Food Security in India Class 9 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 4
Food security refers to availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times. Food security depends, on the Public Distribution System (PDS) and government vigilance and time to time action, when this security is threatened.
Meaning Of Food Security
Food security means availability of adequate supply of basic foodstuffs at all times.
The 1995 World Food Summit declared, “Food security at the individual, household, regional, national and global levels exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. The declaration further recognises that “poverty eradication is essential to improve access to food”.
Food security has the following dimensions
- Availability of Food It means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years stock stored in government granaries.
- Accessibility of Food It means food is within reach of every person.
- Affordability of Food It implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one’s dietary needs.
The above dimensions conclude that food security is ensured in a country only if * Enough food is available for all the persons.
- All persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality.
- There is no barrier on access to food.
Necessity Of Food Security
Food security is needed in a country to ensure food at all times. It is needed to ensure that no person in a country dies of hunger.
Effect of Natural Calamity on Food Security
Most of the time, the poorest section of society might be food insecure. But persons above the poverty line might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster/calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami, widespread failure of crops causing famine, etc.-
The total production of foodgrains decreases due to a natural calamity. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. The price of the food products goes up due to this shortage. At high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food. If such calamity happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation. Massive starvation might take a turn of famine. Thus, natural calamity affects food security adversely.
Famine and Starvation
A famine is characterised by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of impure water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
The most devastating famine in India was the famine of Bengal in 1943. Thirty lakh people died in it. The price of rice, the staple diet of the people in the region, increased sharply.
People Affected by Famine
No famine has occurred in India since independence. But today also, there are places like Kalahandi and Kashipur in Odisha where famine-like condition still prevails. Starvation deaths are also reported in Baran district of Rajasthan, Palamau in Jharkhand and man^ other remote areas.
Food Insecure People
Food and nutrition insecurity has affected the large section in India. But the most affected people in the rural areas are landless agricultural labourers, traditional artisans and petty self-employed workers. In urban areas the most affected are beggars and homeles people, casual labourers people employed in ill-paid occupations and construction migrant and other seasonal workers.
Further, many pregnant and nursing mothers and also children under the age of 5 years are food insecure people. The second National Health and Family Survey (NHFS) conducted during 1998-99. estimated that approximately 11 crore women and children in India are food insecure.
Food Insecure Regions
Economically backward states with high level of poverty, tribal and remote areas, regions more prone to natural disasters (like Eastern and South-eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh) consist the largest number of food insecure people.
Food insecurity also has an important aspect of hunger. To create food security, current hunger should be removed and the risk of future hunger should be reduced. Hunger has two dimensions i.e. chronic and seasonal.
National Health and Family Survey (NHFS) 1998-95 A large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. Three rounds of the survey have been conducted since the first survey in 1992-93 and this was the second. The survey provided .essential data on health and family welfare needed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and other agencies for policy and programme purposes as well as information on important emerging health and family welfare issues.
There are two types of hunger. These are as follows
(i) Chronic Hunger
It is a consequence of a diet regularly deficient in quantity and quality this is caused due to lack of income to buy food for survival. Chronic hunger has reduced in rural areas from 2.3% of households in 1983 to 0.7% in 1999 – 2000. In urban areas, it has reduced from 0.8% to 0.3% during the same period.
(ii) Seasonal Hunger
It is related to seasonal cycles of food growing and harvesting. It affects landless* agricultural labourers in rural areas the most. In urban areas, casual construction workers suffer from this during the time when they do not get work. The proportion of households experiencing seasonal hunger in rural areas has reduced significantly from 16.2% in 1983 to 2.6% in 1999-2000. In urban areas, it has reduced from 5.6% to only 0.6% during the reference period.
Note Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which certain nutrients are lacking or in wrong proportions.
Measures for Self-Sufficiency in Foodgrains.
India is aiming at self-sufficiency in foodgrains since independence. India has adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains. The’ Green Revolution during the late 1960s and early 1970s helped significantly to achieve this, although the success varied from region to region.
During this period, High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of wheat and rice were introduced in many states. The highest rate of growth was achieved in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, where foodgrain production jumped from 7.23 million tonnes in 1964-65 to reach an all-time high of 78.9 million tonnes in 2012-13.
