that elections held in India are democratic. An independent body ‘Election Commission’ responsible to conduct elections is formulated in the Constitution of India.

Independent Election Commission :
In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and very powerful Election Commission (EC). It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, he is not answerable to even the President or the government Powers of Election Commission Potters enjoyed by dying Election Commission ate.

  • It takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections right from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
  • It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
  • During the election period, die Election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines to prevent the use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections or to transfer some government officials.
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.
  • When election officials come to the opinion that polling was not fair in some booths or even an entire constituency, they order a repoll.

Popular Participation
The participation and enthusiasm of people in an election is another criterion to check the quality of elections.
If the election process is not free or fair, people will not continue to participate in the exercise. People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the per cent of eligible voters who actually cast their vote. In India, there is greater voter turn out of poor illiterate people as compared to western democracies.

Acceptance of Election Outcome
The outcome of elections-the final test of the free and fairness of it. If elections are not free or fair, the outcome always favours the powerful. In such a situation, the ruling parties do not lose elections. Usually, losing party does not accept the outcome of a rigged election.

The outcome of India’s election speaks for itself

  • The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level.
  • In the US, an incumbent or sitting elected representative rarely loses an election. But in India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
  • Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on buying votes and those with Known criminal connection often lose elections.
  • Except for some disputed elections, the electoral outcomes are usually accepted by the defeated party as ‘people’s verdict’.

Challenges to Free and Fair Elections
The challenges to free and fair elections are listed as follows

  • Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy an unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
  • Some candidates with criminal records are able to secure party tickets from major parties due to their connections political.
  • Some families tend to dominate political parties; a tendency for the dynastic rule is very common.
  • Elections offer only little choice to ordinary citizens. All the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.
  • Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties in terms of money power and organisational support.

These challenges exist not only in India but also in many established democracies. This is a matter of concern for all who believe in democracy. This is the reason due to which there is the demand for reforms in our electoral system by citizens, social activists and organisations.

Summary
The most common form of democracy in our times is for the people to govern through their representatives.

The mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals is called Election.

In elections, the voters can choose who will form the government. Each vote has an equal value.

As an alternative to elections, all the people can sit together every day and take all the decisions, but this is not possible in large communities.

The procedure of elections favours political competition among different political parties.

Electoral Competition creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality.

Different political parties and candidates often use a dirty trick like booth capturing, allegations to win elections.

In India, the General EISfefione for Lok Sabha and Vidhan
Sabha is held regularly after every five years and elections are held rn all constituencies at the same time.

Sometimes an election is held for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resigning of a member. This is known gs By-election.

In India, an area based system of representation is followed where the country is divided into different areas for election purposes is called Electoral Constituencies.

For Lok Sabha election, .India is divided into 543 constituencies. The representatives elected from each constituency are called Members of Parliament or MPs.

For Vidhan Sabha, each state is divided into the number of Assembly constituencies. The elected representative from each Assembly constituency is called Members of Legislative Assembly or MLA$.

Each village or town is divided into several words and the same electoral procedure takes place for Panchayat and Municipal Elections.

A special system of Reserved Constituencies for the weaker sections especially for the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) is also followed in India.

Reservation is also followed for seats in rural and urban local bodies, for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and women.

In democratic elections, the list of people eligible to vote is
prepared much before the election and is officially called the Electoral Roll or the Voter’s List. Which is updated from time to time.

Incur country, all the citizens aged 18 years and above have the Right to Vote regardless of his or her caste, religion or gender. This is known as the Universal Adult Franchise.

A new system Of Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) has been introduced. The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote so that /io one can vote in the place of someone else.

Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party support and symbol. Party’s nomination is often called Party Ticket. The candidate has to fill a nomination form and give some money as a security deposit.

Candidate getting, the party ticket should be 25 or above and has to declare educational qualifications, assets, liabilities and criminal cases pending if any.

In our country, election campaign takes place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.

Each political party has to agree to the Model Code of Conduct. Violation of the code can result in the rejection of the candidate.

On the day when the voters cast or poll their vote is called an Election Day and such voting is done through Secret Ballot.

