# NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a challenge (Updated for 2021 – 22)

### Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 3

Poverty is the most difficult challenge faced by independent India. Poverty is a condition in which a person lacks the financial resources and essentials things to enjoy minimum standards of life. Poor people can be landless labourers in villages, jhuggi and slum dwellers in cities and towns, daily wage workers at construction sites, child , workers in dhabas or even beggars. India has the largest single concentration of the poor in the world, where every fourth person is poor.

Two Typical Cases Of Poverty
The following two cases show the many dimensions of poverty, including lack of proper food, shelter, healthcare, education as well as clean water and sanitation. They also show lack of a regular means of livelihood.

(i) Urban Case
Ram Saran is a daily wage labourer in a flour mill near Ranchi in Jharkhand. He earns around Rs. 1500 per month when employed. He supports his family of 6 persons, besides sending some money to his elderly parents. His wife and son also work, but none of his 4 children can attend school. The family lives in a one-room rented house on the outer areas of the city; The children are undernourished, have very few clothes or footwear and no access to healthcare.

(ii) Rural Case
Lakha Singh is a landless labourer in a small village near Meerut in Uttar Pradesh. By doing odd jobs for farmers, he earns Rs. 50 per day. Sometimes, he gets some foodgrain or other items instead of cash. He is not literate and his family of 8 people lives in a kuchha hut near the edge of the village. They have no access to healthcare, cannot afford new clothes or even soap or oil.

Poverty Analysis by Social Scientists
Social scientists, analyze poverty from many aspects besides levels of income and consumption.
These aspects are

• Poor level of literacy
• Malnutrition leading to poor resistance to disease
• Lack of job opportunities
• Lack of access to sanitation and safe drinking water and so on.

Indicators for Poverty
The most commonly used indicators for poverty analysis are social exclusion and vulnerability.

Social Exclusion
A social exclusion means living in a poor surrounding with poor people, excluded from enjoying Social equality of better off people in the better surrounding. Social exclusion can be a cause as well as a result of poverty which leads to exclusion of individuals or groups from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.

In India, the caste system is based on social exclusion. People belonging to certain caste were prevented from enjoying equal facilities, benefits and opportunities. This caused more poverty than the lower income.

Vulnerability
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities e.g. members of a backward caste or individuals e.g. widow, physically handicapped person of becoming or remaining poor in the coming time.
Vulnerability is determined by various options available to different communities in terms of assets, education, job, health, etc and analyse their ability to face various risks like natural disasters. The group which face greater risk at the time of natural calamity are called vulnerable groups.

Poverty Line
Poverty line is an imaginary line used by any country to determine its poverty. It is considered appropriate by a country according to its existing social norms. It varies from time to time, place to place and country to country.
The most common method of determining poverty is income or consumption levels i.e. people will be considered poor if their income or consumption level falls below a given ‘minimum level’ (poverty line) necessary to fulfil the basic needs.

Poverty Line Estimation in India
In India, a subsistence level or minimum level of food requirement (as determined by its calorific value), clothing, footwear, fuel, lighting,-educational and medical requirements, etc are determined for estimating the poverty line. Since ih rural and urban areas, the nature of work and the prices of goods are different, the calorific requirement and expenditure per capita are also different.

Poverty line defined by the government as follows

The money value required for buying these calorie requirements (given in the last column) in terms of foodgrains and other items is revised periodically based on rise in prices of these goods. In urban areas, the prices of essential items is higher when compared to the rural areas and so, the poverty line is higher despite having low calorific requirement per day.

Organisations Involved in Estimating Poverty Line
Surveys for determining poverty line are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). It is an organisation under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation of the Government of India. It conducts surveys at the interval of 5 years. It is the largest organisation in India conducting regular socio-economic surveys. It was established in 1950.

