NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Democratic Politics-I Chapter 3 Constitutional Design (Updated for 2021 – 22)

Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 3

The following topics from this chapter are being highlighted the most in the previous 3 year’s examinations and thereby hold significant importance.

  • Democratic Constitution in South Africa.
  • Making of the Indian Constitution

Democratic Constitution in South Africa

  • Nelson Mandela, the South African leader of African National Congress, fought a long battle against Apartheid.
  • Imprisoned for 28 years (1964-1992) emerged as the first President of the Republic of South Africa.
  • People struggled against the horrible discrimination practised against them by the white minority rulers.
  • Apartheid system began to fall apart in the 1980s. Finally; in 1994, the first free multiracial elections were held.
  • Remarkable constitution, forgot past sufferings, sought co-operation of all the races which made South Africa based on equality, democratic values and social justice.

Do We Need A Constitution?

  • Yes. A constitution has written laws accepted by people living together in a country.
  • It generates trust and coordination.
  • It specifies how a government should be constituted.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  • From 1858 onwards, the British Government passed many Acts for the government of India but could not satisfy Indian aspiration.
  • The demand for a Constitution was first raised in 1934 by the Indian National Congress.
  • In 1938, Jawaharlal Nehru formulated the demand for a Constituent Assembly.
  • In 1942, the British Government recognized that Indians should frame a new Constitution by themselves.
  • Participation in Provincial Legislatures helped Indians in framing their Constitution.
  • The Leaders were inspired by the French Revolution, British Parliamentary System and the Bill of Rights of the US.
  • They also learnt what the British were denying Indian citizens.

The Constituent Assembly

  • Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.
  • Dr B.R. Ambedkar was appointed Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
  • The Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949, and enacted on 26th January 1950, when India became a Republic state.
  • The Constitution reflects the best minds of the country. The Constituent Assembly was called Mini- India.
  • Every law was debated clause by clause and a consensus arrived at.
  • It is the longest written Constitution in the world.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 3 Constitutional Design Civics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 53

Exercises

1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
(c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
(d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.

Answer

(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had a consensus that the country should be a democratic nation after independence.
(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on the basic principles of the constitution.
(c) A country that is a democracy must have a constitution.
(d) Constitution can be amended to keep up with the changes in aspirations of the society.

 
2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa?
(a) Between South Africa and its neighbours
(b) Between men and women
(c) Between the white majority and the black minority
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
► (d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority


3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?
(a) Powers of the head of the state
(b) Name of the head of the state
(c) Powers of the legislature
(d) Name of the country
► (b) Name of the head of the state

4. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:

(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Β.R. Ambedkar
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(d) Sarojini Naidu
(i) President of the Constituent Assembly
(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly
(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928


Answer

(a) Motilal Nehru(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
(b) B.R. Ambedkar(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(c) Rajendra Prasad(i) President of the Constituent Assembly
(d) Sarojini Naidu(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly


5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following:
(a) Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?
(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?(c) “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”. Who was he referring to?

Answer

(a) Nehru used the expression “not wholly or in full measure” because according to him the task of building a nation is a gargantuan task which cannot be fulfilled in one’s lifetime.

(b) The pledge that he wanted the makers of the Indian Constitution to take was to dedicate their lives to the service of India, the Indian people and the humanity at large.

(c) He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.

6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.

(a) Sovereign
(b) Republic
(c) Fraternity
(d) Secular
(i) Government will not favour any religion.
(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.

Answer

(a) Sovereign
(b) Republic
(c) Fraternity
(d) Secular
(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.
(i) Government will not favour any religion.

Page No: 54
7. A friend from Nepal has written you a letter describing the political exercises situation there. Many political parties are opposing the rule of the king. Some of them say that the existing constitution given by the monarch can be amended to allow more powers to elected representatives. Others are demanding a new Constituent Assembly to write a republican constitution. Reply to your friend giving your opinions on the subject.

Answer

In my opinion second option is best. Making small amendments does not shift whole power in hands of representatives. This does not make total responsibilty on elected representatives what will happen in next years. So, a new and well drafted constitution is right choice.

8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
(a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.
(b) Freedom Struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.

Answer

(a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.

(b) Freedom struggle was important in spreading the idea of nationalism in India and inculcating the practice of making decisions by consensus.