Voting is done through ballot papers and Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs).

Counting is done on a fixed data arid the candidate securing the highest number of votes is declared a winner from that constituency.

In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and very powerful body, known as Election Commission.

The Chief Election Commissioner. (CEC) is appointed by the President of India, and is, not answerable to the President or the government.

The election commission takes decisions on each and every aspect of the elections.

People’s turnout in the elections indicate a free and fair election procedure.

The political parties have to accept the outcome of the elections in aH circumstances.

Due to some challenges to a free and fair election, there is the demand of reforms in our electoral system by citizens, social activists and organisations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 4 Electoral Politics Civics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 74

Excercises

1. Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false?
(a) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government.
(b) People select the representative of their choice in an election.
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
(d) People can indicate which policies they prefer.
► (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.

2. Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections aredemocratic?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful.
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
(d) In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict.
► (a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

3. Match the following: 

(a) It is necessary to keep the voters’ list up to date because(i) there is a fair representation of all sections of our society
(b) Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that(ii) everyone has equal opportunity to elect their representatives
(c) Everyone has one and only one vote so that(iii) all candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections
(d) Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because(iv) some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last


Answer

(a) It is necessary to keep the voters’ list up to date because(iv) some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last
(b) Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that(i) there is a fair representation of all sections of our society
(c) Everyone has one and only one vote so that(ii) everyone has equal opportunity to elect their representatives
(d) Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because(iii) all candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections


Page No: 75

4. List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of re-poll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination.

Answer

Making of voters’ list → Announcing election schedule → Releasing election manifesto → Election campaign → Filing nomination → Casting of votes → Ordering of re-poll → Counting of votes → Declaration of election results.

5. Surekha is an officer in-charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what should she focus on for each of the following stages of election:
(a) Election campaign
(b) Polling day
(c) Counting day

Answer

(a) She will have to focus on various duties such as ensure that candidates cannot bribe or threaten voters, expenditure limit is not crossed by a candidate, candidates not appeal to vote in the name of religion or caste, they not use worship place for campaign or use any government resources.

(b) She will have to crosscheck the voters’ list and check ID proof of the voters, booth capturing not tak place. Ensure that Free and fair election should be conducted.

(c) She have to look on counting is carried out, represntatives of all parties present at counting area in order to avoid malpractices,

6. The table below gives the proportion of different communities among the candidates who won elections to the US Congress. Compare these to the proportion of these communities in the population of the US.Based on this, would you suggest a system of reservations in the US Congress? If yes, why and for which communities? If no, why not?

 
Proportion of the community (in per cent) in the
House of Representatives
Population of US
Blacks
8
13
Hispanics
5
13
Whites
86
70


Answer

Blacks and Hispanics should be given reservation in the US Congress as per their percentage in the US population.

7. Can we draw the following conclusions from the information given in this chapter? Give two facts to support your position for each of these.
(a) Election Commission of India does not have enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country.
(b) There is a high level of popular participation in the elections in our country.
(c) It is very easy for the party in power to win an election.
(d)  Many reforms are needed to make our elections completely free and fair.

Answer

(a) The Election Commission of India is powerful enough to conduct free and fair elections:
→ It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
→ In Elections, Government officials work under the EC and not the government.

(b) There is a high level of popular participation in the elections:
→ Voter turnout has increased over the past years.
→ Election-related activities in the last few years have seen a larger participation by the people.

(c) It is not very easy for the party in power to win an election:
→ The ruling parties routinely lose elections.
→ Candidates who are known to spend a lot of money often lose elections.

(d) Certain Reforms are necessary to make our elections completely free and fair:
→ To ensure that indepents and small parties not suffer in elections.
→ To ensure candidates with criminal records not participate.

8. Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held guilty of practicing untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does this decision go against the principles of democratic elections?

Answer

This decision does not go against the principles of democratic elections. Any person who is convicted for a crime has not right to remain a part of the society and hence has no right to contest the election.

