The French Revolution Class 9 Notes Social Science History Chapter 1
After analysis of the previous 3 years’ examination papers, it is concluded that the following topics are the most important concepts from this chapter and should be focussed upon.
- The outbreak of the French Revolution
- Changes after Revolution
- Classes of French Societies
- Facts about Napoleon, the former emperor of France.
The French Society during the Late 18th Century-
The French Society comprised :
1st Estate: Clergy
2nd Estate: Nobility
3rd Estate: Big businessmen, merchants, court officials, peasants, artisans, landless laborers, servants, etc.
Some within the Third Estate were rich and some were poor.
The burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was borne by the Third Estate alone.
The Struggle for Survival: Population of France grew and so did the demand for grains. The gap between the rich and poor widened. This led to subsistence crises.
The Growing Middle Class: This estate was educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth. These ideas were put forward by philosophers such as Locke the English philosopher and Rousseau the French philosopher. The American Constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example of political theories of France. These ideas were discussed intensively in salons and coffee houses and spread among people through books and newspapers. These were even read aloud.
The Outbreak of the Revolution
The French Revolution went through various stages. When Louis XVI became the king of France in 1774, he inherited a treasury which was empty. There was growing discontent within the society of the Old Regime.
1789: Convocation of Estates General. The Third Estate forms National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath the Bastille is stormed, peasant revolts in the countryside, Assembly issues Declaration of the Rights of Man.
1791: A constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king and to guarantee the basic right to all human beings.
1792-93: Convention abolishes Monarchy; France becomes a republic. The Jacobin Republic overthrown, a Directory rules France.
1795: New Constitution is adopted. A new Convention appointed a five-man Directorate to run the state from 26th October 1795. Churches reopened.
1799: The Revolution ends with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon’s coup abolishes Directory and establishes Consulate.
Time Line: The French Revolution
1770s-1780s: Economic decline: French Government in deep debt. In 1774, Louis XVI ascends to the throne.
1788-1789: Bad harvest, high prices, food riots.
1789, May 5: Estates-General convened, demands reforms.
1789, July 14: National Assembly formed. Bastille stormed on July 14. French Revolution starts.
1789, August 4: Night of August 4 ends the rights of the aristocracy, the surrender of feudal rights.
1789, August 26: Declaration of the Rights of Man
1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy nationalizes the Church.
1791: Dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly.
1792: Constitution of 1791 converts absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy with limited powers.
1792: Austria and Prussia attack revolutionary France, Robespierre, elected the first Deputy for Paris to the National convention.
1793: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed.
1792-1794: In 1793, the Reign of Terror starts. Austria, Britain, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Spain are at war with France.
Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety repels back foreign invaders.
Executes many ‘enemies of the people’ in France itself.
1794: Robespierre is executed. France is governed by a Directory, a committee of five men. The Reign of Terror ends.
1795: National convention dissolved.
1799: Napoleon Bonaparte becomes the leader of the French Revolution ends.
- From the very beginning, women were active participants in the events which brought about so many changes in French society.
- Most of the women of the third estate had to work for a living.
- Their wages were lower than those of men.
- They demanded equal pay for equal work.
- In order to discuss and voice their interests, women started their own political clubs and newspapers.
- One of their main demands was that women must enjoy the same political rights as men.
- Some laws were introduced to improve the position of women.
- Their struggle still continues in several parts of the world.
- It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.
The Abolition of Slavery
- There was a triangular slave trade among Europe, Africa, and America.
- In the 18th century, there was little criticism of slavery in France.
- No laws were passed against it.
- It was in 1794 that the convention made free to all slaves.
- But 10 years later slavery was reintroduced by Napoleon.
- It was finally in 1848 that slavery was abolished in the French colonies.
The Revolution and Everyday Life
- The years following 1789 in France saw many changes in the lives of men, women, and children.
- The revolutionary governments took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.
- One important law that came into effect was the abolition of censorship.
- The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the 19th century.
- In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France.
- He set out to conquer neighboring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family.
- He saw his role as a modernizer of Europe.
- He was finally, defeated at Waterloo in 1815.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: The French Revolution History Social Studies (S.St)
Page No: 24
1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
The circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France were:
→ Social Inequality: French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates namely The Clergy, The nobility and third estates. First two estates, that is, the clergy and the nobility enjoyed certain privileges by birth. They were exempt from paying taxes. The Third estate comprises of businessmen, merchants, Peasants and artisans, labours had to pay taxes to the state.