For determining the poverty line in various countries and for their comparison, international organisations like the World Bank use a uniform standard method. As per this method, the poverty line is level of minimum availability of the equivalent of $1 per person per day. Poverty Trends In India There is a decline in poverty ratios in India from about 45% in 1994 to 21.9% in 2012. If the trend of declining poverty ratios in India continues at this rate, then the poverty line may reduce 20% in the next few years. Group Vulnerable to Poverty Poverty among social groups and economic categories varies widely in India. Social vulnerable groups are the households of the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). Economically vulnerable groups comprise rural landless labour households and urban casual labour households. However, during the last few years, all these groups except the Scheduled Tribes group, have witnessed a decline in poverty. In the year 2011-12, the proportions (as determined by NSSO) were as given below Source Reports of Employment and Unemployment among Social Groups in India NSSO. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. There is a great difference within poor families. It is observed that female infants, women and elderly members are not given equal access to resources available to the family. So, they are also called poorest of the poor. Story of Sivaraman The family of Sivaraman, a rural landless labourer has been cited as an example of such a family. There are 8 members in the family and both he and the wife work. His children do not attend school due to poverty. Only his son gets milk sometimes and they find difficulty in managing even two meals in a day. The story portays the sufferings of Sivaraman who works as an agricultural labourer, that too for just 5-6 months in a year. The sufferings and inequality within the family for women and children »are even more. Girls are not sent to school and not even given milk to drink, while the youngest child, who is a son gets milk to drink sometimes and his parents also plan for his education. Inter-State Disparities The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state. Recent estimates show while the all India HCR was 21.9% in 2011-12, states like Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa had all India poverty level. Bihar and Odisha continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 33.7% and 37.6% respectively. Alongwith rural poverty, urban poverty is also high in Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In states like Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, West Bengal, there is a significant decline in poverty. The states successful in reducing poverty have adopted different methods for doing so. Some examples are • Punjab and Haryana had high agricultural growth rates due to the effects of the Green Revolution. • Kerala has developed its human resources by investing more in education. • West Bengal has reduced poverty by implementing land reforms. • Public distribution of foodgrains at subsidised prices in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu has helped in poverty reduction. • Jammu and Kashmir have generated wide-ranging economic activities all across the state and converted potential in various sectors into employment opportunities. Global Poverty Scenario Although extreme economic poverty has reduced in the world from 43% in 1990 to 22% in 2008 (as per the World Bank), still there are vast regional differences. These are stated below The proportion of people living under poverty in different countries is defined by the international poverty line (means population below$1 a day).

In South-East Asia and China, there is a decline in poverty due to rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development.

In Latin America and the Caribbean, the poverty ratio has not changed significantly since 1981.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty has increased since 1981 due to successive droughts and other reasons. However, it declined from 51% in 1981 to 47% in 2008.
Economic Growth It is a term which defines an increase in real output of a country.

The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations (formulated in the year 2000) call for reducing the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day to half the 1990 level by 2015. Causes of Poverty Poverty continues in India for a variety of reasons. These are • Historically, there was a low level of economic development under the British colonial administration prior to 1947. They discouraged traditional handicrafts and also industrial development, reducing job opportunities and income growth. • The low level of economic development persisted for many years after independence and due to population increase, per capita income growth was low, increasing poverty. • The Green Revolution improved opportunities in agriculture, only in certain areas of the country. • The growth in the population increased the number of job seekers, who had to be content with low paying jobs in urban areas, leading to poverty spreading to towns and cities. • Sociocultural (i.e. traditions) and economic factors lead to extra expenditure, which ultimately increases poverty. • There is an unequal distribution of land and other resources, that is why there are large income inequalities also. • Land reforms have not been properly implemented and lack of adequate land resources is also a reason for many people to be poor. • Small farmers borrow money for seeds, fertilisers and pesticides, etc and later on fail to pay landing in debt trap. This high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty. Anti-Poverty Measures Removal of poverty has been one of the major objectives of Indian developmental strategy. The current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based on the following two objectives (i) Promotion of Economic Growth The government has promoted economic growth during the last few years. Economic growth was low till the 1980s but has increased significantly since then, causing significant poverty reduction. The high economic growth helps in a significant reduction of poverty. There is strong linkage between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. High economic growth encourages people to send their children (including the girl child) to school with hope of better economic returns from investing in education. The poof may not take direct advantage of economic growth. Due to lack of growth in the agricultural sector, the large number of people remain poor in rural areas. (ii) Targeted Anti-Poverty Programmes The government introduced targeted anti-poverty programmes starting from 1990. The results of these programmes have been mixed due to lack of proper implementation and improper targeting. Also, some schemes overlap others. Thus, the benefits of these schemes are not fully reaching the deserving poor. So, now the government is emphasising more on proper monitoring of all these programmes. Millennium Development Goals These are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. One of these was to reduce by 50% the proportion of people living on less than US$1 a day by the year 2015.