 
9. Here are some reports of electoral malpractices from different parts of the world. Is there anything that these countries can learn from India to improve their elections? What would you suggest in each case?
(a) During an election in Nigeria, the officer in charge of counting votes deliberately increased the votes of one candidate and declared him elected. The court later found out that more than five lakh exercises votes cast for one candidate were counted in favour of another.
(b) Just before elections in Fiji, a pamphlet was distributed warning voters that a vote for former Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry will lead to bloodshed. This was a threat to voters of Indian origin.
(c) In the US, each state has its own method of voting, its own procedure of counting and its own authority for conducting elections. Authorities in the state of Florida took many controversial decisions that favoured Mr. Bush in the presidential elections in 2000. But no one could change those decisions.
 
Answer
 

(a) In this case, representatives of each candidate should be present to make sure that the votes are counted in a fair way.

(b) The election commission should set up an enquiry into the case and debar the candidate or party involved in distributing such pamphlets.

(c) There should be a single election commission which should be free from political influence and should be responsible for conducting elections throughout the country.

Page No: 76

10. Here are some reports of malpractices in Indian elections. Identify what the problem in each case is. What should be done to correct the situation?
(a) Following the announcement of elections, the minister promised to provide financial aid to reopen the closed sugar mill.
(b) Opposition parties alleged that their statements and campaign was not given due attention in Doordarshan and All India Radio.
(c) An inquiry by the Election Commission showed that electoral rolls of a state contain name of 20 lakh fake voters.
(d) The hoodlums of a political party were moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties to meet the voters and attacking meetings of other parties.

Answer

(a) After announcement of election, it is not legal to announce policy decisions according to Code of Conduct. The minister should be immediately taken to task by the Election Commission.

(b) The election commission must enusre that all politcal party are given equal oppurtunity to appear on Doordarshan and All India Radio. EC take action against misuse of this media.

(c) The presence of the fake voters means that the elections were rigged by the authorities who prepared the electoral rolls. The election commission should supervise preparation of fresh electoral rolls.

(d) By using hoodlums, the political party is terrorising its rivals. The election commission should order the arrest of the hoodlums and bar the party from the elections.

11. Ramesh was not in class when this chapter was being taught. He came the next day and repeated what he had heard from his father. Can you tell Ramesh what is wrong with these statements?
(a) Women always vote the way men tell them to. So what is the point of giving them the right to vote?
(b) Party politics creates tension in society. Elections should be decided by consensus not by competition.
(c) Only graduates should be allowed to stand as candidates for elections.

Answer

(a) The statement is wrong because the policy of secret ballot ensures that an individual can vote for whoever he/she wants. Women are fully capable of taking decisions on their own and selecting the candidate they like.

(b) Competition works as both deterrent and motivator for the political candidates. A fear of losing the election and a motivation for winning the elections works in favour of people.

(c) Educational qualification is not required to understand the people’s needs, and to represent their interests. Therefore, it is not necessary for politicians to be graduates.

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Free and fair elections are ensured by the _______ .
Answer:
Election Commission

Question 2.
The leader, Mr. Devi Lai from Haryana is the Chief of Haryana Sangharsh Samiti, led a movement named _______ .
Answer:
NyayaYudh

Question 3.
What does ‘EPIC’ stand for?
Answer:
Election Photo Identity Card.

Question 4.
How many voters took part in campaign-related activities during the 2004 elections?
Answer:
More than one-third voters took parts in campaign-related activities during the 2004 elections.

Question 5.
In India, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are held regularly after every _______ .
Answer:
Five years

Question 6.
Sometimes, election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This type of election is called _______ .
Answer:
By-election

Question 7.
In India, we follow area based system of representation. The country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called _______ .
Answer:
Electoral constituency

Question 8.
Each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly constituencies. The elected representative from each area is called _______ .
Answer:
MLA or Member of Legislative Assembly

Question 9.
The list of those people who are eligible to vote is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as _______ .
Answer:
Voters List

Question 10.
To be a candidate to contest the elections, the minimum age is _______ .
Answer:
25 years

Question 11.
According to our election law, no party or candidate can _______ .
Answer:
Bribe or threaten voters and appeal to them in the name of caste/religion.

