The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 1
Important topics from this chapter.
- Organisation of Production
- Change in the Traditional Activities
- Fanning in Palampur
- Palampur is a small village. About 450 families live here. It is 3 km away from Raiganj — a big village.
- Shahpur is the nearest town to the village.
Main Production Activities
- Farming is the main production activity in the village Palampur.
- Most of the people are dependent on farming for their livelihood.
- Non-farming activities such as dairy, small-scale manufacturing (e.g., activities of weavers and potters, etc.), transport, etc., are carried out on a limited scale.
Factors of Production (or Requirements for Production of Goods and Services)
- Land, labour and capital are the basic requirements for the production of goods and services which are popularly known as factors of production.
- Land includes all free gifts of nature, e.g., soil, water, forests, minerals, etc.
- Labour means human effort which of course includes physical as well as mental labour.
- Physical capital is the third requirement for production.
- Physical capital includes fixed capital (e.g. tools, machines, building, etc.) and raw materials such as seeds for the farmer, yarn for the weaver.
Important Changes in Farm Activities
Land area under cultivation is virtually fixed. However, some wastelands in India had been converted into cultivable land after 1960.
Over the years, there have been important changes in the way of farming, which have allowed the farmers to produce more crops from the same amount of land. These changes include:
- Multiple cropping farming
- Use of modern farming methods.
Due to these changes (in the late 1960s) productivity of land has increased substantially which is known as Green Revolution. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.
Labour: After land, labour is the basic factor of production. Small farmers provide their own labour, whereas medium and large farmers make use of hired labour to work on their fields.
Capital: After land and labour, capital is another basic factor of production. All categories of farmers (e.g., small, medium and large) require capital. Small farmers borrow from big farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply them various inputs for cultivation.
Modern farming requires a great deal of capital.
Sale of Surplus Farm Products
Farmers produce crops on their lands by using the three factors of production, viz. land, labour and capital. They retain a part of produce for self-consumption and sell the surplus in the nearby market. That part of farm produce which is sold in the market is called marketable surplus. Small farmers have little surplus output. It is the medium and big farmers only who have substantial surplus produce for selling in the market.
Out of every 100 workers in the rural areas in India, only 24 are engaged in non-farming activities. There is a variety of non-farming activities in the villages. Dairy, small scale manufacturing, transport, etc., fall under this category.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 1 The Story of Village Palampur Economics Social Studies (S.St)
Page No: 14
1. Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of the details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur. a. LOCATION:
b. TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE:
c. LAND USE (in hectares):
|Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)|
a. LOCATION: Bulandshahar district, Western Uttar Pradesh
b. TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE: 226 hectares
c. LAND USE (in hectares):
|Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)|
|Educational||2 primary schools and 1 high school|
|Medical||1 primary health centre and 1 private dispensary|
|Market||Raiganj and Shahpur|
|Electricity Supply||Most of the houses have electric connections. Electricity powers all the tube wells in the fields and is used in various types of small businesses.|
|Communication||Well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns. 3 kms from Raiganj. All-weather road connects it to Raiganj and further on to Shahpur. Many kinds of transport like bullock carts, tongas, bogeys, motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks are present.|
2. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?
Modern farming methods involve the use of high-yielding variety seeds. These seeds require a combination of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, agricultural implements like tractors, and proper irrigation facilities like electric tube wells to produce the best results. All these elements are manufactured in industries. Hence, it would be right to say that modern farming methods make use of a greater number of industrial outputs as compared to traditional farming methods.
The spread of electricity has helped the farmers of Palampur village in the following ways :
→ Most of the houses have electric connections.
→ Electricity is used to run tubewells in the fields.
→ Electricity is used in various types of small business.
4. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-thirds of the people are dependent on farming for
their livelihood. But of the total cultivated area in the country, a little less than 40 per cent is
irrigated even today. In the remaining areas, farming is largely dependent on rainfall which is
irregular and uncertain. Modern farming methods cannot be used in the absence of assured
adequate water supplies. India cannot achieve the goal of self-sufficiency in food grains unless
the area under irrigation is increased.
5. Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.
|Number of families||Land (hectare)|
|240||Less than 2|
|60||More than 2|
6. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?
Farm workers at Palampur village get lower wages than the minimum wages fixed by the government. The minimum wages for a farm labourer is fixed at Rs 115 per day. But farm labourers get only Rs 70 – 80. This happens because of heavy competition for work among the farm labourers at Palampur village.
8. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.
The different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land are:
A farmer with 1 hectare of land shall put under the category of small farmer. Most of the work would be done by the farmer and his family members. The farmer will normally use a pair of bullocks to plough the field. His family members would assist him in sowing the seeds. During harvest time, he may require to hire some labourers.
10. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
Medium and large farmers usually have surplus cash by selling their farm produce. Since they have land and house, they easily get loan from banks. Small farmers, on the other hand, may not be able to get bank loans. They have to depend on the local merchant and moneylender for loan.
11. On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
Savita required money for buying seeds, fertilisers and pesticides, and water for irrigation. She also needed money for repairing her farm instruments. So, she decided to borrow money from Tejpal Singh, a large farmer in her village. Tejpal Singh agreed to give the loan of Rs. 3000 at an interest rate of 24 per cent for four months. He also got her to agree to work on his field during the harvest season for Rs. 35 a day.
14. What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?
Three things that need to be done to encourage non-farm production activities in villages:
→ The government should set up schemes whereby landless labourers and small farmers are able to get cheap loans to start small individual/community businesses.
→ In addition to financial assistance, the government should set up rural workshops to enable the villagers to build on their skill levels.
→ The government should also work towards improving the infrastructure of villages so that the rural parts of the country are well connected to the urban areas.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the main reason behind growing three different crops in a year?
The village has a well-developed system of irrigation.
What are the main factors of production?
Land, labour, physical capital and human capital.
Machinery, work plants, equipments, new technology, buildings are the example of
Consumption of chemical fertilisers is highest in which State of India?
The quality of resources which can be improved through investment in education and training is the _______ .
Why is there heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in village Palampur?
Because people are ready to work for lower wages.
To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is called _______ .
The use of higher yields with combination of HYV (High Yielding Varieties) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc. refers to _______ .
One of the important non-farming activities besides farming in Palampur is _______ .
Some shopkeepers in Palampur buy various goods from wholesale markets in the cities and sell them in the village. This process is called .
Trading (exchange of goods).
Name two crops that grow in the rainy season.
Jowar and bajra
Money in hand and raw materials are an example of _______ .
When were the high yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds introduced to the Indian farmers? -<§01
In the late 1960s
What is the main production activity in Palampur village?
Farming is the main production activity in Palampur village.
What do you understand by the Green Revolution?
Green Revolution was started in the late 1960s in the field of agriculture, under this revolution, modern methods of farming were adopted to increase agriculture product.
Who are the small farmers?
Small farmers are those farmers who have less than 2 hectares of land.
How many people of Palampur village were engaged in non-farming activities?
25% people of Palampur village were engaged in non-farming activities.
What is the full form of HYV?
How can you say that the use of modern farming methods is beneficial for Indian farmers?
By using modern farming methods, Indian farmers are able to produce much greater amount of grains on a single plant. There is a large increase in the production of wheat. Using these methods, the farmers have greater amounts of surplus wheat to sell in the markets.
What is the most abundant factor of production?
Labour is the most abundant factor of production.
From where do most of the small farmers borrow money to arrange for the capital in Palampur?
Why do the farmers of Palampur follow multiple cropping?
It is because this method is the most common way of increasing production.
What is meant by working capital?
Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.
Give two examples of fixed capital.
Machines and buildings.
What role do markets play in the expansion of non-farm activities?
Goods and services produced are sold in the markets.
What is multiple cropping?
Multiple cropping means growing more than one crop on the same piece of land in a year.
Name the Indian states that tried out the modern farming methods at first.
Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.
What is measured as the crop produced on given piece of land during a single season?
Yield is measured as crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.
What are the constituents of modern farming methods?
The constituents of modern farming methods are use of high yielding variety of seeds, using chemical fertilisers and pesticides, as well as using plenty of water for irrigation.
Mention one difference between land and capital.
Land is a natural resource whereas capital is man-made factor of production.
What is the harmful effect of continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation?
The continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has led to the depletion of the water-table.
What is aim of production?
The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
What are the essential four requirements for production?
The essential four requirements for production of goods and services are :
- Land, and other natural resources like water, forests, minerals.
- Labour, i.e., people who will do the work. Each worker is providing the labour necessary for production.?
- The third requirement is physical capital, i.e., variety of inputs required at every stage during production.