Production of foodgrains in Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Assam, Tamil Nadu has dropped. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, on the other hand, recorded significant increases in rice yield in 2012-13. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, officially recorded the impressive progress of the Green Revolution in agriculture by releasing a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in Julyl968.
Food Corporation of India (FCI) This was set-up under the Food Corporation’s Act 1964, in order to support operations for safeguarding the farmers, distribution of foodgrains throughout the country Tor PDS and maintaining satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks.
Minimum Support Price (MSP) This is the price at which the government (through the Food Corporation of India) purchases crops from the farmers. Presently, there are 27 crops being purchased with such prices including varieties of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre crops and others.
Food Security In India
The Green Revolution was started in early 70s. Since then, our country has avoided famine even during adverse weather conditions. India has become self-sufficient in foodgrains during the last 30 years due to the variety of crops grown. Foodgrains availability even in adverse conditions has been ensured by the government through a food security system consisting of maintaining a buffer stock of foodgrains, alongwith a Public Distribution System (PDS) for foodgrains and other essential items.
It is the stock of foodgrains (wheat and rice) procured by the government. Government purchases wheat and rice from farmers through the Food Corporation of India (FCI) states having surplus production. The farmers are paid a Minimum Support Price (MSP) for their crops. The MSP is announced at the beginning of the sowing season to give an incentive to the farmers to grow more. These purchased foodgrains are stored in granaries as a buffer stock. This stock is maintained to distribute foodgrains through the PDS in the areas of the country where production is less. It is provided, to the poorer sections of society at subsidised prices, i.e. lower than the market price which is known as the issue price. The buffer stock also helps to resolve the problem of food shortage due to a calamity or in adverse weather conditions.
Programmes For Food Security In India
In mid-1970s, National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) reported the high incidence of poverty level. Due to this, three important food intervention programmes were introduced.
- Public Distribution System (PDS) for foodgrains
- Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
- Food-For Work (FfW) programme.
Public Distribution System (PDS) Through government regulated ration shops, the food procured by the FCI is distributed among the poorer sections of the society. This is called the Public Distribution System (PDS). Ration shops are now present in most localities, villages, towns and cities. There are about 5.5 lakh ration shops all over the country. Ration shops are also known as fair price shops. They keep stock of foodgrains, sugar, kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price. Any family with a ration card can buy .a stipulated amount of these items (e.g. 35 kg of grains, 5 litres of kerosene, 5 kg of sugar, etc) every month from the nearby ration shop. The ration cards are of three kinds, colour-coded for easy recognition
- Antyodaya card for the poorest of the poor.
- BPL card for families below the poverty line.
- APL card for all others.
It is a term given to government controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. It restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume at a particular time within a particular period. Rationing in India was introduced in 1940s against the backdrop of the Bengal famine. Later, it was revived in the wake of an acute food shortage during 1960s prior to the Green Revolution.
Current Status of Public Distribution System
In the beginning, the PDS coverage was universal with no discrimination between the poor and non-poor. In 1992, a Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was started in 1,700 blocks of the country to provide the benefits of PDS in remote and backward areas. In 1997, a Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced to target the ‘poor in all areas’, with a lower issue price for foodgrains for them compared to the price paid by non-poor people. Further in year 2000, two special schemes Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and Annapura Scheme (APS) were launched.
(i) Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) for the ‘poorest of poor’. AAY was launched in December 2000. Under the scheme, 1 crore of the poorest among the BPL families covered under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) were identified.
Poor families were identified by the respective state rural development departments through a Below Poverty, Line (BPL) survey. 25 kg of foodgrains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidised+ rate of Rs. 2 per kg for wheat and ? 3 per kg for rice. This quantity was increased from 25 kg to 35 kg from April 2002.
(ii) Annapurna Scheme (APS) for the ‘indigent senior citizen’. It provides 10 kg of foodgrains free of cost per month to senior citizens who are not receiving any pension or have any other source of income or having a family to support them, i.e. they are destitute.
Following are some remarkable achievements of PDS
- PDS has helped government to stabilise foodgrain prices, so that it is available to consumers at affordable rates.
- It has helped in avoiding widespread hunger and famine by supplying food from surplus regions to deficit ones.
- It also helped in increasing foodgrain production, besides providing income security to farmers in some areas.
Criticisms of PDS
The implementation of the PDS still needs to be improved, because of the following reasons
- Buffer stocks are much higher than the rules.