Question 12.
As per code of conduct for election campaign, _______ .
Answer:
No party or candidate can use any place of worship for election propaganda.

Question 13.
What do you mean by “Universal Adult franchises”?
Answer:
Every citizen of India who is 18 years of age or above has a right to vote without discrimination of caste, creed, sex, colour, etc.

Question 14.
The members of Election Commission are appointed by the _______ .
Answer:
President of India

Question 15.
What do you mean by voters?
Answer:
People who have the right to vote or participate in the election of representatives are known as ‘voters’.

Question 16.
Name the political party that ruled over Haryana between 1982 to 1987.
Answer:
The Congress Party.

Question 17.
What is the significance of Election Photo Identity Card?
Answer:
This card is given to every person on the voter’s list. The voters are required to carry, this card when they go out to vote, so that no one can vote for someone else.

Question 18.
Who formed a new party ‘Lok Dal’?
Answer:
Chaudhary Devi Lai

Question 19.
How many seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha?
Answer:
One-third seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha.

Question 20.
What do you mean by ‘Polling Booth’?
Answer:
A polling booth is a place where voters go inside to caste their vote. Inside the booth, and election officials identify them and put a mark on their finger and allow them to cast their vote. .

Question 21.
What are elections?
Answer:
It is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals.

Question 22.
What is a constituency?
Answer:
The entire country is divided into fixed electoral areas for purposes of elections. This is called constituency.

Question 23.
What is the full form of EVM?
Answer:
Electronic Voting Machine.

Question 24.
What is the importance of Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
It promotes the national unity &nd integrity. It gives a chance to people to gain political education.

Question 25.
What do you understand by the ‘Polling Day’?
Answer:
On this day, the voters cast their votes and elect their representatives.

Question 26.
What are the reserved constituencies?
Answer:
The constituencies that are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, are called reserved constituencies.

Question 27.
What is general election?
Answer:
The elections of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha take place after five years. Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election.

Question 28.
Who is the head of the Election Commission?
Answer:
The Chief Election Commissioner is the head of the Election Commission.

Question 29.
What do you mean by ‘code of conduct’?
Answer:
It is a set of norms and guidelines to be followed by all political parties and contesting candidates during the election time.

Question 30.
What do you understanding by election manifesto?
Answer:
An election manifesto is a statement by a political party explaining its policies, saying what they will do if they win the election.

Question 31.
What are the main functions of the Election Commission of India?
Answer:
Section Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of election. It implements code of conduct. It orders the government to follows the guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its win elections, or to transfer some government officials. If Election Commission feels unfairness in polling, it orders a re-poll.

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What details are required from the candidates who wish to contest elections?
Answer:
The candidates who wish to contest elections have to make a legal declaration, giving full details of:

  • Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate.
  • Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family.
  • Education qualifications of the candidate.

Question 2.
What are the two merits of electoral competition?
Answer:
Two merits of electoral competition are:

  • Political leaders all over the world, like all other professionals, are motivated by a desire to advance their political careers.
  • They want to come in power and retain positions for themselves. So they do their best to win the hearts of people. :

Question 3.
What are the choices generally a voter can make in an election?
Answer:
In an election, the voters make the following choices:

  • They can choose who will make laws for them.
  • They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
  • They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making process.

Question 4.
What the minimum conditions of a democratic election?
Answer:
The minimum conditions of a democratic elections are:

  • Everyone should be able to choose. This means that everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
  • There should be something to choose from. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
  • The choice should be offered at regular intervals. Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
  • The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
  • Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose them at their will. (Any three)

Question 5.
“Election campaigns are needed to regulate”. Why?
Answer:
It is sometimes necessary to regulate campaigns to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete.
According to our election law, no party or candidate can:

  • Bribe or threaten voters.
  • Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion.
  • Use government resources for election campaign.
  • Spend more than? 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or? 10 lakh in a constituency in an assembly election.