The Challenges to Poverty Reduction
Poverty reduction is still a major challenge in India, due to the wide differences between regions as well as rural and urban areas. Further, poverty should include not only the matter of the adequate amount of food but other factors like education, healthcare, shelter, job security, gender, equality, dignity and so on.
These give us the concept of human poverty. Poverty reduction is expected to be lower in the next 10-15 years.
In addition to anti-poverty measures, the government should focus on the following to reduce poverty.

• Higher economic growth.
• Universal free elementary education.
• The decrease in population growth.
• Empowerment of women and weaker sections.

Summary
The most difficult challenge faced by independent India is poverty.

India has the largest single concentration of the poor in the world, where every fourth person is poor.

Social scientists analysis poverty from many aspect besides level of income and consumption.

These aspects include poor level of literacy, lack of job opportunities etc.

Social exclusion aneb* vulnerability are the most commonly used indicators for poverty analysis.

The poverty line is an imaginary line used by any country to determine is poverty. It varies time to time, place to place and country to country.

The most common method of determining poverty is income or consumption levels.

The calorific requirement and expenditure per capita are different for urban and rural areas.

Surveys for determining poverty lines are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).

The organisation is under the Ministry of statistics and programme implementation of the Government of India.

Poverty among social groups and economic categories varies widely in India.

Female infants, women and elderly member are not given equal access to resources available to the family.

Bihar and Odisha continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 33.7% and 37.6% respectively.

In states like Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, there is significant decline in poverty.

The proportion of people living under poverty in different countries is defined by the international poverty line i.e. population below $1 a day. There is decline in poverty in South-East Asia and China due to rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development. The Millenium Development Goals of the United Nations formulated in 2000, call for reducing the proportion of people living on less than$ 1 a day to half the 1990 level by 2015.

There are many causes for the prevalence of poverty in India like unemployment, low economic development and income inequalities.

Removal of poverty has been one of the major objectives of Indian developmental strategy.

There is a strong linkage between economic growth and poverty reduction.

The Government of India introduced targeted anti-poverty programmes starting from 1990.

Poverty reduction is still a major challenge in India, due to the wide differences between regions as well as rural and urban areas.

#### NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 3 Poverty as a Challenge Economics Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 40

Excercise

1. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.

In India poverty line is measured or calculated considering the following factors required for subsistence:
1. Minimum level of food requirement,
2. Clothing
3. Footwear
4. Fuel and Light
5. Education and
6. Medical requirement etc.
These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices. The present formula for food requirement is based on the desired calorie requirement. On the basis of these calculations in 1999 – 2000, the poverty line in the rural areas was fixed Rs.328 per capita per month and in urban areas, it was Rs.454. People earning more than this amount were considered above the poverty line and earning less than this amount were considered as living below the poverty line.

2. Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?

The present methodology of poverty estimation does not look appropriate. It only takes one factor in view and that is the economic factor. Moreover it considers about a “minimum” subsistence level of living rather than a “reasonable” level of living.

Poverty has many dimensions. It is no longer confined to economic factors alone. With development, the definitions of what constitutes poverty also changes. Its concept has broadened to human poverty. A few persons may have been able to feed themselves but if they are without education, without shelter, without health-care, without job security, without self-confidence, without social equality, they are considered poor. If poverty is to be removed in real sense and the people are to be brought above the poverty line, not only that we need to increase their income but also, we have to provide the people with education, shelter, health-care, job-security, respect, dignity all.

3. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.

