Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes Social Science History Chapter 2
As per the previous 3 years’ examinations, special emphasis has been laid upon the following topics from this chapter and thereby students should pay attention on them.
- Progress of Russian Revolution
- The First World War and the Russian Revolution
- Events and Effects of February and October Revolution of Russia
- Social changes that were taken place in Russia.
The Age of Social Change
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation. Some were ‘conservatives’, while others were ‘liberals’ or ‘radicals’.
Liberals: Wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They argued for an elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. They were not Democrats.
Radicals: Wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population. They disliked the concentration of property in the hands of a few, not the existence of private property.
Conservatives: They resisted change. After the revolution, they started accepting change provided it was slow and had links and respected the past.
Industries and Social Change: This was the time of economic and social change. Men, women, and children were pushed into factories for low wages. Liberals and Radicals who were factory owners felt that workers’ efforts must be encouraged.
Socialism in Europe: Socialists were against private property. They had different visions of the future. Some believed in cooperatives, some demanded that governments must encourage cooperatives.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels added that industrial society meant capitalist society which was not profitable for everyone. Marx believed that a socialist society would free workers from capitalism. This would be a communist society in which collective ownership of land and factories would be promoted.
Socialism Given Support: Workers in Germany and England began forming associations to fight for better living conditions. They set up funds for members in distress, reduction of working hours and right to vote.
The Russian Revolution
In 1914, Tzar Nicholas II ruled the Russian empire.
Economy and Society: Most of the Russian population were agriculturalist. Industries were being set up which were mostly private property of the industrialists. Workers were divided into groups but they did unite to strike work when they were dissatisfied. Peasants had no respect for nobility, unlike the French peasant. Russian peasants were the only peasant community which pooled their land and their commune divided the land according to the needs of individual families.
Socialism in Russia: All the political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914.
The Russian Socialist Democratic Labour Party was formed in 1900. It struggled to give peasants their rights over land that belonged to nobles. As land was divided among peasants periodically, it was felt that peasants and not workers would be the main source of the revolution. But Lenin did not agree with this as he felt that peasants were not one social group. The party was divided into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
The 1905 Revolution: Russia was an autocracy. The Tzar was not subject to the Parliament.
Liberals wanted to end this state of affairs. They worked towards demanding a constitution during the Revolution of 1905.
Bloody Sunday: Prices of essential goods rose so quickly by 1904 that the real wages declined by 20%. During this time, four members of the Putilov Iron Works were dismissed. The action was called for. Over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went on strike demanding a reduction in working hours and an increase in wages. This procession was attacked by the police and Cossacks.
Over 100 workers were killed. Strikes took place as a reaction. People demanded a Constituent Assembly. The Tzar allowed the creation of an elected Consultative Parliament or Duma. The Tzar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and announced the election of a second Duma.
The First World War and the Russian Empire: In 1914, the Russian Army was the largest army in the world. The war was initially very popular but later the support grew thin. Anti-German sentiments ran high. Russian armies lost badly in Germany and Austria. There were 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees in Russia.
The war also affected the industry. There was a shortage of labour, railway lines were shut down and small workshops were closed down. There was a shortage of grain, agricultural production slumped and thus, there were crises in the food supply.
The February Revolution in Petrograd
- In the winter of 1917, Petrograd was grim. There was a food shortage in the workers’ quarters.
- 22 February: a lockout took place at a factory. Workers of 50 other factories joined in sympathy. Women also led and participated in the strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day.
- The government imposed curfew as the quarters of the fashionable area and official buildings were surrounded by workers.
- On the 24th and 25th, the government called out the cavalry and police to keep an eye on them.
- On 25th February, the government suspended the Duma and politicians spoke against this measure. The people were out with force once again.
- On 27th, the Police Headquarters were ransacked. People raised slogans and were out in the streets.
- Cavalry was called out again but they refused to fire on the demonstrators.
- An officer was shot at the barracks of a regiment and other regiments mutinied, voting to join the striking workers. They gathered in the evening to form a Soviet or council. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
- On 28th, a delegation went to meet the Tzar. The Military commanders advised him to abdicate.
