NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource (Updated for 2021 – 22)

People as Resource Class 9 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 2

According to the previous 3 years examinations, the following concepts are most important from this chapter and should be focussed upon.

  • Various Aspects of Human Resource Development
  • The Role of Education
  • Unemployment and Forms of Unemployment in India.

Human beings perform many activities which can be grouped into economic and non-economic.

Economic Activities: Economic activities refer to those activities of human which are undertaken for a monetary gain or to satisfy his/her wants. The activities of workers, farmers, shopkeepers, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, taxi drivers, etc. fall under this category.

Non-Economic Activities: Non-economic activities are ones that are not undertaken for any monetary gain. These are also called unpaid activities, e.g., Puja-paath, housekeeping, helping the poor or disabled, etc.

Classification of Economic Activities: Various economic activities can be classified into three main sectors, that is, primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. The primary sector includes activities like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry, farming and mining. In this sector, goods are produced by exploiting nature. In the secondary sector, manufacturing (small and large) and construction activities are included. The tertiary sector (also called service sector) provides various types of services like transport, education, banking, insurance, health, tourism, etc.

Market Activities and Non-Market Activities: Economic activities, i.e., production of goods and services can be classified into market activities and non-market activities. Market activities are’performed for remuneration. Non-market activities are the activities carried out for self¬consumption.

Activities of Women: Women generally look after domestic affairs like cooking of food, washing of clothes, cleaning of utensils, housekeeping and looking after children.

Human Capital: Human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in human beings. Population (human beings) become human capital when it is provided with better education, training and health care facilities.

People as a Resource: People as a resource is a way of referring to a country’s workforce in terms of their existing skills and abilities.

Human Capital Formation: When the existing human resource is further developed by spending on making the workforce more educated and healthy, it is called Human Capital Formation.

Quality of Population: The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, life expectancy and skills formation acquired by the people of the country.

Role of Education: Education is the most important component of Human Resource Development. In view of its contribution towards the growth of the society, government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP rose from 0.64% in 1951-52 to 3.98% in 2002-03. However, our national goal is 6% of GDP

Health: Health is another very important component of Human Resource Development. The efficiency of workers largely depends on their health.
There has been a considerable improvement in the country’s health standard. For instance, the life expectancy at the time of birth in India rose from 37.2 years in 1951 to 63.9 years in 2001. Similarly, the infant mortality rate has come down from 147 to 70 during the same time period.

Unemployment: Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the prevailing wage rates cannot find jobs. When we talk of unemployed people, we refer to those in the age group of 15-59 years. Children below 15 years of age and the old people above 60 are not considered while counting the number of unemployed.

Nature of Unemployment in India: Seasonal unemployment occurs when people fail to get work during some months of the year (that is, during off-season). Farm labourers usually face this kind of problem, i Disguised unemployment is another kind of unemployment found in rural areas. Such kind of problem arises due to excessive pressure of population on agriculture. Disguised unemployment refers to a situation wherein the number of workers in a job is more than actually required to do the job. The extra number of workers are disguisedly unemployed.

Consequences of Unemployment:

  • Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource.
  • Unemployment tends to increase the economic overload that is the dependence of the unemployed on the working population.
  • Unemployment may lead to an increase in social unrest and tension.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 2 People as Resource Economics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 27

Excercise

1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?

Answer

People as a resource is a way of referring to the country’s working population in terms of their
existing productive skills and abilities.

2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?

Answer

Human resource makes use of other resources like land and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. This is the reason why human resource is considered to be superior to the other resources.

3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?

Answer

Education is the most important component of human resource development.

→Proper education and training enable the formation of this human capital. An educated population is an asset, a resource. 
→ Education enhances the quantity and quality of individual productivity, which in turn adds to the growth of the economy. 
→It develops personality and sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for rapid economc growth.
 
4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Answer

Health plays an important role in human capital formation. A healthy person is more likely to realize his full potential and can become an asset for the economy. An unhealthy person is less likely to realize his potential and can become a liability for the economy.

5. What part does health play in an individual’s working life?
Answer
The health of an individual helps him to realise his potential and also gives him the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy individual is a liability to his place of work. The health of a person is directly related to his efficiency. As compared to an unhealthy individual, a healthy person can work more efficiently and with greater productivity.