→ Political Causes: Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. France had a debt of more than 2 billion livres. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes which angered the people.
→ Economic Problems: The population of France also increased from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. Food grains were now in great demand. The price of bread shot up. Wages did not keep pace with rising prices. This led to subsistence crisis.
→ Strong Middle Class: A new middle class emerged educated and wealthy during the eighteenth century. They believed that no group in society should be given privileges by birth. Ideas of equality and freedom were put forward by philosophers. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee houses and spread among people.
→ Immediate Causes: On 5 may, 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. Third estates protested against this proposal but as each estate have one vote, the king rejected this appeal. They walked out of the assembly.
2. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
It was the richer members of the third estate who mostly benefited from the French Revolution.
The clergy and the nobility were forced to relinquish (surrender) their power.
The poor class of third estate and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution as the promise of equality, discussed during the revolution was not given. The poorer classes had no right to vote.
3. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. It inspired the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. The French Revolution inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa who were groaning under the oppression of European colonialism. Tipu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to ideas coming from French revolution.
4. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
We can trace the origin of the following democratic rights we enjoy today to the French revolution:
→ Right to Equality before law
→ Freedom of Speech and expression
→ Right against exploitation
5. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Yes, the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions:
→ Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. – In this line, it is stated that every citizen has the right to participate in the law however only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given voting right. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens and were deprived of voting rights.
Hence, the message of universal rights was not very clear. The Constitution is only available for the rich. Women were totally neglected in decision making.
6. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
After Robespierre’s rule came to an end a directory was formed to avoid concentration of power in one individual. Members of the directory often fought among themselves leading to total chaos and political instability. This created a political vacuum in France. This was a conducive situation and Napoleon Bonaparte took the reign of power as a military dictator.
Napoleon saw his role as a moderniser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.
The French Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of Kings ascended the throne of ________ .
What was newly elected assembly called ?
The newly elected assembly was called the convention.
The burden of financial activities of state during the Old Regime was borne by the ________ .
In France, the eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of a social group, termed as the ________ .
The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in ________ .
The agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille on ________ .
14th July, 1789
The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the ________ .
The constitution began with a Declaration of the rights of ________ .
Man and citizen
The National Assembly of France voted in April 1792 to declare war against ________ .
Prussia and Austria
Who introduced Reign of Terror and where ?
Robespierre introduced ‘Reign of Terror’ in France.
The members of the Jacobin Club belonged mainly to ________ .
The less prosperous sections of society.
When was slavery finally abolished in French colonies ?
Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.
One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in 1789 was the ________ .
Abolition of censorship.
In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as Emperor of the ________ .
What was ‘Sceptre’ ?
Symbol of Royal Power.
The political body representing the three estates of pre-revolutionary France was known as ________ .
Which theory was proposed by Montesquieu ?
Theory of division of power.
Who proposed the Social Contract theory ?
Jean Jacques Rousseau.
A triangular slave trade started among ________ .
Europe, Africa and the Americas.
Women in France won the right to vote in ________ .
What did the French Revolution of 1789 stand for ?
The French Revolution of 1789 stood for the ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
What did the fall of Bastille signify ?
The fall of Bastille signified the end of the autocratic rule of the monarch.
Name the special tax levied by the church on peasants.
Tithes was the special tax levied by the church on peasants.
On what principle was voting conducted in the Estates General ?
Each Estate having one vote, was the principle on which voting was conducted in the Estates General.
What is a Guillotine ?
The Guillotine is a device consisting of two pole and a blade with which a person is beheaded. It was named after Dr. Guillotine who invented it.
What idea did the ‘Law Tablet Convey’ ?
It conveyed the idea that the law is the some for all, and all are equal before it.
Who was the leader of the Jacobin club ?
Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobin club.
What was the Estates General ?
The Estates General was a political body and was controlled by the French Monarch.
Who were denied entry to the assembly of the Estates General, called by Louis XVI on 5 May, 1789 ?
Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly of the Estate General.
Why were images and symbols used in the eighteenth century France ?
The majority of men and women in 18th century France could not read and write. So images and symbols were frequently used instead of printed words to communicate important ideas.
The French Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Who was Robespierre ? Why Is his reign referred as the ‘Reign of Terror’ ?