Question 6.
What is the ‘Model code of Conduct’ for election campaign?
Answer:
According to the medal code of conduct, no party or candidate can:

  • Use any place of worship for election propaganda. ‘
  • Use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for election.
  • Once elections are announced, the Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.

Question 7.
Why should elections be held regularly?
Answer:
Elections should be held regularly because:

  • Elections should be held regularly because it provides incentives to the political parties and leaders.
  • They know that if they raise-issues that people want to raised, it would make them popular and increase their chances of victory in the next elections.
  • But, if they fail to satisfy the voters with their work, they will not be able to win again.

Question 8.
What are the demerits of an election competition?
Answer:
An electoral competition has many demerits such as.

  • It creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality.
  • Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another.
  • Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.

Question 9.
Why is there a provision of reservation of seats in the legislatures?
Answer:
The constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against the more influential and resourceful contestants. Hence, the seats are reserved for them in the legislatures.

Question 10.
How can you say that elections are expensive in our country?
Answer:
A large amount of money is spent in conducting elections in India. For instance, the government spent about? 3,500 crores in conducting Lok Sabha elections in 2014. That works out to about? 40 per person on the voters’ list. The amount spent by the parties and candidates was more than what the government spent. It is often said that elections are a burden on people. Our poor country cannot afford to hold elections once every five years.

Question 11.
What are some of the activities undertaken by political parties to carry out elections? Mention any three activities.
Answer:
Firstly, in election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues. For instance, the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of “Garibi Hatao” (remove poverty) in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. “Save Democracy” was the slogan given by Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election of 1977.

Secondly, political leaders contact their voters, address election meetings, promise to remove the grievances of the people. .
Thirdly, support of media – TV channels and newspaper columns – is also taken by the political parties to further their cause to gather more votes.

Question 12.
What type of election system is followed in India?
Answer:
In India, two types of election system are followed. First, when elections are held regularly after every five years is called a general electior. Second, when election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by-election. Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) elections are held regularly after every five years. After five years, the term of all the elected representatives comes to an end. The Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha stands ‘dissolved’.

Question 13.
Write a short note on election campaigns.
Answer:
In our country, election campaigns take place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling. During this period, the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters.

This is also the period when newspapers and television news are full of election related stories and debates. But, election campaign is not limited to these two weeks only. Political parties start preparing for elections months before they actually take place.

Question 14.
How does the polling take place?
Answer:
The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote. That day is usually called the election day. Every person whose name is on the voters’ list can go to a nearby ‘polling booth’, situated usually in a local school or a government office. Once the voters go inside the booth, the election officials identify them, put a mark on their finger and allow then to cast their vote. An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way.

Question 15.
What are Electronic Voting Machines?
Answer:
Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. Independent candidates too have their own symbols, allotted by election officials. All the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate she wants to give her vote.

Question 16.
What unfair practices are generally used in elections by our contesting candidates?
Answer:
Unfair practices are quite common in elections. A lot of unfair practices are used during this time. Some of these are given below:

  • Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters’ list;
  • Misuse of government facilities and government officials by the ruling party;
  • Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties;
  • Intimidation of voters and rigging on the polling day.

Question 17.
In which way does the Election Commission enjoy the same kind of independence as the judiciary?
Answer:
The Election Commission enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys.

  • The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India.
  • But, once appointed, he is not answerable to the President or the government.
  • Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the Chief Election Commissioner.

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the challenges to free and fair elections in India?
Answer:
The elections in India are basically free and fair. But, a few candidates may win purely based on money power and unfair means. These challenges exist not just in India but also in many established democracies. These deeper issues are a matter of concern for those who believe in democracy. The challenges to free and fair elections in India are as follows.

  • Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
  • In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure a ‘ticket’ from major parties.
  • Some families tend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.
  • Very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.
  • Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.