6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Answer
Primary sector comprises activities related to the extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying are the activities undertaken in this sector.

Secondary sector comprises activities related to the processing of natural resources. Manufacturing is included in this sector.

Tertiary sector comprises activities that provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through various services. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, insurance, etc., are examples of tertiary activities.

7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Answer
Activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities. These have two parts – market activities (production for pay or profit) and non-market activities (production for self consumption).
Non-economic activities are the ones that do not add to the national income; for example, an individual performing domestic chores.

8. Why are women employed in low-paid work?

Answer
Education and skill are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market. Due to gender discrimination, women are generally denied the education and the necessary skills to become worthy contributors to the national income. As a result, a majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation. This is one of the reasons why they get paid less than men.

9. How will you explain the term unemployment?

Answer

Unemployment is a situation in which people who are able and willing to work at the going wages cannot find jobs.

An individual is termed as unemployed if he or she is part of the workforce of a country, and is capable and willing to work for payment, but is unable to do so.
10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Answer
Disguised unemployment: When more persons are working in a job than actually required, the situation is termed as disguised unemployment. For example, if in an agricultural activity eight people are engaged but this work/activity actually requires the services of five people, then three persons are extra. If these three people out of eight are withdrawn, total production will remain unaffected.
Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are able to find jobs only during some months of the year. For Example, Agricultural labourers find work only during the busy seasons, i.e., sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing. This is because of the seasonal character of agriculture in India.
11. Why is educated unemployment a peculiar problem of India?
Answer
Educated Unemployement is the situation wherein a number of youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find suitable jobs. India has a huge population and every year a large number of people graduate from schools and colleges. Employment generation in various sectors is not keeping pace with the number of educated people coming out of educational institutions. Due to this, educated unemployed is a peculiar problem of India.
12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?

Answer
India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the agricultural sector and its based industries. Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy. When the efficient and quality packaging happen with agricultural products then it can generate a lot of employement oppurtunities.

13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?

Answer
Measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed:
→ Make education at the secondary level more career-oriented, which would endow individuals with not only education but also the requisite skills for gaining successful employment.
→ Create a sort of screening process whereby each individual chooses subjects that suit his or her abilities.
→ The introduction of newer subjects and fields of study at the school level should be accompanied by a growth of job opportunities in the sectors that would employ the students electing to study such subjects.

15. Which capital would you consider the best – land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?

Answer
Human capital makes use of the other resources like land, labour and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. Hence, human capital may well be considered the best among all the resources.

People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care, the population becomes _______ .
Answer:
Human capital

Question 2. Greater knowledge with the help of improved technology can rapidly improve the production of land resources. One big example of this in India is _______ .
Answer:
Green Revolution

Question 3.
India’s large population can be used as a great asset, like other resources. It can be treated as a _______ .
Answer:
Human resource

Question 4.
Activities like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming and mining are part of _______ .
Answer:
Primary sector

Question 5.
Quarrying and manufacturing is included in the _______ .
Answer:
Secondary sector

Question 6.
What do you mean by ‘death rate’ ?
Answer:
Death rate is the number of people per 1,000 who die during a particular period of time.

Question 7.
The activities that result in the production of goods and services and add value to the national income are called _______ .
Answer:
Economic activities

Question 8.
Economic activities are basically of two types _______ .
Answer:
Market activities and non-market activities

Question 9.
Activities which include production of goods or services, including government service and are performed for pay or profit, are called _______ .
Answer:
Market activities.

Question 10.
Self-consumption is _______ .
Answer:
Non-market activities.

Question 11.
Our national policy aims at improving the _______ .
Answer:
Accessibility of healthcare and family welfare.

Question 12.
The workforce population of India includes people from the age group of _______ .
Answer:
15-59 years

Question 13.
Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the going wages, cannot find job. In India it is of two types in rural areas _______ .
Answer:
Seasonal and disguised unemployment.

Question 14.
In urban areas, youths with graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find job. This type of unemployment is called _______ .
Answer:
Educated unemployment

Question 15.
When does population become human capital ?
Answer:
Population becomes human capital when investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care.