- In some FCI godowns, grains are getting damaged or eaten by rats and still instances of hunger are prevalent.
- High level of buffer stock of 65.3 million tonnes of wheat and rice in 2014 was much more than the minimum level of buffer norms. The excess stock of foodgrains bought from farmers at high , prices leads to high carrying costs for the government, besides leading to deterioration and wastage.
- The pressure exerted by leading foodgrain producing states to increase the buying cost has increased MSP. The rising’ MSP has increased the maintenance cost of procured foodgrains, storage cost and transportation cost.
- The buying of foodgrains is concentrated in a few prosperous states like Punjab, Haryana Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and to a lesser extent in West Bengal.
- The high MSPs have made farmers to cultivate wheat and rice more resulting in depletion of the water table, as they require more water to grow. This has also led to soil degradation, endangering future sustainability of agricultural development in the regions where these are grown.
Malpractices in PDS
PDS has also become ineffective in many regions of the country because dealers running the ration shops are indulged in malpractices
The malpractices indulged into by the dealers include
- Diverting the grains to open market to get a better margin.
- Selling poor quality grains at ration shops.
- Irregular opening of the shops and so on.
The malpractices have resulted in consumers of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha buying much less foodgrains than the national average from the ration shops. In the Southern states, where the shops are run by cooperatives, the consumers purchase much more than the national average.
Since the introduction of Targeted Distribution System (TPDS), with three levels of prices for three different income level families, the Above Poverty Line (APL) families do not have much incentive to buy foodgrains from the ration shops. The prices for these families are not significantly lower than market prices.
It is a payment that a government makes to a producer to supplement the market price of a commodity. Subsidy helps in keeping consumer prices low while maintaining a higher income for domestic producers.
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
In 1975, it was introduced on an experimental basis. Its aim is to provide children upto 6 years of age supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health, check-up, referral services, pre-school non-formal education as well as nutrition and health education for their mothers.
Food-For-Work (FFW) Programme
The main objective of the Food for Work Programme is generation of supplementary wage employment. It is open to all rural people who are in need of unskilled work wage employment.
National Food For Work Programme
National Food for Work Programme was launched on 14th November, 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country with the objective of intensifying the generation of supplementary wage employment. The programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work. It is implemented as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme and the foodgrains are provided to the states free of cost. The Collector is the nodal officer at the district level and has the overall responsibility of planning, implementation, coordination, monitoring and supervision. The programme from 2005 has since been subsumed in NREGA.
Poverty Alleviation Programmes (PAPs)
Over the last few years, several other Poverty Alleviation Programmes (PAPs), were launched mostly in rural areas. Some of – them have also been restructured.
Some of these programmes have explicit food components. Others are employment programmes, which improve food security by increasing the income of the poor. For example, Rural Wage Employment Programme, Employment Guarantee Scheme, Sampurna Grameen Rozgar Yojana and Mid-day-Meal.
Role Of Cooperatives In Food Security
The role played by cooperatives in food security of India is important especially in the Southern and Western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set-up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people. For example, out of all fair price shops running in Tamil Nadu, around 94% are being run by the cooperatives.
The examples shown below are success stories of cooperatives in order to contribute in food security of India
In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making progress in the provision of milk and vegetables to the consumers at a controlled rate decided by the Government of Delhi.
Amul is another success story of cooperatives in milk and milk products from Gujarat. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country.
In Maharashtra, Academy of Development Science (ADS) has facilitated a network of NGOs for setting up grain banks in different regions. ADS organises training and capacity building programmes on food security for NGOs. The ADS Grain Bank programme is acknowledged as a successful and innovative food security intervention.
The availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times is called food security.
When there is problems in food production or distribution, poor household has to suffer the most.
The food, security in India depends on the Public Distribution System (PDS) and vigilant and timely action of the government.
Food is an essential item for the survival of human being.
Food security of a nation is ensured if all of its citizens have enough nutritious food available (availability), all person having the capacity to buy food (affortat>iJit^) and there is no barrier on access to food (accessibility).
The poorest strata of society are mostly food insecure and the better off might face food insecurity during national disaster and calamity.
During natural calamity there is decrease in foodgrain production, which causes shortage of foodgrain. The increased price ultimately leads to starvation and famine.