Question 2.
How can you say that the outcome of elections is a final test of free and fair elections? Explain
Answer:
One final test of the free and fair of election has in the outcome itself. If elections are not free or fair, the outcome always favours the powerful. In such a situation, the ruling parties do not lose elections. Usually, the losing party does not accept the outcome of a rigged election.
The outcome of India’s elections speaks for itself:

  • The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held in the last fifteen years, the ruling party lost.
  • In the US, an incumbent or ‘sitting’ elected representative rarely loses an election. In India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
  • Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and
    those with known criminal connections often lose elections.
  • Barring very few disputed elections, the electoral outcomes are usually accepted as ‘people’s verdict’ by the defeated party.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Voter’s List? What is its significance?
Answer:
(i) In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone. This list is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voters’ List.
(ii) The significance of Voter’s List is as follows:

  • This is an important step for it is linked to the first condition of a democratic election. Everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representatives.
  • In our country, all the citizens aged 18 years and above can vote in an election. Every citizen has the right to vote, regardless of his or her caste, religion or gender.
  • It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all the eligible voters put on the Voter’s List. As new persons attain voting age, names are added to the voters’ list. Names of those who move out of a place or those who are dead are deleted.
  • A complete revision of the list takes place every five years. This is done to ensure that it remains up to date. In the last few years a new system of Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) has been introduced. The government has tried to give this card to every person on the voters’ list. But the card is not yet compulsory for voting. For voting, the voters can show many other proofs of identity like the ration card or the driving licence.

Question 4.
Explain the role of the Election Commission in conducting the free and fair elections.
Answer:
The role of the Election Commission in conducting the free and fair elections is as follows.

  • Election Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
  • It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
  • It allots election symbols to parties and independent candidates.
  • During the election period, the Election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.

Question 5.
What are the changing trends of people’s participation in elections in India?
Answer:
The changing trends of people’s participation in elections in India are as follows:

  • People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the per cent of eligible voters who cast their vote. In India, the turnout figures over last few decades have either remained stable or gone up.
  • In India, the poor, illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to the rich and privileged sections. This is in contrast to western democracies.
  • Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections. They feel that through elections, they can bring pressure on political parties to adopt policies and programmes favourable to them.
  • The interest of voters in election-related activities has been increasing over the years. During the 2004 elections, more than one-third voters took part in a campaign-related activity.
  • More than half of the people identified themselves as being close to one or the other political party. One out of every seven voters is a member of a political party.

Electoral Politics Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
What are the minimum conditions needed for a democratic election?
Solution:
There are five minimum conditions needed for a democratic election. They are :

  • Everyone should have the right to vote and every vote should have equal value.
  • Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and they should offer some real choice to the voters.
  • Elections must be held regularly .
  • Candidates preferred by the people should be elected.
  • Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.

Question 2.
Can elections be considered as competition ?
Solution:
Elections can be considered as a competition. It is a political competition. The competition is among political parties. At the constituency level, it is a competition among several candidates. If there is no competition, elections will become pointless.

An electoral competition also has many demerits . It creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality. Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another. Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.

Some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this arena because of this unhealthy competition.

Question 3.
What is our system of elections?
Solution:
Elections for the Lok sabha are held every 5 years. After five years the term of all the elected representatives comes to an end. The Lok Sabha stands ‘dissolved’.

Elections for the Lok Sabha are held in all constituencies on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election. Sometimes election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by election.

Question 4.
What are electoral constituencies?
Solution:
India is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. We follow an area based system of representation. The voters who live in a particular constituencies elect one person to represent their constituencies.

Question 5.
How many constituencies do we have in India?
Solution:
India is divided into 543 constituencies for Lok Sabha elections. The representative elected from each constituency is called a Member of Parliament.

Similarly, each state is divided into a number of Assembly constituencies, depending on its population and it size.The elected representative of the Assembly constituencies are called the Member of Legislative Assembly or an MLA.
Each Parliamentary constituency has several Assembly constituencies .

Question 6.
What are Reserved Constituencies ?
Solution:
Reserved Constituencies are constituencies that are set aside for certain weaker sections of the society.
Weaker sections of the society may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others. Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections.

As our Constitution entitles every citizen to elect its representative, Reserved Constituencies are a necessity.

Question 7.
Who can vote and who cannot vote in India ?
Solution:
In India , all the citizens above the age of 18 can vote in an election. They have the right to vote, regardless of their caste, religion or gender.