As per the data, there is a substantial decline in poverty ratio in India from 55 percent in 1973 to 36 percent in 1993. There was further decline from 36 percent in 1993 to 26 percent in 2000. Although the number of poor people remained stable (about 320 million) in the earlier two decades (1973 to 1993), there was significant reduction in the number of the poor to about 260 million till 2000. It may also be noted that poverty ratio always remained higher in rural areas compared to urban  areas.If the present trend continues, the people below poverty line may come down to less than 20 percent in the next few years.

4. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.

The major reasons for poverty in India are:
→ Colonial Rule: India went through a long phase of low economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles.
→ High growth in Population: The rapid growth of population, particularly among the poor, is considered one of the major causes behind Indian poverty. Poor people are illiterate and have traditional outlook. Hence, they are either ignorant of birth control measures or not convinced of the need of birth control. Moreover, they consider male child as an asset, that is, as a source of income and a source of security during old age.
→ Low Rate of Economic Development : The actual rate of growth in India has always been below the required level. It has been around 4 per cent since 1951. This has resulted in less job opportunities. This was accompanied by a high growth rate of population.
→ Unemployment : Another important factor that can be held responsible for the incidence of high poverty in India is the high degree of unemployment and underemployment. The job seekers are increasing at a higher rate than the increase in the employment opportunities.
→ Unequal Distribution: Although national income of India has been increasing since 1951, it was not properly distributed among different sections of the society. A large proportion of increased income has been pocketed by a few rich. They become richer. Consequently, the majority of people have to live below the poverty line.
→ Social Factors : Various social factors, viz., caste system, joint family system, religious faiths, law of inheritance, etc., have blocked the path of economic development.
5. Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.

Social Groups Vulnerable to Poverty :

→ Scheduled caste households
→ Scheduled tribe households
Economic Groups Vulnerable to Poverty :
→ Rural agricultural labour households
→ Urban casual labour households

6. Give an account of interstate disparities in poverty in India.

The proportion of poor is not the same in every state. Though there has been a decline in poverty in every state from the early seventies, the success rate of reducing poverty has varied from state to state. In 20 states and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average of 26. In others, the poverty ratios are higher than the national average. Among these, Orrisa and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 47 and 43 per cent respectively. Both rural and urban poverty are quite high in these states. On the other hand, states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal have shown a significant decline in poverty. Public distribution of food grains, focus on human resource development, high agricultural development and land reform measures are some of the factors responsible for the decline in poverty in these states.