Question 16.
What do you understand by the term ‘National Income’ ?
Answer:
National income is a sum of total income of goods and services produced in a country during a financial year.

Question 17.
What is Infant Mortality Rate ?
Answer:
Death of a child under one year of age.

Question 18.
How can a large population be turned into a productive asset ?
Answer:
A large population can be turned into a productive asset by making investment in human capital.

Question 19.
What do you understand by Seasonal Unemployment ?
Answer:
People find work at the time of sowing, harvesting and weeding, etc., but rest of the year, they are unemployed. This is called seasonal unemployment.

Question 20.
How can infant mortality be reduced ?
Answer:
Infant mortality can be reduced by protection of children from infection, ensuring the nutrition of both the mother and the child, and child care.

Question 21.
What does increase in longevity of life indicate?
Answer:
Increase in longevity of life is an indicator of good quality of life marked by self-confidence.

Question 22.
What are the main consequences of unemployment?
Answer:
Employment leads to wastage of manpower resources and it tends to increase economic overload.

Question 23.
What do you mean by “Birth Rate”?
Answer:
Birth rate is the number of babies born for every 1,000 people during a particular period of time.

Question 24.
When we refer to a person as a ‘resource’, we are referring to which of his/her skills?
Answer:
When a person is referred to as a resource, it refers to that person’s productive skills and abilities.

Question 25.
What is the main purpose of mid-day meal scheme?
Answer:
Mid-day meed scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.

Question 26.
What is the reason behind the development of vocational streams?
Answer:
Vocational streams have been enveloped to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.

Question 27.
Which sector of the Indian economy absorbs the maximum labour?
Answer:
Agriculture is the most labour-absorbing sector of the economy.

Question 28.
What do you understand by the term “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan”?
Answer:
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is a flagship programme of Government of India that aims to provide elementary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.

Question 29.
What is the name of the school set in each district by the government for the talented students of a rural area?
Answer:
Navodaya Vidyalaya.

Question 30.
What is the current literacy rate of India, according to Census of 2011?
Answer:
According to Census of 2011, the literacy rate of India is 74 per cent.

People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the main difference between ‘Human Capital’ and ‘Human Capital Formation’?
Answer:
Human Capital: Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and health care.
Human Capital Formation: When the existing ‘human resource’ or ‘human capital’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it is known as human capital formation.

Question 2.
List the demerits of increase in population.
Answer:
The demerits of population increase are :

  • The per capita income drops.
  • Non-productive force increases.
  • The people below poverty line increases.
  • Resources like land, factories or other tools and machinery are divided into more persons so profit becomes divided.
  • Slums come up.
  • Unemployment increases.

Question 3.
What is the importance of education.
Answer:
The importance of education is as follows :

  • It helps a person to realise his potential and the ability to do work.
  • It provides new aspiration. It develops values of life. It contributes towards the growth of society also.
  • It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.

Question 4.
List down the disadvantages of unemployment.
Answer:
The disadvantages of unemployment are :

  • It leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy, turn into liability Inability of educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment implies a great waste.
  • Unemployment is a social evil. Unemployed people are frustrated class. There is a feeling of helplessness and despair among the youth. Unemployment creates social unrest and tension. It leads to oppression and exploitation in the society.
  • It tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases.

Question 5.
Distinguish between market activities and non-market activities.
Or
What are the two types of economic activity? Explain.
Answer:

  • Market Activities: Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs, i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. These include production of goods or services including government service.
  • Non-market Activities: Non-market activities are the production for self-consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets.

Question 6.
Suggest any three ways to transform population load into an asset.
Answer:
The three ways to transform population load into an asset are :

  • To improve literacy rate: Education provides new aspiration and develops values of life. Education helps in enhancing the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
  • Health: The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. Increase in longevity of life in an indicator of good quality of life marked by self-confidence. It involves the protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition and along with mother and the child and child care.
  • Formation of skills: Providing vocational and skill-based education helps the people to get employment and therefore, they contribute to the national income later.

Question 7.
What is the nature of unemployment in India?
Answer:
In India, unemployment is widespread. Unemployment is found both in its rural and urban areas. There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in its rural areas. People here are dependent on agriculture. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependant upon agriculture.