The government gets the names of all the eligible voters and prepares the voters’ list. As new persons attain voting age names are added to the voters’ list. Names of those who move out of a place or those who are dead are deleted. A complete revision of the list takes place every five years.
Criminals and persons with unsound mind are denied the right to vote.

Question 8.
What should a citizen do if he or she wants to contest the elections?
Solution:
Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a ‘nomination form’ and pay a ‘security deposit’. They are requested to present a declaration. The legal declaration has to have the following details:

  • Details of any serious criminal cases pending against them. (If applicable).
  • Details of the assets and liabilities they have and that of their family members.
  • Educational qualifications.
    This information will be made public. This provides an opportunity to the voters to voice their objections, if any, and make the right decision during elections.

Question 9.
What are the two methods of voting?
Solution:
The two methods of voting are

  • The Ballot Paper: A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with their party name and symbols are listed. The voters indicate whom they want to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper.
  • Electronic Voting: Electronic voting machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. The voter has to press the button corresponding to the name of the person he wants to vote. Then the vote gets registered automatically.
    Independent candidates too have their own symbols, allotted by election officials. Voting is conducted in total secrecy.

Question 10.
Why do we need elections?
Solution:
Elections are essential for any representative democracy. In an election the citizens have many choices. They are :

  • They can choose the people who will make laws.
  • They can choose the government that will rule them.
  • They can decide on the party whose policies they prefer.

Question 11.
What is the percentage of reservation for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok shaba?
Solution:
In the Lok Sabha, 79 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 41 for the Scheduled Tribes. This number is proportionate to their population. This reservation does not lessen the legitimate share of any other social group.

Question 12.
What is called a ticket in politics?
Solution:
Party’s nomination of a candidate is often called party ‘ticket’.

Question 13.
Mention a few successful slogans that were used during election campaigns.
Solution:
The most successful slogans used during election campaigns were:

  • Garibi Hatao or Remove poverty: This slogan was used by the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. The party promised to remove poverty from the country.
  • Save Democracy: This slogan used by Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election held in 1977. The party promised to undo the excesses committed during Emergency and restore civil liberties.
    Land to the Tiller: This slogan was used by the Left Front in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
  • Protect the Self Respect of the Telugus: This slogan used by N. T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.

Question 14
Write a brief note on the Election Commission.
Solution:
The Election Commission is independent and very powerful . It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. He heads the Election Commission. After his election the C E C is not answerable to the President or the government. It is impossible for the government to remove the CEC, even if it is dissatisfied with him. The powers of the Election Commission of India are as follows:

  • EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
  • It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it
  • During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government.

Question 15.
What is meant by rigging?
Solution:
Fraud and malpractices indulged by a party or candidate to increase its votes, in an election is called rigging.

  • Using the votes of others
  • Recording multiple votes by the same person.
  • Bribing polling officers to favour a candidate are considered as rigging during elections.

Electoral Politics Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
How many seats are reserved in the Lok Sabha for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes?
(a) 47
(b) 60
(c) 84
(d) 100

Answer

Answer: (c) 84


Question 2.
Our country is divided into
(a) 500 constituencies
(b) 543 constituencies
(c) 550 constituencies
(d) 552 constituencies

Answer

Answer: (b) 543 constituencies


Question 3.
The number of Lok Sabha constituencies in Uttar Pradesh is
(a) 80
(b) 82
(c) 84
(d) 90

Answer

Answer: (c) 84


Question 4.
The number of Lok Sabha constituencies in Delhi is
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 7

Answer

Answer: (d) 7


Question 5.
The minimum age required for being a voter is:
(a) 25 years
(b) 21 years
(c) 18 years
(d) 15 years

Answer

Answer: (c) 18 years


Question 6.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India?
(a) The Chief Justice of India
(b) The Prime Minister of India
(c) The President of India
(d) The Law Minister of India

Answer

Answer: (c) The President of India


Question 7.
Who led the ‘Nyaya Yudh’?
(a) Chaudhary Charan Singh
(b) Chaudhary Devi Lal
(c) Ajit Singh
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Chaudhary Devi Lal