7. Describe global poverty trends.

The proportion of people in developing countries living on less than $1 per day has fallen from 28 per cent in 1990 to 21 per cent in 2001. There has been a substantial reduction in global poverty since the nineteen eighties. However, the reduction in poverty is marked with great regional differences. Due to rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development, poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries. On the other hand, in South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan), the decline has not been as rapid. While the ratio of poverty in Latin America has remained the same,in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty has risen from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001. According to the world development report of 2001, countries like Nigeria, Bangladesh and India still have a large percentage of people living under poverty. Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier. 8. Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation. Answer Removal of poverty has one of the major objectives of Indian developmental strategy. The current government strategy of poverty alleviation is based on two planks: (1) Promotion of Economic Growth (2) Targeted Anti-poverty Programmes Some of the anti-poverty programmes undertaken by government at present are discussed below: → Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): Started in 1993, this programme aims to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns. → Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY): Launched in 2000, this aims to create and improve basic services like primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification. → National Food for Work programme (NFWP): Launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country, this programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desired to do manual unskilled work. → National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): This act was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts and also one third to the proposed jobs would be reserved for women. 9. Answer the following questions briefly – (i) What do you understand by human poverty? (ii) Who are the poorest of the poor? (iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005? Answer (i) Human poverty is a concept that goes beyond the limited view of poverty as lack of income. It refers to the denial of political, social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a “reasonable” standard of living. Illiteracy, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to proper healthcare and sanitation, caste and gender discrimination, etc., are all components of human poverty. (ii) Women, children (especially the girl child) and elder people in a poor family are regarded as the poorest of the poor because they are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family. (iii) Main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005: → The Act assures 100 days employment every year to every household. → Initially covering 200 districts, the Act would be extended later on to cover 600 districts. → One-third of the jobs are reserved for women. ### Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions Question 1. When the health of a person suffers due to deficiency of nutrients in food as per his daily requirement, he/she is said to be the victim of _______ . Answer: Malnutrition Question 2. What helped West Bengal in reducing poverty? Answer: Land reform measures. Question 3. How many people in India live below the poverty line? Answer: 270 million. Question 4. In rural areas in India, the accepted average calories requirement per person per day is _______ . Answer: 2400 calories. Question 5. What is the most difficult challenge faced by independent India? Answer: Poverty Question 6. PMRY was started in 1993, stands for _______ . Answer: Prime Minister Rojgar Yozana Question 7. SGSY was launched in 1999 for assisted poor families above poverty line by organising them into self-help groups. Answer: Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana Question 8. PMGY was launched in 2000 to provide rural shelter, rural drinking water, primary health, primary education and rural electrification. It stands for _______ . Answer: Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana Question 9. What is poverty? Answer: Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to satisfy minimum basic necessities of life, i.e., food, clothing, education, shelter, health, etc. Question 10. What are the two methods of estimating the poverty line. Answer: There are two methods of measuring poverty line— • Level consumption expenditure method and • Income method. Question 11. What are the two main causes of poverty in India? Answer: • Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. • A high growth rate of population. Question 12. What is the full form of NSSO? Answer: National Sample Survey Organisation. Question 13. Which are the poorest states in India? Answer: Odisha and Bihar Question 14. How is poverty defined by the World Bank? Answer: Poverty is defined by the World Bank as living on less than$ 1.90 per day.

Question 15.
What is the major reason behind huge income inequalities?
It is the unequal distribution of land and other resources.

Question 16.
Which organisation carries out survey for determining the poverty line?
National Sample Survey Organisation

Question 17.
How do you define vulnerability to poverty?
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years.

Question 18.
How does a country measure its poverty?
Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.

Question 19.
How is the food requirement estimated in poverty line?
The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement. Food items, such as cereals, pulses, vegetable, milk, oil, sugar, etc., together provide these needed calories.

Question 20.
What is the accepted average calorie requirement in India?
The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2,400 calories per person per day in mral areas and 2,100 calories per person per day in urban areas.

Question 21.
Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people become free of human suffering?
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 22.
Which scheme was started in 1993 to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns?
Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY).

Question 23.
For how many days MGNREGA provides employment?
100 days

Question 24.
Which country of Southeast Asia made rapid economic growth resulting in a significant decline in poverty?
China

Question 25.
Which social groups are most vulnerable to poverty?
The social groups, which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribe households.

Question 26.
Which states of India have seen a significant decline in poverty?

Question 27.
On which two planks does the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based upon?

• Promotion of economic growth.
• Targeted anti-poverty programmes.

Question 28.
What are the biggest challenges before India?
Providing healthcare, education and job security for all and achieving gender equality and dignity for the poor are the bigger challenges before India.

### Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the indicators used by social scientists to understand poverty?
The indicators used by social scientists to understand poverty are :

• Levels of income and consumption
• Lack of general resistance due to malnutrition
• Lack of job opportunities

Question 2.
What do you understand by vulnerability to poverty?
Vulnerability of poverty means some communities or social groups are more prone to poverty than other sections of the society. Members of a backward caste or individuals such as a widow or a physically handicapped person of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities. Further, it is analysed on the basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunami), terrorism, etc.

Question 3.
How were the British policies responsible for the increase in poverty in India?
There were a number of causes for the widespread in India. One of the historical reasons is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen-eighties. This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rate of incomes. This was accompanied by a high growth rate of population. The two combined to make the growth rate of per capita income very low. The failure at both the fronts : promotion of economic growth and population control perpetuated the cycle of poverty.

Question 4.
What does social exclusion mean?

• According to this concept, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in poor surrounding with other people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better-off people in better surroundings.
• Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense.
• Broadly, it is a through in which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.