Epidemics during famine is caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
Landless people, traditional artisans, petty self employed workers and destitutes Including beggars are worst affected groups from food and nutrition insecurity.
Workers of ill-paid occupations and casual labourer are the most food insecure people in urban areas.
Agriculture is seasonal and low paying activity.
Besides the inability to buy food, the social composition (like SCs, STc, OBCs etc) also has role in food insecurity.
Economically backward states, with high incidence of poverty, tribal and rural areas, regions prone to natural disaster has largest number of food insecure people.
For example, Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern UP, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra etc.
Poverty and hunger are two dimensions of food insecurity.
Hunger can be chronic or seasonal.
The chronic hunger is the consequence of a diet regularly deficient in quantity and quality due to lack of income.
The seasonal hunger is the consequence of seasonal nature of food production and harvesting which affects landless agricultural labourers the most.
Through Green Revolution, India attained self sufficiency in foodgrain production.
The food security system of government consist of component of buffer stock and public distribution system.
Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains (wheat and Rice) procured by government (through FCI) from surplus producing state for distribution (through PDS) to deficit states and the poorest section of society.
The pre-announced price, paid by government to farmers is called Minimum Support Price (MSP).
The price at which foodgrains is distributed to poorer section of people is called issue price. It is lower than market price.
The system of distribution of food procured by the FCI among the poorer section of society is called the Public Distribution System (PDS).
Ration shops (also known as fair price shops), keep stocks of foodgrains, sugar, kerosene etc to be sold to people at a price lower than market price.
In addition to PDS, the other poverty alleviation programme comprising component of food security are : Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS); Food For Work (FFW), mid day meals, Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) etc.
Various cooperatives, NGOs are also working intensively along with government to ensure food security of India.
Mother Dairy, Amul, Grain banks are regarded as successful and innovation food security intervention.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 4 Food Security in India Economics Social Studies (S.St)
Page No: 53
1. How is food security ensured in India?
Food security is ensured in a country when the three dimensions of food security are taken care of. The three dimensions are:
Availabilityof food – Presence of enough food for all the persons
Accessibilityof food – Absence of barrier on access to food
Affordabilityof food – Capability of all persons to buy food of acceptable quality
A large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India. However, the worst affected groups areas follows:
→ Landless and land-poor households, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitute including beggars (in the rural areas).
→ People employed in ill-paid occupations and casual labourers engaged in seasonal activities (in the urban areas).
→ People belonging to the backward sections of society, namely SCs, STs and OBCs
→ People belonging to economically-backward states with high incidence of poverty, tribal and remote areas and regions more prone to natural disasters.
→ People affected by natural disasters who have to migrate to other areas in search of work.
→ Large proportion of pregnant and nursing mothers, and children under the age of 5 years.
3. Which states are more food insecure in India?
The economically-backward states with high incidence of poverty are more food insecure in India. The states of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country.
4. Do you believe that Green Revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?
In the late 1960s, the Green Revolution introduced the Indian farmer to the cultivation of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds. The HYVs (coupled with chemical fertilisers and pesticides) led to a growth in the productivity of food grains (especially wheat and rice), thereby helping India attain self-sufficiency in food grains. Since the advent of the Green Revolution, the country has avoided famine even during adverse weather conditions.
5. A section of people in India are still without food. Explain.
Despite large increase in foodgrain production we find people without food in India. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger. They find themselves unable to buy food. Over one-fifth of the country’s population still suffers from chronic hunger.
6. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?
When there is a disaster or a calamity, the production of food grains decreases in the affected area. This in turn creates a shortage of food in the area. Due to the food shortage, the prices go up. The raised prices of food materials affect the capacity of many people to buy the same. When the calamity occurs in a very wide spread area or is stretched over a long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation. A massive starvation can take the form of famine.
7. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger.
Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, and in urban areas because of the casual labour (e.g., there is less work for casual construction labour during the rainy season). This type of hunger exists when a person is unable to get work for the entire year.
Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn, inability to buy food even for survival.
8. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?
The food security is ensured in India by the Government by carefully designed food security system. This system is composed of two components:
(a) Maintaining a Buffer Stock of food grains,
(b) Through the distribution of these food grains among the poorer sections of the society with the help of a Public Distribution System (PDS).
9. Why is a buffer stock created by the government?
A buffer stock of food grains is created by the government so as to distribute the procured food grains in the food-deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. A buffer stock helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.