- The fourth requirement is knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital and produce an output.
Mention the main features of the Green Revolution.
The main features of Green Revolution are :
- Increase in the production of wheat and rice.
- Use of chemical fertilizers.
- Use of insecticides and pesticides.
- Use of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds.
- Mechanisation of agriculture. (Any three)
What are the harmful effects of the Green Revolution.
The harmful effects of the Green Revolution are :
- The Green Revolutions is responsible for the loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.
- The chemical fertilizers provide minerals which dissolve in water and are immediately available to plants. But, these may not be retained in the soil for long.
What do you mean by working capital?
Production requires a variety of raw materials such as the yarn used by the weaver and the clay used by the potter. Also, some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. Unlike tools, machines and buildings, these are used up in production.
What was the major disadvantage associated with HYV seeds? Explain.
The biggest disadvantage associated with HYV seeds is the requirement of plenty of water and chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields are possible only from combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc. Chemical fertilisers and pesticides degrade our environment by killing necessary bacteria in soil. Poor farmers can not afford HYV seeds due to increased requirement of fertilisers and machinery. New machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration.
Discuss dairy farming, a non-farming, activity in village Palampur, in detail.
Dairy is a common activity in many families of Palampur. People feed their buffalos on various kinds of grass, the jowar and bajra that grow during the rainy season. The milk is sold in Raiganj, the nearby large village.
Two traders from Shahpur town have set up collection cum chilling centers at Raiganj from where the milk is transported to far away towns and cities.
Discuss small-scale manufacturing, a non-farming activity in village Palampur, in detail.
- Less than fifty people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur.
- Unlike the manufacturing that takes place in the big factories in the towns and cities, manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are done on a small scale.
- They are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. Rarely are labourers hired.
Describe transportation, a non-farming activity in village Palampur, in detail.
- There are varieties of vehicles on the road connecting Palampur to Raiganj.
- Rickshawallahs, tongawallahs, jeep, tractor, truck drivers and people driving the traditional bullock cart and bogey are people in the transport services.
- They ferry people and goods from one place to another, and in return get paid for it. The number of people involved in transport has grown over the last several years.
How did Mishrilal managed to get a small profit in his business?
Mishrilal has purchased a mechanical sugarcane crushing machine that run on electricity and has set it up on his field. Sugarcane crushing was earlier done with the help of bullocks, but people prefer to do it by machines these days.
Mishrilal also buys sugarcane from other farmers and processes it into jaggery. The jaggery is then sold to traders at Shahpur. In the process, Mishrilal makes a small profit.
What do you mean by physical capital? What are the items that come under physical capital?
Physical capital includes the variety of inputs required at every stage during production. The following items come under the category of physical capital:
(a) Tools, machines, buildings: Tools and machines range from very simple tools such as a farmer’s plough to sophisticated machines such as generators, turbines, computers, etc. Tools, machines, building can be used in production over many years.
(b) Raw materials and money in hand: Production requires a variety of raw materials such as the yarn used by the weaver and the clay used by the potter. Also, some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.
Write a short note on shopkeeping, a non-farming activity in village Palampur.
There are very less people involved in trade in Palampur. The traders of Palampur are shopkeepers who buy various goods from wholesale markets in the cities and sell them in the village. There are small general stores in the village selling a wide range of items like rice, wheat, sugar, tea, oil, biscuits, soap, toothpaste, batteries, candles, notebooks, pen, pencil, even some clothes. A few of the families whose houses are close to the bus stand have used a part of the space to open small shops. They sell eatables.
What are the various types of crops grown in village Palampur?
The entire land is cultivated in village Palampur. There are different types of crops grown in the village.
During the rainy season (kharif,) farmers grow jowar and bajra. These plants are used as cattle feed. It is followed by cultivation of potato between October and December. In the winter season (rabi), fields are sown with wheat. A part of the land area is also devoted to sugarcane which is harvested once every year. Sugarcane, in its raw form, or as jaggery, is sold to traders in Shahpur.
What do you mean by surplus? How is the sale of surplus farm products done?
Surplus is the difference between the quantity of total production of the crop produced by the farmer and the quantity that he keeps for self-consumption.
Medium and large farmers produce a large surplus of the crop. By selling this surplus crop in the market, they earn income. The traders at the market buy the crop and sell it further to the shopkeepers in the towns and cities.
How is the required capital in farming arranged?
- Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan.
- In contrast to the small farmers, the medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They are, thus, able to arrange for the capital needed.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
How can you say that Palampur is a well-developed village?
Palampur is a well-developed village because :
- This village has about 450 families belonging to several different castes. The 80 upper caste families own the majority of land in the village. Their houses, some of them quite large, are made of brick with cement plastering.
- The SCs (dalits) comprise one-third of the population and live in one corner of the village and in much smaller houses, some of which are of mud and straw.
- Most of the houses have electric connections. Electricity powers all the tubewells in the fields and is used in various types of small business.
- Palampur has two primary schools and one high school. There is a primary health centre run by the government and one private dispensary where the sick are treated.
Differentiate between fixed capital and working capital.
Both fixed capital and working capital come under the category of physical capital which is one of the four requirements for production of goods and services.
(i) Fixed Capital :
- It includes fixed factors of production which are used for years.
- Tools and machines range from very simple tools such as a farmer’s plough to sophisticated machines such as generators, turbines, etc.
- It includes tools, machines, buildings, computers, etc.
(ii) Working Capital :
- It includes variable factors of production which are needed to be arranged every time at the time of production.
- Whatever money and raw material are required for production, are included in it.
- It is required to be arranged according to the desired production.
What are the main reasons to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur?
The main reasons to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur are :
- To grow three different crops in a year in Palampur is due to the well-developed system of irrigation. Electricity came early to Palampur. Its major impact was to transform the system of irrigation.
- Persian wheels were, till then, used by farmers to draw water from the wells and to irrigate small fields. People saw that the electric-run tubewells could irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively.
- The first few tubewells were installed by the government. Soon, however, farmers started setting up private tubewells.
- As a result, by mid-1970s, the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares (ha.) was irrigated.
What is meant by the Green Revolution? Mention some of its important features.
- The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivation of wheat and rice using High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds. Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant.
- As a result, the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of foodgrains than was possible earlier.
- HYV seeds, however, needed plenty of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields were possible only from a combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc.
- Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modem farming method in India. The farmers in these regions set up tubewells for irrigation, and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming.
- Some of them bought farra-machinery like tractors and threshers, which made ploughing and harvesting faster. They were rewarded with high yields of wheat.
What are the features of traditional methods of farming?
The features of traditional methods of farming are :
- Traditional seeds are used in this farming.
- Irrigation depends upon monsoons.
- Wooden tools and equipment are used.
- Bullock carts are used to plough land.
- The production is done for family use.
- Manure and cow dung are used to increase the fertility of the soil.
What are the ill effects of the Green Revolution?
The ill effects of the Green Revolution are :
- The Green Revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizer.
- Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has led to the depletion of the water-table.
- Environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater, are built up over years. Once destroyed, it is very difficult to restore them.
- Modern farming methods used under the Green Revolution have overused the natural resources base. Maximum forestland was converted into agricultural land.
- The Green Revolution was limited only up to few states like Punjab and Haryana.
How is land distributed amongst the farmers of Palampur?
In Palampur, about one-third of the 450 families are landless, i.e., 150 families. Most of them are dalits, and have no land for cultivation.
240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size. Cultivation of such plots doesn’t bring adequate income to the farmer’s family.
On the other hand, more than half the area of the village is covered by plots that are quite large in size.
In Palampur, there are 60 families of medium and large farmers who cultivate more than 2 hectares of land. A few of the large farmers have land extending over 10 hectares or more.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers
Choose the correct option:
‘Bigha’ and ‘Guintha’ are
(a) the type of village house
(b) the type of hybrid seeds
(c) the measuring units of grain
(d) the measuring units of land area in village
Answer: (d) the measuring units of land area in village
Finance raised to operate a business is called
Answer: (d) capital
Minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is
Answer: (c) ₹115
The Green Revolution introduced the farmers to
(a) cultivation of wheat and rice
(b) cultivation of green vegetables
(c) cultivation of sugar cane
(d) cultivation of forests
Answer: (a) cultivation of wheat and rice
The small farmers constitute about _________ per cent of total farmers in India.