Question 8.
Which of these is not a feature of Indian democracy?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote
(d) In India, the losing parties refuse to accept the electoral verdict

Answer

Answer: (d) In India, the losing parties refuse to accept the electoral verdict


Question 9.
What is meant by the term ‘constituency’?
(a) Place where the copy of constitution is kept
(b) A particular area from where voters elect a representative to the Lok Sabha / Vidhan Sabha
(c) A body of voters
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) A particular area from where voters elect a representative to the Lok Sabha / Vidhan Sabha


Question 10.
In India, elections for which of these bodies are held after every five years?
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha
(c) Vidhan Parishad
(d) Only Lok Sabha

Answer

Answer: (b) Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha


Question 11.
What is an election held for only one constituency to fill the vacancy caused due to the death or resignation of a member called?
(a) By-election
(b) Mid-term election
(c) General election
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (a) By-election


Question 12.
Constituencies called ‘wards’ are made for the election to
(a) Parliament
(b) State Legislative Assembly
(c) State Legislative Council
(d) Panchayats and municipal bodies

Answer

Answer: (b) State Legislative Assembly


Question 13.
Which of these is not a part of the district and local level bodies?
(a) Panchayats
(b) Municipalities
(c) Corporations
(d) Lok Sabha

Answer

Answer: (d) Lok Sabha


Question 14.
for voting, the voter has to show which of these as identity proof?
(a) Ration card
(b) Driving license
(c) Election Photo Identity Card
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (d) None of these


Question 15.
What is the details the candidates have to give in the legal declaration before contesting the elections?
(a) Serious criminal cases pending against them
(b) Details of assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family
(c) Educational qualification of the candidate
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 16.
Name the body which conducts the elections in India
(a) Supreme Court
(b) Parliament
(c) Cabinet
(d) Election Commission

Answer

Answer: (d) Election Commission


Question 17.
When on election duty, under whose control does the government officers work?
(a) Central Government
(b) Election Commission
(c) District Magistrate
(d) District Court

Answer

Answer: (b) Election Commission


Question 18.
What does the term ‘incumbent’ mean?
(a) The current holder of a political office
(b) The candidate contesting the election
(c) The outgoing candidate of the dissolved House
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) The current holder of a political office


Question 19.
The Election Commission is:
(a) An elected body
(b) An appointed body
(c) An independent body
(d) both (b) and (c)

Answer

Answer: (b) An appointed body


Question 20.
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) All citizens above the age of 21 can vote in an election
(b) Every citizen has the right to vote regardless of caste religion or gender
(c) Some criminals and persons with unsound mind can be denied the right to vote in rare situations
(d) It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all eligible voters put in the voters list

Answer

Answer: (a) All citizens above the age of 21 can vote in an election


Question 21.
What is the age of a person who can contest election for the Lok Sabha in India?
(a) 25 years
(b) 30 years
(c) 35 years
(d) 40 years

Answer

Answer: (a) 25 years


Question 22.
Voter’s List is also known as:
(a) Election Number
(b) Voter Identity Card
(c) Electoral Roll
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Electoral Roll


Question 23.
Which of the following statements is against the democratic process of elections?
(a) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections
(b) Elections must be held regularly immediately after the term is over
(c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only
(d) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner

Answer

Answer: (c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only


Question 24.
Reserved Constituencies ensures
(a) Right to equality
(b) Proper representation to all religious groups
(c) Proper representation to the weaker sections of society
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Proper representation to the weaker sections of society


Question 25.
Who has given the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’?
(a) Indira Gandhi
(b) Rajiv Gandhi
(c) Sonia Gandhi
(d) Pt. Nehru

Answer

Answer: (a) Indira Gandhi


Question 26.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India?
(a) The Chief Justice of India
(b) The Prime Minister of India
(c) The President of India
(d) The people of India

Answer

Answer: (c) The President of India


Question 27.
The number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes in the Lok Sabha is:
(a) 59
(b) 79
(c) 89
(d) 99

Answer

Answer: (b) 79


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