10. Write notes on:
(a) Minimum support price
(b) Buffer stock
(c) Issue price
(d) Fair-price shops
(a) Minimum Support Price (MSP) – This is the pre-announced price at which the government purchases foodgrains particularly, wheat and rice from the farmer in order to crate a buffer stock. This price is announced by the government every year before the sowing season to give incentive to the farmers to raise the production of the desired crop. The rising MSPs have raised the maintenance cost of procuring food grains by the government as well as induced farmers to divert land from production of coarse grains to the production of these crops.
(b) Buffer Stock – It is the stock of food grains particularly, wheat and rice which the government procures through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases these cereals directly from the farmers of those states where they are in surplus. The price of these commodities is much before the actual sowing season of these crops. The food grains thus purchased by the FCI are kept in big granaries and are called Buffer Stock. Maintaining buffer stock is a step taken by the government in order to ensure food security in the country.
(c) Issue Price – In order to help the poor strata of the society, the government provides them food grains from the buffer stock at a price much lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as the Issue Price.
(d) Fair Price Shops – The foodgrains procured by the government through FCI is distributed to the poor section of the society through ration shops. The Ration Shops are called Fair Price Shops because food grains are supplied to the poor through these shops at much reasonable and a fair price than the market price which is often high. Any family with a ration card can purchase stipulated amount of food grains, sugar, kerosene etc. every month from the nearby fair price shop.
11. What are the problems of the functioning of the ration shops?
There are various problem of the functioning of ration shops such as ;
→ The owners of these shops sell ration in the open market at higher prices.
→ Sometimes shopkeepers make bogus entries in the ration cards.
12. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
The cooperatives are playing an important role in food security in India, especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell goods to the poor people at lower prices. For example, out of all fair price shops operating in Tamil Nadu, nearly 94 percent are being run by the cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled prices which are decided by the Delhi Government. Amul is another example in this regard. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country. There are many more cooperatives and NGOs also working intensively towards this direction.
Food Security in India Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which government organisation buys foodgrains from the farmers and supplies to the fair price shops?
Food Corporation of India (FCI)
The system under which the food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated shops among the poorest strata of the society is
Public Distribution System (PDS)
The price at which the government purchase the foodgrains (wheat and rice) through FCI from the farmers in states where there is surplus production is
Minimum Support Price
The stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the food corporation of India is _______ .
The price at which foodgrains are distributed in the deficit areas and among the poor strata of the society.
Public Distribution System is associated with _______ .
Fair Price Shop
A special stamp was released by Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, in July 1968. It was entitled as _______ .
Why are foodgrains procured by the Food Corporation of India?
The foodgrains are procured by the Food Corporation of India to provide minimum support price to the farmers.
List down the dimensions of food security.
Following are the dimensions of food security :
- Availability of food,
- Accessibility of food,
- Affordability of food.
What does MSP refer to?
Minimum Support Price
Which was the most devastating famine faced by India?
The Famine of Bengal 1943.
Name two states where largest number of food insecure people live.
Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal and Maharashtra, (any two)
When is Minimum Support Price declared by the government?
Every year before the sowing reason.
What is the objective of AD§?
ADS stands for Academy of Development Science which facilitates a network of NGOs for setting up grain banks in different regions.
What is the full Form of ICDS?
Integrated Child Development Services.
How is food security affected during a calamity?
Due to a calamity, the total production of foodgrains decreases.
Antyodaya card is meant for _______ .
The people who are living below the poverty line.
What do you mean by a famine?
Famine is characterised by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
Name two places in Odisha where famine-like conditions have been existing for many years.
Kalahandi and Kashipur.
To whom the yellow card is issued?
People below the poverty line.
Name two co-operative societies working in different parts of the country.
Mother Dairy Delhi and Amul in Gujarat.
Which revolution was adopted in July 1968?
What do you understand by ‘seasonal hunger’?
Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and in urban areas because of casual labourers.
Describe the National Food Security Act, 2013.
The National Food Security Act, 2013 provides for food and nutritional security life at affordable prices and enables people to live a life with dignity. Under this Act, 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population have been categorised as eligible households for food security.
Who can buy the foodgrains and other commodities from these ration shops?