Question 5.
How is economic growth linked with poverty reduction in India?
Till the early eighties, there were little per capita income growth and not much reduction in poverty. Afterwards the growth rate jumped from the average of about 3-5 percent a year in the 1970s to 6 per cent during the 1980s and 1990s. The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. There is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. This also encourages people to send their children, including the girl child, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.

Question 6.
How are socio-cultural and economic factors responsible for poverty?
Many socio-cultural and economic factors are responsible for poverty. In order to fulfil social obligations and observe religious ceremonies, people in India, including the very poor, spend a lot of money. Small farmers need money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. Since poor people hardly have any savings, they borrow. Unable to repay because of poverty, they become victims of indebtedness. So, the high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty.

Question 7.
Explain the principle measures taken in Punjab, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh to reduce poverty.
The measure taken in Punjab, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh to reduce poverty are :

• The principal measures taken in Punjab to reduce poverty is increasing the agricultural growth rates.
• Kerala has focused more on human resource development to reduce poverty.
• Andhra Pradesh focused on public distribution of food grains to reduce poverty.

Question 8.
Illustrate the seriousness of poverty in India?
In our daily life, we come across many people who we think are poor. They could be landless labourers in villages or people living in overcrowded jhuggis in cities.

They could be daily wage workers at construction sites or child workers in dhabas. They could also be beggars with children in tatters. We see poverty all around us. In fact, every fourth person in India is poor.

This means, roughly 270 million (or 27 crore) people in India live in poverty 2011-12. This also means that India has the largest single concentration of the poor in the world. This illustrates the seriousness of the challenge.

Question 9.
Is it correct that poverty line may vary with time and place?

• A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill the basic needs. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries.
• Therefore, poverty line may vary with time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.

Question 10.
Explain how the low level of education of the poor people can be held responsible for poverty in India.

• Low level of education of the poor is a major cause behind their poverty. Poor people do not have access to education.
• Because of illiteracy, the Indian farmers have failed to learn new methods of cultivation. Even the village moneylenders succeed in cheating them quite easily.
• Moreover, poor parents are not able to send their children to schools. So, the poor people are employed as unskilled workers and are paid low wages due to low level of education.

Question 11.
Describe the aims of Swarnajanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana.
Swarnayanti Gram Swarozgar : Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.

Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana : The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY) was launched in 2000. Under this scheme, additional central assistance is given to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.

Question 12.
What are the major reasons for less effectiveness of anti-poverty measures?
The major reasons for less effectiveness of anti-poverty measures are :

• One of the major reasons for less effectiveness is the lack of proper implementation and right targeting.
• Moreover, there has been a lot of overlapping of schemes.
• Despite good intentions, the benefits of these schemes are not fully reached to the deserving poor.
• Therefore, the major emphasis in recent years is on proper monitoring of all the poverty alleviation programmes.

### Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does rapid growth rate of population increase poverty in a country?

• Rapid growth of population in comparison to the rate of growth of resources hampers the process of economic development.
• Increase in population reduces the per capita income and lowers the standard of living in an economy.
• In India, rapid growth of population has put in more stress on its economic and social infrastructure and thereby, aggravating the problem of poverty and unemployment.
• Due to enormous population, a large portion of national income is used on consumption and less is left for saving which, in turn, reduces the capital formation.
• As a result of low capital formation, enough employment opportunities cannot be created which further aggravate the problem of poverty. Poor people in India are ignorant, illiterate and has very less means of entertainment. So, they end up adding more to the population.

Question 2.
What is poverty? What are the dimensions of poverty?
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get the minimum necessities of life.
Due to poverty poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost every place.
The dimensions of poverty are :

• Poverty means hunger and lack of shelter.
• It is a situation in which parents are not able to send their children to school or a situation where sick people cannot afford treatment.
• Poverty also means lack of clean water and sanitation facilities.
• It also means lack of a regular job at a minimum decent level. :
• Poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost every place, in farms, factories, government offices, hospitals, railway stations etc.