(c) The leaders had the desire to give freedoms to the people. India’s freedom struggle is the only example of a bloodless freedom struggle in the contemporary history. This could be possible because our nationalist leaders had the maturity to listen to others’ views.

9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’. Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?

Answer

The values expressed in this para is totally contradictory to the values underlying our constitution. Here, women are treated as weak while in our constitution men and women bothare treated equal. The governmental policies also favour women to bring them in mainstream.

10. Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
(a) The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.
(b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
(c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.
(d) A constitution is about institutions, not about values.

Answer

(a) Not True
Constitution is the supreme law. It describes how government elects and their powers, rights of citizens and their protection. This is totally different than any other law.

 
(b) True

Constitution defines the role of the legislature, the executive and the judiciary and how they should be formed and by whom.
(c) True
Constitutional setup limits the power of government through dfferent institutions and also talks about the right of citizens.

(d) Not True
The Constitution contains all the values which the institutions have to promote. The Preamble to the Constitution is a shining example of this and states clearly that justice, liberty, equality and fraternity have to be promoted. Secularism has to be followed and socialism and democracy should be the basis of the government.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The official policy of racial separation of ill treatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa was called _______ .
Answer:
Apartheid

Question 2.
An assembly of people’s representatives that writes a constitution for a country is _______ .
Answer:
Constituent assembly

Question 3.
What do you know about ‘The Long Walk to Freedom’?
Answer:
It is an autobiography of Nelson Mandela.

Question 4.
An introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution is _______ .
Answer:
Preamble

Question 5.
When did South Africa become a democratic country?
Answer:
26 April, 1994

Question 6.
Leaders of the freedom movement were clear that their country should be _______ .
Answer:
Democratic

Question 7.
One of the guiding values of the constitution is sovereignty which means _______ .
Answer:
People have the supreme right to make decisions

Question 8.
‘Republic’ in consent to our constitution means _______ .
Answer:
Head of the state is an elected person

Question 9.
All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior. This defines a word given in Preamble of our Constitution which is _______ .
Answer:
Fraternity

Question 10.
The famous speech given by Pt. Nehru on the eve of Independence Day is known as _______ .
Answer:
Tryst with Destiny

Question 11.
In 1928, who along with eight other congress leaders?
Answer:
Motilal Nehru

Question 12.
The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January _______ .
Answer:
1950

Question 13.
Who was the Chairmen of the drafting committee of Indian Constitution, social revolutionary, thinker and agitator against caste divisions?
Answer:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar

Question 14.
In Indian Constitution, the Secular means _______ .
Answer:
Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion

Question 15.
There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in India, in what way they think, how they wish to express their thoughts. This means they enjoy _______ .
Answer:
Liberty

Question 16.
What was apartheid?
Answer:
Racial discrimination

Question 17.
What is the full form of ANC?
Answer:
The African National Congress

Question 18.
Where did Nelson Mandela spend his prison term?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela spent 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded prison, Robben Island.

Question 19.
Who was the first president of the newly born democracy in South Africa?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela

Question 20.
Name the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies , of segregation in South Africa.
Answer:
The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation in South Africa.

Question 21.
What determines the rights of citizens and the powers of the government?
Answer:
As the supreme law of the country, the Constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.

Question 22.
Who played a key role in the making of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Amdedkar played a key role in the making of the Indian Constitution.

Question 23.
When did the process of the Making of the Indian Constitution begin?
Answer:
In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India which marked the beginning of this process.

Question 24.
Who was Rajendra Prasad?
Answer:
Rajendra Prasad was bom in Bihar. He was the President of the Constituent Assembly. He was also the first President of India.

Question 25.
What does the phrase ‘Service of India’ mean?
Answer:
The phrase ‘Service of India’ means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.

Question 26.
What is meant by ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’?
Answer:
The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.

Question 27.
What do you understand by the term ‘the Preamble to the Constitution’?
Answer:
The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the Preamble to the Constitution.

Question 28.
What do you mean by the term ‘sovereign’?
Answer:
It means people have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

Question 29.
What do you mean by the term ‘secular’?
Answer:
It means citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion, but there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

Question 30.
Why is the Preamble called the soul of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Because it contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of government, to find out whether it is good or bad. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution.