Any family which is below the poverty line gets a ration card. A ration card can buy them a stipulated amount of certain essential commodities like foodgrains or kerosene, every month from a nearby ration shop.
When was rationing system introduced in India?
The rationing system was introduced in India in 1940s after the occurrence of disastrous Bengal famine.
Name food intervention programmes introduced by the Indian government after the NSSO report.
- Public Distribution System (PDS)—for food grains.
- Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS)—introduced in 1975.
- Food-for-Work (FFW)—introduced in 1977-78.
How has Minimum Support Price (MSP) supported the farmers?
The Minimum Support price and procurement has contributed to an increase in foodgrain production and provided income security to farmers in certain regions.
Name some of the essential commodities kept by ration shops or Fair Price Shops.
Ration shops or Fair Price Shop keeps stock of foodgrains, sugar, and kerosene oil for cooking.
How do employment programmes contribute to food security?
Employment programmes greatly contribute to food security by increasing the income of the poor.
Food Security in India Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Why do we need food security?
Food security is needed because :
- The poorest section of the society might be food insecure most of the times.
- People above the poverty line might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster or calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami, etc.
- There can also be a widespread failure of crops causing famine, etc.
Describe the role of FCI.
The role of Food Corporation of India is as follows : The food corporation of India was set-up in 1965. It performs the following functions on behalf of the government:
- The food procured by the FCI fixed by the government. These prices are known as Procurement Prices or Minimum Support Prices. It maintain a price stability of foodgrains.
- It distributes the food grains at subsidised prices among the ration card-holders through government regulated ration shops (also known as Fair Price Shops). The subsidised prices are known as issue prices. The subsidised prices (issue prices) are also fixed by the government.
Why do we need self-sufficiency in foodgrains?
Due to the following reasons, there is a need for self-sufficiency in foodgrains :
- To feed rising population.
- To control prices of foodgrains.
- To reduce imports of foodgrains.
- To fight against natural disaster such as droughts, floods, cyclone, etc.
What are the essentials of food security system?
The essentials of food security System are as follows :
- Increasing domestic production of food to meet its growing demand.
- Food should be available in adequate quantity.
- Food should be able to meet nutritional requirements.
- Food should be available at reasonable prices.
- Buffer stock of food should be maintained.
What do you mean by food security?
Food security means availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all the citizens of the country at all times. The poor households are more vulnerable to food insecurity whenever there is a problem of production or distribution of food crops.
Government maintains food security through various agencies such as Public Distribution System (PDS) and vigilance and action at times, when this security is threatened.
What is the importance of rationing?
The importance of rationing is :
- We need rationing to reduce the wastage and for the maximum utilization of the articles. In India, the rationing concept was introduced in the 1940s after the Bengal famine.
- The rationing system was revived in the wake of an acute food shortage during the 1960s, prior to the Green Revolution. During the times of emergency or natural calamities, rationing helps to overcome the crisis.
What are the major objectives of Academy of Development Science in Maharashtra?
Write a short note on ADS Grain Banks.
ADS has facilitated a network of NGOs for setting up grains banks in different regions. ADS organises training and capacity building programmes on food security for NGOs.
Grain Banks are now slowly taking shape in different parts of Maharashtra. ADS efforts to set up Grain Banks, to facilitate replication through other NGOs and to influence the governments policy on food security are thus paying rich dividends. The ADS Grain Bank programme is acknowledged as a successful and innovative food security intervention.
What are the three dimensions of food security?
The three dimensions of food security are :
- Availability of food: Availability of food means food production within the country, food imports and previous years’ stock stored in the government granaries.
- Affordability of food: Affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one’s dietary needs.
- Accessibility of food: Accessibility means food is within reach of every person.
What were the effects of Famine of Bengal in 1943?
The most devastating famine that occurred in India was the Famine of Bengal in 1943. This famine killed thirty lakh people in the province of Bengal. Nothing like the Bengal Famine has ever happened in India again.
During the famine, the families left their villages. The agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers and the other casual labourers were affected the most by dramatically increasing price of rice. They were the ones who died in this famine.
Explain any two important food intervention introduced after the report given by the NSSO?
The two important food intervention programmes which were introduced after the report given by the NSSO are :
- Public Distribution System (PDS) for food grains (in existence earlier but strengthened thereafter) is the major step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring food security.
- Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was introduced in 1975 on an experimental basis.