- Robespierre was the leader of Jacobins club which led a successful revolt and came to power. Robespierre ruled France from 1793 to 1794.
- His rule is referred as the ‘Reign of Terror’ because he followed a policy of severe control and punishment.
- All those who were considered enemies by him or who did not agree with him or with his methods were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If found guilty, they were executed.
How was the French society organised before the revolution of 1789 ?
- The French society was divided into sections called ‘estates’ namely first estate consisting of the clergy, second estate comprising the nobility and the third estate comprising all commoners including big businessmen, traders, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants, artisans, labourers and servants.
- The members of the first two estates, that is, the clergy and the nobility, enjoyed certain privileges by birth. They were exempted from paying taxes to the state. The members of this estate had no political rights and social status.
- The entire burden of taxation fell on the third estate. All economic functions were performed by them.
Describe the incidents that led to the storming of the Bastille.
While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France was seething with turmoil. A severe winter had meant a bad harvest, the price of bread rose. Often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed Bastille
What do you know about the abolition of slavery in France ?
- It was finally the convention which in 1794 legislated to free all the slaves in the French overseas possessions. This, however, turned out to be a short-term measure. However, ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery.
- Plantation owners understood their freedom as including the right to enslave African Negroes in pursuit of their economic interests.
- Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.
Write a short note on the document ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen.’
- The Declaration of the ‘Rights of Man’ and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be natural rights.
- Censorship was abolished. Newspapers, books and pamphlets flooded French towns and reached the countryside as well.
- Events and changes taking place in France were frankly discussed.
- Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large number of people. Thus, people could identify with ideas of liberty and equality easily.
How was the Church responsible for the French Revolution ?
- The members of the church, clergy belonged to the First Estate. The clergy enjoyed all privileges with no obligations. They lived in pomp and extravagance which led to resentment among the members of the Third Estate.
- The church was owner of a big chunk of land in France.
- The church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants. Apart from this, the church also collected several other taxes.
State the election process of the National Assembly in France.
The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn close the assembly. All citizens did not have the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of tax payers.
What were the main ideas behind the French Revolution ?
The main ideas behind the French Revolution were :
- The revolutionary ideas in France were propagated and preached by the famous thinkers and philosophers like Rousseau, Montesquieu. They favoured the abolition of such a social system that supported political, social and economic injustice and discrimination.
- The French revolutionaries were also influenced by the triple ideals of the American Revolution, i.e., Liberty, Equality and Fraternity and they opposed the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the nobles.
Write some of the main features of the French Constitution of 1791.
The main features of the French Constitution of 1791 were :
- The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. Its main objective was to limit the powers of the monarch.
- The citizens of France voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes were entitled to vote.
- The constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizens.
- The constitution declared that it was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights.
How did a directory rule in France ? Explain.
Write a short note on the Directory.
- The new constitution made provision for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a Directory, an Executive made up to five members. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of political power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins.
- The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
- Through all these changes in the form of government, the ideals of freedom, of equality before the law of the land and of fraternity remained inspiring ideals that motivated political movements in France and the rest of Europe during the following century.
What was subsistence crisis ? Mention two factors responsible for this crisis ?
Subsistence crisis is an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood are endangered.
Two factors responsible for this crisis were :
- The population of France rose from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. This led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains. Production of grains could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owner fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened.
- Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to a subsistence crisis, something that occurred frequently in France during the Old Regime.
What is the significance of the “Tennis Court Oath” in the French Revolution ?
The representatives of the third estate viewed themselves as spokesman for the whole French nation. On 20th June, 1789, the assembled in the hall of on indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared themselves a national assembly and swore not the disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the Monarch. The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791 as a result of which France finally became a republic in 1792.
What were the causes of the empty treasury of France under Louis XVI ?
Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles. Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain. The war added more than a billion livres to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion livres. Lenders, who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 percent interest on loans. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.
Write the importance of Napoleon Bonaparte in the History of France and the world.
Napoleon saw himself as a moderniser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as protection of private properly and uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system. He carried out the revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe which he conquered. They had a great impact on people. He was a great general too.
Which laws were introduced by revolutionary government to improve the condition of women in France ?
In the early years, the revolutionary government did introduce laws that helped to improve the lives of women. Together with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls. Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will.
Marriage was made into a contract entered freely and registered under civil law. Divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both women and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses
What landmark decisions were taken by the National Assembly led by the Third Estate on 4th August, 1789 ?
Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would be checked by a constitution. On 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the fedal system of obligations and taxes. Members of the clergy too were forced to give up their privileges. Tithes were abolished, and lands owned by the church were confiscated. As a result, the government acquired assets worth at least 2 billion livres.
The French Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
Who were the Jacobins ? What was their contribution to the French Revolution ?
Political clubs had become rallying point for people who wanted to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action. The most successful of these clubs was that of the Jacobins. They got their name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris. They belonged to the less prosperous sections of the society. They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily wage earners. Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre.
A large group among the Jacobin decided to wear long striped trousers like those worn by dock workers. This was to set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of society especially the nobles who wore knee breeches. It was a way of proclaiming the end of the power wielded by the wearers of knee breeches.
These Jacobins came to be known as sans-culottes, literally meaning ‘those without knee breeches’. San-culottes men wore in addition the red cap that symbolised liberty. Women, however, were not allowed to do so.
In the summer of 1792, they planned an insurrection of many Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food. On August 10, they stormed the Palace of the Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and imprisoned the king. Elections were now held.
The newly elected assembly was called the Convention. On 21st September 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charge of treason and executed on 21st January 1793. The queen also met with the same fate.
“The revolutionary government took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.” Discuss this statement with special emphasis on the abolition of censorship.
The years following 1789 in France saw many such changes in the lives of men, women and children. The revolutionary governments took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.
One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship. Earlier all written material and cultural activities — books, newspapers, plays — could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censors of the king. Now the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen declared freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right. They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France. Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. Each side sought to convince the others of its position through the medium of print. Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers of people.
This was one way they could grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about at length in texts. Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled rapidly into the countryside.
Did women have a revolution in 1789 and after it ?
- Most of the historians believe that from the very beginning women were active participants in the events related with the French Revolution of 1789.
- Before and during the days of Revolution, most of the women of France did not have access to good job training or education.
- The women were paid lower wages than those of men.
- In order to discuss and voice their interests, women began their own newspapers and political clubs. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them.
- They demanded the right to vote and right to contest elections as well as the right to hold political office. Women’s movement for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next two hundred years in many countries of the world.
Describe the social conditions in France before the French Revolution.
- The French king drove France into useless wars bringing the country on the verge of bankruptcy.
- French society was divided into three main classes called ‘estates’. The first estate constituted the clergy, the second estate constituted the nobility and the rest of the population constituted the third estate. The first two estates were the privileged ones exempted from all the taxes. The third estate shouldered the burden of taxation and had few privileges.
- France was a centralised monarchy and the people had no share in decision making. Administration was disorganised, corrupt and inefficient. The defective system of tax collection and oppression created discontentment.
- Peasants made up of 10 per cent of the population. However, only a small number of them owned the land they cultivated about 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the church and other richer members of the third estate.
- Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord. They have to work in the lord’s house and fields or to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
Describe causes for the fall of Jacobin government in France.
- The Jacobin government in France was based on extreme measures. The period from 1793-1794 is referred to as the reign of terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those he saw as being ‘enemies’ of the republic-nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods-were arrested, imprisoned and guillotined. This led to chaos and resentment among the people.
- The Jacobin government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wage and prices. Meat and bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. This led to a feeling of resentment against the Jacobins. Peasants began opposing them.
- Robespierre’s government ordered shut down of churches and converting church buildings into barrack or offices. Thus the clergy turned against the Jacobin regime and hastened its fall.
- Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters turned against him. They began to demand moderation and a middle path.
- Finally, he was convicted by a court in July 1794, arrested and guillotined.
Explain the role of philosophers in the French Revolution of 1789.
The role of philosophers in the French Revolution of 1789 were :
- In Two Treaties of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.
- Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.
- In the Spirit of the laws Moritesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.
- The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensely in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books and newspaper.
- Patriotic song Marseillaise composed by poet Roget de Lisle. It was sung for the first time by volunteers from Marseilles as they marched into Paris and so got its name. The Marseilles is now the national anthem of France.
The French Revolution Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers
Choose the correct option:
Who said: The task of representing the people has been given to the rich?
(b) Jean-Paul Marat
(d) Georges Denton
Answer: (b) Jean-Paul Marat
The National Assembly framed a Constitution in 1791 to limit the powers of the
(b) wealthy man
Answer: (a) monarch
Who wrote an influential pamphlet What is the third Estate’?