Question 31.
What is the significance of the phrase ‘We the people of India’ in the Preamble?
Answer:
The preamble is an introductory part of the Constitution. It is called the key of the Constitution. “We the people of India” means the Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by apartheid? How was it oppressive for the blacks?
Answer:
Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. The white Europeans imposed this system on South Africa. The system of apartheid divided the people and labelled them according to their skin colour.

Many ‘whites’ had settled in South Africa and became the local rulers. The system of public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This, was called segregation. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. Blacks could not form associations or protest the terrible treatment.

Question 2.
What do you mean by ‘Constitution’?
Answer:
The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.

Question 3.
What were the steps involved in the framing of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. Soon after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November, 1949 and it came into force on 26 January, 1950.

Question 4.
What are the four main ideals enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The ideals written in the Preamble of the Constitution are as under :

  • Justice: Every citizen of India will have social, economic and political justice.
  • Liberty: Every citizen will have the liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • Equality: Every citizen will be provided with the equality of status and opportunity.
  • fraternity: All the citizens of India have been assured about the dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.

Question 5.
How did the Constituent Assembly work to prepare the Constitution for India?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then, a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place, clause by clause. More than 2000 amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over 3 years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.

Question 6.
What are constitutional amendments?
Answer:
A constitution is not merely a statement of values and philosophy. A constitution is mainly about embodying these values into institutional arrangements. Indian Constitution is a very long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. Those who crafted the Indian Constitution felt that it must be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society. They did not see it as a sacred, static and unalterable law. So, they made provisions to incorporate changes from time to time. These changes are called constitutional amendments.

Question 7.
On what terms did the blacks agreed upon while making a Constitution for South Africa?
Answer:
After two years of discussion and debate, they came out with one of the finest constitutions the world has ever had. This constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. Together, they decided that in the search for a solution to the problems, nobody should be excluded, no one should be treated as a demon. They agreed that everybody should become part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past.

Question 8.
What was the reaction of the government towards the protest movement against the apartheid in South Africa?
Answer:
In South Africa, the white racist government continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of black and coloured people. As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. The white regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man.

Question 9.
Why did the South African people need a Constitution?
Answer:
The people of South Africa, need a constitution because :

  • The oppressor and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears.
  • They wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised.
  • They wanted substantial social and economic rights.

Question 10.
What was the philosophy behind the Constitution?
Answer:

  • The values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were, in turn, nurtured by it, formed the foundation for India’s democracy. These values are embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
  • They guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the Preamble to the constitution.
  • Taking inspiration from American model, most countries in the contemporary world have chosen to begin their constitutions with a preamble.

Question 11.
What compromises did the blacks and white make?
Answer:
It was not an easy task for the two divergent people of South Africa—the White oppressors and the Black Oppressed one—to draw up a common Constitution for the country when it became free in 1994. After long negotiations both parties agreed to a compromises.

  • The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule that of one person one vote.
  • They also agreed to some basic rights for the poor and the workers.
  • The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute.
  • They also agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority. (Any three)

Question 12.
What was the composition of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country. The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress, the party that led India’s freedom struggle. But, the Congress itself included a variety of political groups and opinions. The Assembly had many members who did not agree with the Congress. In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

Question 13.
What did Ambedkar mean by ‘contradictions’ in his concluding speech to the Constituent Assembly? 4]Q8I
Answer:
Dr. Ambedkar, who played a key role in the making of the Constitution, but he had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed. In his concluding speech to the Constituent Assembly, Dr. Ambedkar said that India was entering a life of ‘contradictions’ on 26th January, 1950. According to him in politics, Indians would have equality but in social and economic life, there would be inequality. The politics should be based on the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In social and economic life, by reason of social and economic structure one must continue to deny the principle of one man one value.

Question 14.
What are the various functions of a Constitution?
Answer:
A Constitution performs several functions such as :

  • It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
  • It specifies how the government will be constituted, and who will have power of taking which decisions.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society. (Any three)

Question 15.
How does the Indian Constitution describes the institutional arrangements?
Answer:
The Constitution describes the institutional arrangements in a very legal language.

  • The Indian Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country.
  • It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions.
  • It puts limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizen that cannot be violated.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why was the making of the Indian Constitution not an easy affair?
Answer:
Like South Africa, India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances.