In urban areas, educated unemployment has become a serious problem. Many educated youths are not able to find jobs. Unemployment among graduates and post-graduates has increased f§ster than among the matriculates.

Question 8.
What measures have been taken by the government to spread education and skills among boys and girls ?
Answer:
There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education with a special emphasis on girls. There is also an establishment of pace setting of schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district. Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.

Question 9.
What are the objectives of the 12th Five Year Plan in the field of education?
Answer:
The 12th plan endeavoured to raise the country’s Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education in the age group of 18 to 23 years to 25.2% by 2017-18 and to reach the target of 30% by 2020-21, which would be broadly in line with world average. The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of state-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology. The plan also focuses on distance education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distance and IT education institutions.

Question 10.
What are the measures taken by the government to improve literacy conditions in India?
Answer:
The following the measures have been taken by the government to improve literacy conditions in India

  • Opening of Navodaya Vidyalayas: Government has started to establish Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district. Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
  • Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of age group 6-14 years. It is an initiative of the Central Government in partnership with the States, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
  • Mid-day Meal Scheme: It is a programme aimed to encourage attendance and retention of children in schools and improve their nutritional status.

Question 11.
Why did Japan emerge as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource?
Answer:
Japan emerged as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource because :

  • As they did not have any other resource they invested in the development of human resource.
  • They import the natural resource needed in their country. They have invested on people, especially in the field of education and health.
  • These people have made efficient use of other resources, like land and capital. Efficiency and the technology evolved by people have made these countries rich and developed.

Question 12.
How are the children of educated parents different from those of uneducated parents?
Answer:
The children of educated parents are different from those of uneducated parents in the following ways :

  • Children of educated parents get better opportunities and support in their education.
  • Their nutritional values are taken care in a better way by the educated parents in comparison to the uneducated parents.
  • The children of educated parents do not lack in hygiene as the educated parents are conscious about it.

Question 13.
Give an account of educational achievements made in India so far.
Answer:
Over the past 50 years, there has been a significant growth in the number of universities and institutions of higher learning in specialized areas.

The plan outlay on education has increased from ₹ 151 crore in the first plan to ₹ 3766.90 crore in the eleventh plan. The expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP rose from 0.64% in 1951-52 to 3.0% in 2015-16 (B.E.) and has remained stagnant around 3% from past few years. The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11.

People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does investment in human capital yield a return just like investment in physical capital?
Answer:
(i) Investment in human capital (through education, training, medical care) yields a return just like investment in physical capital. This can be seen directly in the form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons, as well as the higher productivity of healthier people,

(ii) Not only do the more educated and the healthier people gain through higher incomes, society gains also in other indirect ways because the advantages of a more educated or a healthier population spreads to those also who themselves were not directly educated or given health care. In fact, human capital is in one way superior to other resources like land and physical capital. Human resource can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.

Question 2.
What different the strategies should be made by the government to solve the unemployment in India.
Answer:
The strategies made by the government to solve the problem of unemployment in India:

  • Heavy Investment in Basic Industries: Investment in heavy and basic industries and consumer goods industries should be increased. They provide more employment along with the supply of consumer goods.
  • Development of Cottage and Small-scale Industries: They provide more employment by adopting labour intensive techniques.
  • Change in Educational System: More emphasis should be given to vocational education.
  • Checking of Population Explosion: Rapidly rising population should be checked by adopting family planning and welfare schemes.
  • Modernisation of Agriculture: Modernisation of agriculture should be done. Waste lands should be utilised.
  • Introduction of Rural Works Programmes: Rural works programmes should be increased.
  • Developing Infrastructure of Economy: Infrastructure of the economy should be developed.
  • Subsidies to Private Sector: Subsidies and other incentives should be given to private sector.
  • Stress on Self-employment: Young entrepreneurs should be encouraged for sell-employment by giving proper training and financial assistance.