Answer: (d) 80
The new ways of farming need
(a) less land
(b) more capital
(d) all of the above
Answer: (d) all of the above
The most abundant factor of production is
(d) all of the above
Answer: (a) labour
Multiple Cropping refers to :
(a) Cultivation of wheat and rice
(b) cultivation of two crops in alternate rows
(c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year
(d) cultivating crops and rearing animals on the same farm
Answer: (c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year
Working capital stands for :
(a) Tools, machines and buildings
(b) raw materials and money in hand
(c) total share capital
(d) fixed deposits in financial institutions
Answer: (b) raw materials and money in hand
Which one of the following is not an effect of the modern farming?
(a) Soil degradation
(c) Decrease in groundwater
(d) Water pollution
Answer: (d) Water pollution
How many families lives in Village Palampur?
Answer: (c) 350
Where do most of the small farmers borrow money to arrange for the capital in Palampur?
(b) Co-operative Societies
(c) Village money lenders
(d) Friends and relatives
Answer: (c) Village money lenders
‘Operation Flood’ is related to :
(a) control flood
(b) produce fish
(c) milk production
(d) grain production
Answer: (c) milk production
Consumption of chemical fertilisers is highest in which state of India?
(d) Himachal Pardesh
Answer: (a) Punjab
Scope of farming activity is limited in Palampur due to
(a) Fixed amount of land
(b) lack of irrigation
(c) lack of labour
(d) none of the above
Answer: (a) Fixed amount of land
Who is a person who puts together land, labour and capital?
Answer: (b) Entrepreneur
High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds are developed in
(a) Research institutes
(c) Krishak Bharati Cooperatives
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) Research institutes
Which Kharif crop is used for cattle feed?
(c) Jowar and bajra
Answer: (c) Jowar and bajra
Which of the following is a modern farming method?
(a) Multiple cropping
(b) Use of HYV seeds
(c) Use of chemical fertilisers
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer: (d) Both (b) and (c)
Which area in India has a low level of irrigation?
(a) Deccan plateau
(b) Coastal regions
(c) Riverine plains
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer: (a) Deccan plateau
Multiple cropping means growing
(a) only two crops
(b) only three crops
(c) upto four crops
(d) more than one crop
Answer: (d) more than one crop
HYV seeds stands for
(a) Heavy yielding variety seeds
(b) High yielding variety seeds
(c) Half yielding variety seeds
Answer: (b) High yielding variety seeds
The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is
(a) Rs. 50
(b) Rs. 60
(c) Rs. 70
(d) Rs. 80
Answer: (b) Rs. 60
Which of the following is fixed capital?
(a) Tools and machines
(b) Fertilisers and pesticides
Answer: (a) Tools and machines
Which of the following is grown in the rainy season?
(a) Jowar and bajra
Answer: (a) Jowar and bajra
During your field visit talk to some farmers of your region. Find out:
- What kind of farming methods—modem or traditional or mixed—do the farmers use? Write a note.
- What are the sources of irrigation?
- How much of the cultivated land is irrigated? (very little/nearly half/majority/all)
- From where do farmers obtain the inputs that they require?
- Most of the farmers in my region use modem farming methods. However, some are still carrying on traditional methods. These farmers are too poor to follow modem farming methods which need more cash.
- Wells and tubewells.
- Majority of the cultivated land is irrigated.
- Farmers obtain the required inputs from the local markets. The money that they need to buy the inputs either comes from their own savings or they take a loan from the bank.
Fill in the Blanks
Among the three factors of production, we found that labour is the most abundant factor of production. There are many people who are willing to work as farm labourers in the villages, whereas the opportunities of work are limited. They belong to either landless families or
1. ______ They are paid low wages, and lead a difficult life In contrast to labour
2. ______ is a scarce factor of production. Cultivated land area is
3. ______ Moreover, even the existing land is distributed.
4. ______ among the people engaged in farming there are a large number of small farmers who cultivate small plots of land and live in conditions not much better than the landless farm labourer. To make the maximum use of the existing land, farmers use
5. ______ and
6. ______ Both these have led to increase in production of crops. Modem farming methods require a great deal of
7. ______ Small farmers usually need to borrow money to arrange for the capital, and are put to great distress to repay the loan. Therefore, capital too is a scarce factor of production, particularly for the small farmers. Though both land and capital are scarce, there is a basic difference between the two factors of production.
8. ______ is a natural resource, whereas.
9. ______ is man-made. It is possible to increase capital, whereas land is fixed. Therefore, it is very important that we take good care of land and other natural resources used in farming.
1. Families cultivating small plots of land
5. HYV seeds
6. chemical fertilisers