  • The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences.
  • This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan. Atleast ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence.
  • The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
  • The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task. When the Constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today.
  • The makers of the Constitution had anxieties about the present and the future of the country.

Question 2.
Why should we accept the Constitution made by the Assembly more than fifty years ago?
Answer:
The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time. Many countries of the world have had to rewrite their Constitution afresh because the basic rules were not accepted to all major social groups or political parties.

Over the last half a century, several groups have questioned some provisions of the Constitution. But no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself. This is an unusual achievement for any constitution. The second reason for accepting the Constitution is that the Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no universal adult franchise at that time. So, the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by all the people of India.

The way in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than two thousand amendments were considered.

Every document presented, and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution. These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution.

Question 3.
Explain the different key words used in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Several key words have been used in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution :

(i) WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA: The constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.

(ii) SOVEREIGN: People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

(iii) SOCIALIST: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

(iv) SECULAR: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

(v) DEMOCRATIC: A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government is run according to some basic rules.

(vi) REPUBLIC: The head of the stats is an elected person and not a hereditary . position.

(vii) JUSTICE: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities must be reduced. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

(viii) LIBERTY: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.

(ix) EQUALITY: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities must be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.

(x) FRATERNITY: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

Question 4.
“The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world” Comment.
Answer:
The South African constitution inspires democrats all over the world in the following ways.

  • A state denounced by the entire world till recently as the most undemocratic one is now seen as a model of democracy.
  • What made this change possible was the determination of the South African people to work together, to transform bitter experience into the binding glue of a rainbow nation.
  • The people of South Africa have of agreed that everybody should become a part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past.
  • It is also a charter for the transformation of our country into one which is truly shared by all its people. It is a country in which the fullest sense belongs to all blacks and whites, women and men.”
  • The Preamble to the South African Constitution sums up the spirit.

Constitutional Design Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on Nelson Mandela.
Solution:
Nelson Mandela fought against white domination in South Africa. He cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities.

The South African government tried him for treason and imprisoned him for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country. Mandela spent 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded prison, Robben Island.

After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela was released. On 26th April 1994, the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was unfurled marking the newly born democracy in the world. Nelson Mandela was made the first President of this new democracy.

Question 2.
What is a Constitution?
Solution:
Unlike a monarchy, in a democracy the rulers are not free to do what they like. Certain basic rules have to be followed by the citizens and the government. These rules put together are called the Constitution. As the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.

Question 3.
What was basis of the apartheid regime in South Africa?
Solution:
The apartheid regime differentiated people on the basis of their skin colour. The native people of South Africa who were black skinned were called ‘blacks’. They made up about three fourth of the population. People of mixed races who were called ‘coloured’. The White Europeans were called ‘Whites’. The white rulers treated all non whites as inferior.

Question 4.
How were the non whites discriminated?
Solution:
The non whites did not have any voting rights. The apartheid regime was particularly oppressive for the ‘blacks’ and the ‘coloured’. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.

There were separate trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools and public toilets, for the whites and blacks. The blacks were not allowed into the Churches frequented by the whites. There were not allowed to form any association to represent their problems. This system of racial discrimination, unique to South Africa, was called Apartheid.

Question 5.
Which was the first organisation that led the first against Apartheid?
Solution:
The African National Congress (ANC) was the first organisation that led the struggle against Apartheid.

Question 6.
Why is South Africa called a ‘rainbow nation’ today?
Solution:
There is no social or any discrimination based on skin colour in free south Africa, today. Blacks, whites and coloured people, men and women, live as free citizens, in total harmony. This is why they call South Africa a ‘rainbow nation’.

Question 7.
What was the situation at the time India achieved independence?
Solution:
At that time of independence, the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. India and Pakistan were born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan. Lakhs of people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. This created a lot of turmoil.

Question 8.
Write a short note on the first Constituent assembly.
Solution:
Elections to the first Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. The elected members drafted the document called the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting in November 1946. Soon after the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. The Indian Constituent assembly had 299 members. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949. The constitution only came into effect on January 26, 1950. So Republic Day is celebrated on the 26th of January , every year.

Question 9.
How is the South African Constitution looked upon today?
Solution:
The South African constitution inspires democrats all over the world. South Africa was a State which was looked down upon by many during the Apartheid regime. Today the determination of the people of South Africa to work together, without bearing any grudges against the white regime in looked upon with great respect.
The South African Constitution sees people of all skin colours as equal. Men and women are treated equally.