Question 3.
What is an economic activity ? What cue various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector ?
Answer:
Economic activities: All the activities which give us some income are called economic activities. Pulling cycle-rickshaw, cleaning houses, selling vegetables and working in schools, factories, banks, etc. are economic activities.
Activities undertaken in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors are :

  • Primary Sector: Activities concerned with collecting or making available material provided by nature are included in primary sector like agriculture, poultry farming, mining, fishing, etc.
  • Secondary Sector: The activities which are associated with transforming raw material or primary products into commodities useful to man such as manufacturing, etc.
  • Tertiary Sector: The activities which are essential for running modern factories in a big way are termed as tertiary sector. Activities like trading, banking, health, education, insurance, etc. are included in tertiary sector and all there providing services.

Question 4.
What are the different types of unemployment found in India?
Answer:
The different types of unemployment found in India are :

  • Disguised unemployment: In disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed. They have agricultural plot where they find work. This usually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activity.
  • Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependant upon agriculture usually face such ldnd of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing is done. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
  • Educated unemployment: Educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon in urban areas. Many youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find job. A study showed that unemployment of graduate and post-graduate has increased faster than among matriculates.

Question 5.
How does Sarva Siksha Abhiyan help in improving elementary education in India?
Answer:
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years by 2010. It is a time-bound initiative of the Central Government, in partnership with the States, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.

Along with it, bridge courses and back-to-school camps have been initiated to increase the enrolment in elementary education. Mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status. It is because of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan that there has been a significant growth in literacy \ rates in India from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11. These policies have added to the literate population of India.

People as Resource Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
Which of the following is the most labour absorbing sectors of the Indian economy?
(a) Primary sector
(b) tertiary sector
(c) Secondary sector
(d) Private sector

Answer

Answer: (a) Primary sector


Question 2.
Which of the following is included in the primary sector?
(a) Manufacturing
(b) Tourism
(c) Forestry
(d) Communication

Answer

Answer: (b) Tourism


Question 3.
Which of the following is included in the tertiary sector?
(a) Fishing
(b) Trade
(c) Mining
(d) Health

Answer

Answer: (d) Health


Question 4.
Which of the following is included in the secondary sector?
(a) Poultry farming
(b) Manufacturing
(c) Transport
(d) Quarrying

Answer

Answer: (b) Manufacturing


Question 5.
Investment in human capital can be made through
(a) Education
(b) Training
(c) Medical care
(d) All the three

Answer

Answer: (d) All the three


Question 6.
The literacy rate during 2010-11 was
(a) 64%
(b) 74%
(c) 70%
(d) 80%

Answer

Answer: (b) 74%


Question 7.
Which of the following sectors faces the problem of seasonal unemployment?
(a) Agriculture
(b) Service sector
(c) Trade
(d) IT sector

Answer

Answer: (a) Agriculture


Question 8.
Infant mortality rate is the death of a child under
(a) One year
(b) Three, year
(c) Two year
(d) Four year

Answer

Answer: (a) One year


Question 9.
The workforce population includes people from 15 years to
(a) 59 years
(b) 62 years
(c) 60 years
(d) 65 years

Answer

Answer: (a) 59 years


Question 10.
Which age group of children does the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan aim to promote education?
(a) 6 to 10 years
(b) 5 to 3 years
(c) 6 to 14 years
(d) 7 to 12 years

Answer

Answer: (c) 6 to 14 years


Question 11.
The number of females per thousand males refers to :
(a) Sex Ratio
(b) Literacy Rate
(c) Infant Mortality Rate
(d) Birth Rate

Answer

Answer: (a) Sex Ratio


Question 12.
Decrease in IMR (Infant Mortality Rate) of a country signifies:
(a) Increase in life expectancy
(b) Increase in GNP
(c) Economic development of a country
(d) Increase in number of colleges in a country

Answer

Answer: (a) Increase in life expectancy


Question 13.
What is the life expectancy in India as per the census of 2000?
(a) 72 years
(b) 53 years
(c) 64 years
(d) 80 years

Answer

Answer: (c) 64 years


Question 14.
Which one of the following is considered important to create a ‘virtuous cycle’ by the parents?
(a) To sand their children to the school
(b) To provide goods food to their children
(c) To join their children in corporate schools
(d) To take care of the health and education of their children

Answer

Answer: (d) To take care of the health and education of their children


Question 15.
Which one from the following is the most labour absorbing sector?
(a) Agriculture
(b) Fisheries
(c) Poultry farming
(d) Mining