(b) Abbe Sieyes
(c) Jean-Paul Marat
(d) Olympe de Gouges.
Answer: (b) Abbe Sieyes
Which group of people did not join the Jacobin club?
(c) Daily-wage workers
(d) Men with property
Answer: (d) Men with property
French women demanded the right:
(a) to vote
(b) to be elected to the assembly
(c) to hold political office
(d) all of the above
Answer: (d) all of the above
A triangular slave trade took place between Europe, the Americas and:
(d) none of the above
Answer: (a) Africa
Upon becoming free, the slave wore:
(a) blue cap
(b) white cap
(c) red cap
(d) green cap
Answer: (c) red cap
Who were not considered ‘passive citizens’?
(c) Non-propertied men
(d) wealthy people
Answer: (d) wealthy people
The Third Estate comprised
(a) Poor servants and small peasants, landless labourers
(b) Peasants and artisan
(c) Big businessmen, merchants, lawyers etc.
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Which of the following decisions was taken by the convention
(a) Declared France a constitutional monarchy
(b) Abolished the monarchy
(c) All men and women above 21 years got the right to vote
(d) Declared France a Republic
Answer: (d) Declared France a Republic
How does a ‘Subsistence Crisis’ happen?
(a) Bad harvest leads to scarcity of grains
(b) Food prices rise and the poorest cannot buy bread
(c) Leads to weaker bodies, diseases, deaths and even food riots
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Which of the following statements is untrue about the Third Estate
(a) The Third Estate was made of the poor only
(b) Within the Third Estate some were rich and some were poor
(c) Richer members of the Third Estate owned lands
(d) Peasants were obliged to serve in the army, or build roads
Answer: (a) The Third Estate was made of the poor only
A guillotine was ____________________
(a) A device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded
(b) A fine sword with which heads were cut off
(c) A special noose to hang people
(d) none of the above
Answer: (a) A device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded
The word livres stands for:
(a) unit of currency in France
(b) tax levied by the Church
(c) Tax to be paid directly to the state
(d) none of these
Answer: (a) unit of currency in France
What was the ‘Subsistence Crisis’ which occurred frequently in France?
(a) An extreme situation endangering the basic means of livelihood
(b) Subsidy in food grains
(c) Large-scale production of food grains
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) An extreme situation endangering the basic means of livelihood
What was ‘Estates General’?
(a) Post of Army General
(b) A political body
(c) Head of all landed property
(d) Advisor of the king
Answer: (b) A political body
The term ‘Old Regime’ is usually used to describe
(a) France before 1000 B.C.
(b) Society of France after 1789 A.D.
(c) Society and institutions of France before 1789 A.D.
(d) None of the above
Answer: (c) Society and institutions of France before 1789 A.D.
Which of these books was written by John Locke?
(a) The Spirit of the Laws
(b) Two Treatises on Government
(c) The Social Contract
(d) All the above
Answer: (b) Two Treatises on Government
In the meeting of the Estates General, the members of the Third Estate demanded that
(a) All the three Estates should have one vote altogether
(c) Each Estate should have one vote
(b) Each member of the three Estates should have one vote
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) All the three Estates should have one vote altogether
Who led the representatives of the Third Estate in Versailles on 20th June?
(b) Abbe Sieyes
(c) Louis XVI
(d) Both a and b
Answer: (d) Both a and b
Which of these provisions were passed by the Assembly on the night of 4 August, 1789?
(a) Abolition of feudal system of obligations
(b) Clergy had to give up its privileges
(c) Tithes were abolished
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
According to the new constitution of 1791, the National Assembly was to be
(a) Elected directly
(b) appointed by the king
(c) elected indirectly
(d) a hereditary body
Answer: (c) elected indirectly
Which of these rights were not established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights by the constitution of 1791?
(a) Right to life
(b) Freedom of speech and opinion
(c) Equality before the law
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Look at the following symbols. What did they stand for?
- The broken chain – It stands for the act of becoming free.
- The bundle of rods or fasces – stands for unity.
- The eye within a triangular radiating light – The eye stands for knowledge and the rays of the sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance.
- Sceptre – stands of royal power.
- Snake biting its tail to form a ring – stands for eternity.
- The red Phrygian cap – stands for freedom.
- Blue-White-Red – stand for national colours of France.
- The winged woman – stands for personification of the law.
- The law tablet – conveys that the law is the same for all and all are equal before it.