Question 10.
What is a Preamble? Quote the Preamble of our constitution.
Solution:
A Preamble is an introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution.

” We, the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and secure to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political. Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. Equality of statue and of opportunity and to promote among them all fraternity, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation, in our constitutional assembly, this 26th day of November.1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.”

Question 11.
Who constituted the Constituent assembly?
Solution:
The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress, which led India’s freedom struggle. The Indian National Congress included a variety of political groups . these different groups had different opinions.

The Assembly also had many members who did not agree with the Congress. On the social platform, the Assembly was represented by members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

Question 12.
What is secularism?
Solution:
When a Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect it called a secular government. There is no official religion. Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion.

Question 13.
Define ‘ Democratic Republic’.
Solution:
‘ Democratic Republic’ is a form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government is run according to some basic rules. The head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary ruler.

Question 14.
Write a brief note on the following personalities.
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Sarojini Naidu
(c) Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Solution:
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru was born in the year 1889 and died in the year 1964. He was born in the state of Uttar Pradesh. He was a lawyer by profession. He was the Prime Minister of the interim government. As a Congress leader he advocated socialism, democracy and anti imperialism. Later he was appointed the First Prime Minister of India.

(b) Sarojini Naidu was born in the year 1879 and died in the year 1949. She was born in Andhra Pradesh. She was a poet, writer and political activist. She was among the foremost women leaders in the Congress. Later she was appointed the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.

(c) Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the year 1891 and died in the year 1956. He was born in Maharashtra. He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution. He was a Social revolutionary thinker and agitated against caste divisions and caste based inequalities. He was made the Law minister in the first cabinet of post independence India.

Question 15.
Was Mahatma Gandhi a member of the Constituent Assembly?
Solution:
No, Mahatma Gandhi was not a member of the Constituent Assembly.

Constitutional Design Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India on
(a) 26 January 1950
(b) 26 November 1949
(c) 26 January 1949
(d) 15 August 1947

Answer

Answer: (b) 26 November 1949


Question 2.
Which of the following sentences is wrong about Dr B.R. Ambedkar?
(а) He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
(b) He was born in Maharashtra.
(c) He was law minister in post-independence India.
(d) He was the founder of the Republican Party of India.

Answer

Answer: (b) He was born in Maharashtra.


Question 3.
Who among the following was not the member of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Rajendra Prasad
(c) T.T. Krishnamachari
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Answer

Answer: (a) Mahatma Gandhi


Question 4.
Nelson Mandela remained in the jail for
(a) 28 years
(b) 29 years
(c) 30 years
(d) 31 years

Answer

Answer: (a) 28 years


Question 5.
Apartheid in South Africa was discrimination on the basis of
(a) gender
(b) religion
(c) race
(d) economic status

Answer

Answer: (c) race


Question 6.
How many members had the Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution?
(a) 200
(b) 199
(c) 198
(d) 190

Answer

Answer: (b) 199


Question 7.
Which of the following terms is not included in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?
(a) Liberty
(b) Equality
(c) Secular
(d) Religion

Answer

Answer: (d) Religion


Question 8.
The Indian Constitution came into effect on
(a) 26 January 1949
(b) 26 January 1950
(c) 26 January 1952
(d) 26 November 1950

Answer

Answer: (b) 26 January 1950


Question 9.
On what charges was Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment?
(a) For treason
(b) For breaking the laws
(c) For corruption charges
(d) for possessing illegal property

Answer

Answer: (a) For treason


Question 10.
In which way did the system of apartheid discriminate among the South Africans?
(a) Restricted social contacts between the races
(b) Segregation of public facilities
(c) Created race-specific job categories
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 11.
why did the white regime decide to change its policies?
(a) Increase in protests and struggles
(b) Government realised that repression was becoming difficult
(c) Rise of sympathetic attitude in government for the blacks
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer

Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b)


Question 12.
when did South Africa become a democratic country?
(a) 26 April, 1995
(b) 26 April, 1994
(c) 24 March, 1994
(d) 27 April, 1996

Answer

Answer: (b) 26 April, 1994


Question 13.
Name the autobiography of Nelson Mandela.
(a) The Long Walk to Freedom
(b) South Africa Wins Freedom
(c) Walk to Freedom
(d) Our Freedom