How does PDS ensure food security in India? Explain.
PDS or Public Distribution System distribute the food grains by the help of ration shops among the poorer sections of the society.
Ration shops, also known as Fair Price Shops, keep the stock of foodgrains, sugar and kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price. Any family with a ration card can buy a stipulated amount of these items (e.g., 35 kg of grains, 5 litres of kerosene, 5 kgs of sugar, etc.) every month from the nearby ration shop. PDS keeps on revising the prices in favour of urban poors.
What is the Public Distribution System? What are the objectives of PDS?
The Food Corporation of India (FCI) procures food at pre-announced prices. The government distributes food grains to the poorer strata of the society through ration shops at subsidised prices fixed by the government. This is called the Public Distribution System.
The objectives of the PDS are :
- To provide essential goods at subsidised prices to the consumers.
- To control prices of essential commodities.
What do you know about Poverty Alleviation Programmes?
Over the years, several new programmes have been launched and some have been restructured with the growing experience of administering the programmes. At present, there are several Poverty Alleviation Programmes (PAPs), mostly in rural areas, which have an explicit food component also. While some of the programmes such as PDS, mid-day meals, etc. are exclusively food security programmes, most of the PAPs also enhance food security. Employment programmes greatly contribute to food security by increasing the income of the poor.
What do you mean by hunger? What are the different dimensions of hunger?
Hunger is one of the aspects that indicate food insecurity. Hunger is not just an expression of poverty, it brings about poverty. The attainment of food security therefore involves eliminating current hunger and reducing the risks of future hunger.
There are two dimensions of hunger chronic hunger and seasonal hunger.
- Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality.
- Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting.
What are the consequences of the excessive reserves of foodgrains in India?
The consequences of excessive reserves of foodgrains in India are as follows :
- There is wastage and deterioration in grain quality.
- Excess reserves have led to high carrying costs.
- It has led to the decline in the quantity of foodgrains available to the consumers in the market.
Which groups are the worst affected by food security in India?
The worst affected groups are landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars.
In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and casual labour market.
Food Security in India Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
“India is aiming at Self-sufficiency in Foodgrains since Independence.” Elaborate.
After Independence, many measures were adopted to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in ‘Green Revolution’, to increase the production of wheat and rice.
The highest rate of growth was achieved in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which was 44.01 and 30.21 million tonnes in 2015-16. The total foodgrain production was 252.22 million tonnes in 2015-16.
Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh recorded a significant production in field of wheat which was 26.87 and 17.69 million tonnes in 2015-16, respectively. West Bengal and UB on the other hand, recorded significant production of rice which was 15.75 and 12.51 million tonnes in 2015-16 respectively.
India has become self-sufficient in foodgrains during the last 30 years because of a variety of crops grown all over the country. The availability of foodgrains (even in adverse weather conditions or otherwise) at the country level has been ensured further with a carefully designed food security system by the government.
Discuss the role of Indian government in food security.
The role of Indian government in food security are :
- The Government of India gave the responsibility for procuring and stocking of foodgrains to FCI and for distribution the responsibility is given to the Public Distribution System (PDS).
- The government is committed to announce a minimum support price for wheat and paddy and of quantities that could not fetch even such minimum prices in the market. The resultant stocks were to be utilized for maintaining distribution through the PDS and a portion of these were used to create and maintain buffer stocks. In fact, if stocks happened to be inadequate for maintaining a certain level of distribution through PDS, the government had to resort to imports to honour its charge to PDS consumers. The FCI procures foodgrains from the farmers at the government announced Minimum Support Price (MSP).
- Farmers are provided subsidies on agriculture inputs such as fertilizers, power and water.
- The biggest achievement of the Indian food policy, and operational stock holding has been the avoidance of famine-like conditions.
- It was with the basic objective of curbing consumption and ensuring an equitable distribution of available food supplies, especially in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society.
- The Government of India has introduced the scheme of minimum assured price of foodgrains which are announced well before the commencement of the crop seasons, after taking into account the cost of production / inter-crop price parity, market prices and other relevant factors.
Food Security in India Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers
Choose the correct option:
When was Antyodaya Anna Yojana launched?