Question 3.
Discuss the various groups that are vulnerable to poverty.
The following groups are vulnerable to poverty :

• Social Groups: Social groups, which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe households. Although, the average for people below poverty line for all groups in India is 22, 43 out of 100 people belonging to Scheduled Tribes are not able to meet their basic needs.
• Economic Groups: Among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.
• Inequality of incomes within a family: There is also inequality of incomes within a family. In poor families, all suffer, but some suffer more than others. In some cases, women, elderly people and female infants are denied equal access to resources available to the family.

Question 4.
How can poverty be reduced in future in India?
Poverty can be reduced in the following ways :

• Increasing stress on universal free elementary education
• Increasing empowerment of the women and the economically weaker sections of society.
• Declining population growth.
• Avoiding caste and gender discrimination.
• Improving healthcare, education and job security.
• Removing inequality of wealth among people.

### Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
NFWP is stand for:
(a) National Federation for Work and Progress
(b) National Forest for Wildlife Protection
(c) National Food and Wheat Processing
(d) National Food for Work Programme

Answer: (d) National Food for Work Programme

Question 2.
How many people in India live below the poverty line?
(a) 30 crores
(b) 26 crores
(c) 28 crores
(d) 24 crores

Question 3.
Which social group is most vulnerable to poverty in India?
(a) Scheduled castes
(b) Scheduled tribes
(c) Casual labourers
(d) All the above

Question 4.
Poverty line in rural areas is (As per 1999 – 2000 prices)
(a) Rs 328
(b) Rs. 370
(c) Rs 454
(d) Rs. 460

Question 5.
What is the poverty ratio in the state of Orissa?
(a) 50%
(b) 47%
(c) 60%
(d) 57%

Question 6.
In which state have the land reform measures helped to reduce poverty?
(b) Punjab
(c) West Bengal
(d) Kerala

Question 7.
In which state is the public distribution system responsible for the reduction in poverty?
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)

Question 8.
Which of the following is responsible for high poverty rates?
(a) Huge income inequalities
(b) Unequal distribution of land
(c) Lack of effective implementation of land reforms
(d) All the above

Question 9.
Nutritional level of food energy is expressed in the form of
(a) calories per day
(b) wheat consumption
(c) rice consumption per day
(d) none of the above

Question 10.
Poverty ratio in India as compared to Pakistan is
(a) same
(b) half
(c) two times
(d) two and a half times

Question 11.
Which one from the following is considered as poor?
(a) A rich landlord
(c) A landless labourer
(d) A teacher

Question 12.
Which state has the largest percentage of poors in India?
(a) Bihar
(b) Orissa
(c) Kerala
(d) Punjab

Question 13.
Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people become free of human suffering ?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Indira Gandhi
(c) Jawahar lal Nehru
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose

Question 14.
Who do not come under the category of urban poor?
(a) The casual workers
(b) The unemployed
(c) The shopkeepe
(d) Rickshawpullers

Question 15.
Which scheme was started in 1993 to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns?
(a) Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana
(b) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(c) Rural Employment Generation Programme
(d) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana

Answer: (a) Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana

Question 16.
Which one of the social groups is vulnerable to poverty?
(a) Scheduled caste
(b) Urban casual labour
(c) Rural agricultural households
(d) All the above

Question 17.
Which one are not the major causes of income inequality in India?
(a) Unequal distribution of land
(b) Lack of fertile land
(c) Gap between rich and the poor
(d) Increase in population

Answer: (b) Lack of fertile land

Question 18.
The calorie requirement is higher in the rural areas because:
(a) they do not enjoy as much as people in the urban areas.
(b) food items are expensive.
(c) they are engaged in mental work.
(d) people are engaged in physical labour.

Answer: (d) people are engaged in physical labour.

Question 19.
Which of the following is not a valid reason for the poverty alleviation programme in India?
(a) Lack of proper implementation
(b) Lack of right targeting
(c) Corruption at the highest level
(d) Overlapping of schemes

Answer: (c) Corruption at the highest level

Question 20.
Which one from the following states is above the national average of poverty ratio?
(a) West Bengal