Answer

Answer: (a) Agriculture


Question 16.
What is the aim of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan?
(a) To provide elementary education to women
(b) To provide elementary education to the rural poor
(c) To provide elementary education to all children in the age group 6-14 years
(d) To provide elementary education to the urban poor

Answer

Answer: (c) To provide elementary education to all children in the age group 6-14 years


Question 17.
What is the expended form of PHC
(a) Public Health Club
(b) Private Health Club
(c) Primary Health Centre
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Primary Health Centre


Question 18.
What is the sex-ratio of India According to 2001 census, :
(a) 921 females per 1000
(b) 930 females per 1000
(c) 928 females per 1000
(d) 933 females per 1000

Answer

Answer: (b) 930 females per 1000


Question 19.
If a person cannot find jobs during some months of the year, which type of employment is this called?
(a) Structural unemployment
(b) Cyclical unemployment
(c) Seasonal unemployment
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Seasonal unemployment


Question 20.
The persons who are not working by their own willing is covered under
(a) seasonal unemployment
(b) disguised unemployment
(c) educated unemployment
(d) none of the above

Answer

Answer: (d) none of the above


Question 21.
Where is Seasonal unemployment found
(a) urban areas
(b) rural areas
(c) in remote areas
(d) both in rural and urban areas

Answer

Answer: (b) rural areas


Question 22.
The quality of population depends on
(a) literacy rate
(b) health
(c) skill
(d) all the above

Answer

Answer: (d) all the above


Question 23.
Which one from the following is the primary sector activities
(i) Forestry
(ii) Poultry farming
(iii) Animal husbandry
(iv) Manufacturing
(a) (i)
(b) (i), (ii), (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii), (iv)
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (b) (i), (ii), (iii)


Question 24.
Infant mortality rate refers to the death of a child under the age of
(a) 1 year
(b) 2 years
(c) 3 years
(d) 4 years

Answer

Answer: (a) 1 year


Question 25.
The scheme for the establishment of residential schools to impart education to talented children from rural areas is
(a) Kendriya Vidyalayas
(b) Navodaya Vidyalayas
(c) Sarvodaya Vidyalayas
(d) None of the aboves

Answer

Answer: (b) Navodaya Vidyalayas


Question 26.
What is India’s position in scientifically and technically manpower in the world?
(a) first
(b) second
(c) third
(d) fourth

Answer

Answer: (c) third


Question 27.
Which one from the following is include in Secondary sector includes
(a) trade
(b) marketing
(c) manufacturing
(d) education

Answer

Answer: (c) manufacturing


Question 28.
Increase in longevity of life is an indicator of
(a) good quality of life
(b) improvement in health sector
(c) better HDI (Human Development Index)
(d) all the above

Answer

Answer: (a) good quality of life


Question 29.
Which of the following is a significant step towards providing basic education to the children in the age group of 6-14 years?
(a) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
(b) Adult Education Programme
(c) Mid-day meal
(d) None

Answer

Answer: (a) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan


Question 30.
Why is literacy rate is low in the females?
(a) lack of equal education opportunities
(b) lack of transport facilities
(c) lack of infrastructure
(d) lack of income

Answer

Answer: (a) lack of equal education opportunities


Intext Activity Questions

Question 1.
Visit a village or colony near to your residential area and note down the various activities undertaken by the people of that village or colony.
If this is not possible, ask your neighbour what is their profession? In which of the three sectors will you categorise their work?
Say whether these activities are economic or non-economic activities:

  1. Vilas sells fish in the village market.
  2. Vilas cooks food for his family.
  3. Sakai works in the private firm.
  4. Sakai looks after his younger brother and sister.
Answer

Answer:

  1. Economic activity
  2. Non-economic activity
  3. Economic activity
  4. Non-economic activity

Question 2.
Visit a nearby hospital, either government or private and note down the following details.
(i) How many beds are there in the hospital you have visited?
(ii) How many doctors are there in the hospital?
(iii) How many nurses work in that hospital?
Besides, try to gather the following additional information:
(i) How many hospitals are there in your locality?
(ii) How many dispensaries are there in your locality?

Answer

Answer: Do it yourself.


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