Answer: (d) 2000
Antyodaya cards are given to the
(b) poorest of the poor
(c) those below poverty line
(d) all of the above
Answer: (b) poorest of the poor
The two states that recorded significant increases in rice yield in 2012-13 are
(a) Assam and Tamil Nadu
(b) Jharkhand and Odisha
(c) West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh
(d) Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Answer: (c) West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh
Season hunger is prevalent in
(a) rural areas
(b) urban areas
(c) both rural and urban areas
(d) metro cities
Answer: (c) both rural and urban areas
The success of wheat was replicated in
Answer: (c) rice
The most devastating famine occurred in Bengal in
Answer: (d) 1943
Fair price shops sell
(b) kerosene oil
(d) all of the above
Answer: (d) all of the above
Which state is associated with AMUL?
(c) West Bengal
Answer: (b) Gujarat
A large number of food insecure children are under the age of
Answer: (c) 5
The Minimum Support price in declared by the Government every
(b) four years
(c) five years
(d) ten years
Answer: (a) year
The most affected groups in rural areas facing food insecurity are:
(a) landless people
(b) traditional artisans
(d) all the above
Answer: (d) all the above
Green Revolution of 1960s was associated with:
(a) use of HYV seeds
(b) tree plantation programme
(c) fisheries development
(d) None of these
Answer: (a) use of HYV seeds
Revamped Public Distribution System provides benefits to:
(b) remote and backward areas
(c) self-help groups
(d) cooperative societies
Answer: (b) remote and backward areas
Annapurna Scheme fulfills the food requirements of:
(a) indigent senior citizens
(c) pregnant ladies
(d) young persons
Answer: (a) indigent senior citizens
Antyodaya Anna Yojana and Annapurna Scheme are linked with :
(a) Public distribution system
(b) mid-day meal
(c) special nutrition programme
(d) none of the above
Answer: (a) Public distribution system
In which state more than 90% ration shops are run by cooperatives
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Tamil Nadu
Answer: (b) Tamil Nadu
(a) 200-days of assured work
(b) 100-days of assured work
(c) No assured work
(d) None of the above
Answer: (b) 100-days of assured work
Seasonal hunger mostly found in:
(a) urban areas
(b) rural areas
(c) metro cities
(d) both (a) and (b)
Answer: (b) rural areas
Main purpose of buffer stock is :
(a) to save food grains from pest attack
(b) to stop price fluctuations
(c) to meet the crisis of low production
(d) both (b) and (c)
Answer: (d) both (b) and (c)
What is Food security means:
(a) availability of food
(b) accessibility of food
(c) affordability of food
(d) all the above
Answer: (d) all the above
Chronic hunger refers to :
(a) low income
(b) inadequate quantity of food
(c) inadequate quality of food
(d) all the above
Answer: (d) all the above
In which of the following states do we find the largest number of food insecure people?
(a) Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa
(b) Bihar, Jharkhand and Gujarat
(c) Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Tamilnadu
(d) Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka
Answer: (a) Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa
Who released a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Indira Gandhi
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Motilal Nehru
Answer: (b) Indira Gandhi
To whom the yellow card is issued?
(a) To shop keeper
(b) To land lord’s
(c) To government employee
(d) People below the poverty line
Answer: (d) People below the poverty line
Food for Work Programme was launched in which of the following years?
Answer: (c) 2004
The Mother Dairy is an important cooperative in
Answer: (d) Delhi
F.C.I. stands for
(a) Foreign Co-operation with India
(b) Food Corporation of India
(c) Fossils Corporation of India
(d) Food Coming to India
Answer: (b) Food Corporation of India
Name the cooperative that provides milk and vegetables controlled rate decided by the Government of Delhi:
(b) Kendriya Bhandar
(c) Mother Dairy
(d) None of these
Answer: (c) Mother Dairy
Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains procured by the government through
Answer: (b) FCI
When was the Antyodaya Anna Yojana scheme launched?
(a) In Jan 1999
(b) In May 2000
(c) In Dec 2000
(d) In October 2005
Answer: (c) In Dec 2000
Give full Forms of the following abbreviations
- FCI : Food Corporation of India
- PDS : Public Distribution system
- ICDS : Integrated Children Development Services
- NSSO : National Sample Survey Office
- FFW : Food-For-Work
- NHFS : National Health and Family Survey
- MSP : Minimum Support Price
- APL : Above Poverty Line
- BPL : Below Poverty Line
- ADS : Academy of Development Science