Answer

Answer: (a) The Long Walk to Freedom


Question 14.
what did the white minority want from the new Constitution?
(a) Protect its privileges and property
(b) A separate country for themselves
(c) Reservation in legislature
(d) some special rights

Answer

Answer: (a) Protect its privileges and property


Question 15.
which of the following sentences is correct?
(a) All countries that have constitutions are necessarily democratic
(b) All countries that are democratic necessarily have constitutions
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above)

Answer

Answer: (b) All countries that are democratic necessarily have constitutions


Question 16.
Where was the 1931 session of Indian National Congress held?
(a) Nagpur
(b) Karachi
(c) Calcutta
(d) Delhi

Answer

Answer: (b) Karachi


Question 17.
According to which Act were the elections held to provincial legislatures in India in 1937?
(a) Government of India Act, 1935
(b) Government of India Act, 1919
(c) Government of India Act, 1909
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Government of India Act, 1935


Question 18.
which revolution in the world inspired the Indians to set up a socialist economy?
(a) French Revolution
(b) Turkish Revolution
(c) Russian Revolution
(d) American War of Independence

Answer

Answer: (c) Russian Revolution


Question 19.
when did the Assembly adopt the Constitution?
(a) 26 November, 1949
(b) 26 December, 1949
(c) 26 January, 1950
(d) 26 January, 1949

Answer

Answer: (a) 26 November, 1949


Question 20.
How many amendments were considered before adopting the Constitution?
(a) Around 500
(b) Around 2000
(c) Around 1550
(d) Around 1000

Answer

Answer: (b) Around 2000


Question 21.
Who among these leaders was a bitter critic of Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Sarojini Naidu
(c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Answer

Answer: (c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar


Question 22.
The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. What is it called?
(a) Preface
(b) Preamble
(c) Introduction
(d) Article

Answer

Answer: (b) Preamble


Question 23.
which of these countries is/are examples of a Republic?
(a) USA
(b) India
(c) South Africa
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 24.
which of these positions is correct in relation to the ‘Sovereign’ status of India?
(a) USA can decide India’s foreign policy
(b) USSR can support the CPI (M) in setting up its government here
(c) The Indian government only can decide its internal and external policies
(d) Pakistan can control India’s Armed Forces

Answer

Answer: (c) The Indian government only can decide its internal and external policies


Question 25.
which of the following days is celebrated to mark the enforcement of the constitution?
(a) Republic Day
(b) Independence Day
(c) Gandhi Jayanti
(d) Constitution Enforcement Day

Answer

Answer: (a) Republic Day


Question 26.
The Constituent Assembly met for how many days?
(a) 114
(b) 280
(c) 365
(d) 150

Answer

Answer: (a) 114


Question 27.
When did the Indian constitution come into force?
(a) 26th Nov, 1949
(b) 15th August, 1947
(c) 26th Jan, 1950
(d) 26th Jan, 1930

Answer

Answer: (c) 26th Jan, 1950


Question 28.
When was the Constitution of India adopted?
(a) 26th Nov, 1949
(b) 26th Jan, 1949
(c) 26th Jan, 1950
(d) 26th Nov, 1950

Answer

Answer: (a) 26th Nov, 1949


Match the Following:

Column AColumn B
1. Kanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshia. Captain of the first national hockey team
2. Jawaharlal Nehrub. Leader of the Communist Party of India
3. Somnath Lahiric. Three times the president of Congress
4. Baldev singhd. Founder of the Swatantra Party
5. Jaipal Singhe. Education Minister in the first union cabinet
6. Rajendra Prasadf. Defence Minister in the union cabinet
7. Abul Kalam Azadg. Advocate of socialism, democracy and anti-imperialism
Answer

Answer:

Column AColumn B
1. Kanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshid. Founder of the Swatantra Party
2. Jawaharlal Nehrug. Advocate of socialism, democracy and anti-imperialism
3. Somnath Lahirib. Leader of the Communist Party of India
4. Baldev singhf. Defence Minister in the union cabinet
5. Jaipal Singha. Captain of the first national hockey team
6. Rajendra Prasadc. Three times the president of Congress
7. Abul Kalam Azade. Education Minister in the first union cabinet

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