- The Tzar abdicated on 2nd March.
- A Provincial Government was formed by the Soviet and Duma leaders to run the country.
- The people involved were the parliamentarians, workers, women workers, soldiers, and military commanders.
- Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed.
- Soviets like the Petrograd Soviet were set up everywhere.
- In individual areas, factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories.
Soldiers’ committees were formed in the army.
- The Provisional Government saw its power declining and Bolshevik influence grow. It decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent.
- It resisted attempts by workers to run factories and arrested leaders.
- Peasants and the Socialist Revolutionary leaders pressed for a redistribution of land. Land committees were formed and the peasants seized land between July and September 1917.
- 16th October 1917 – Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet to organize seizure.
- The uprising began on 24th October. Prime Minister Kerenskii left the city to summon troops.
- Early morning military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.
- In response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered to seize government offices and arrest the ministers.
- The Aurora’ ship shelled the Winter Palace. Other ships took over strategic points.
- By night, the city had been taken over and the ministers had surrendered.
- All Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd approved the Bolshevik action.
- Heavy fighting took place in Moscow and by December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow – Petrograd area.
- The people involved were Lenin, the Bolsheviks, troops (pro-government).
- The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property.
- Most industry and banks were nationalized in November 1917.
- The land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
- Use of old titles of the aristocracy was banned.
- New uniforms were designed for the army and officials.
- In November 1917, the Bolsheviks conducted the election but failed to gain the majority support.
- Russia became a one-party state.
- Trade unions were kept under party control.
- A process of centralized planning was introduced. This led to economic growth.
- Industrial production increased.
- An extended schooling system developed.
- The collectivization of farms started.
The Civil War – When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution, the Russian army began to break up. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals, and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising. They were supported by French, American, British and Japanese troops. All of them fought a war with the Bolsheviks.
Making a Socialist Society – The Bolsheviks kept industries and banks nationalized during the Civil War. A process of centralized planning was introduced. Rapid construction and industrialization started. An extended schooling system developed.
Stalin and Collective Farming – Stalin believed that rich peasants and traders stocked supplies to create a shortage of grains. Hence, collectivization was the need of the hour. This system would also help to modernize farms. Those farmers who resisted collectivization were punished, deported or exiled.
By the 1950s, it was recognized in the country and outside that everything was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian revolution. Though, its industries and agriculture had developed and or were being fed, the essential freedom to its citizens was being denied. However, it was recognized that social ideals still enjoyed respect among the Russians. But in each country, the ideas of socialism were rethought in a variety of different ways.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution History Social Studies (S.St)
Page No: 48
1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
The Social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905 was backward:
→ Social Conditions: 85% of Russia’s population was agriculturist. The industry was existent, but rarely in which most of was privately owned. Workers were divided on the basis of their occupation. They mainly migrated to cities for employment in factories. The peasant community was deeply religious but did not care much about the nobility. They believed that land must be divided amongst themselves.
→ Economic Condition: Russia was going through bad period economically. Prices of essential good rises while real wages decreased by 20% leading to the famous St.Petersburg strike. This strike started a series of events that are together known as the 1905 Revolution. During this revolution, there were strikes all over the country, universities closed down, and various professionals and workers established the Union of Unions, demanding the establishment of a constituent assembly.
→ Political Condition: Political parties were illegal before 1914. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marx’s ideas. In 1903, this party was divided into two groups – Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, who were in majority, were led by Lenin who is regarded as the greatest thinker on socialism after Marx.
2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
The working population in Russia was different from other countries in Europe before 1917 because not all Russian workers migrated from the villages to work in the industrial sector. Some of them continued to live in villages and went to work daily, to the towns. They were a divided group, socially and professionally, and this showed in their dress and manners too. Metal workers were the “aristocrats” of the working class because their occupation demanded more training and skill. Nevertheless, the working population was united on one front – strikes against work conditions and employer tyranny.
3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
The Tsar first dismissed the initial two Dumas and then packed the parliament with the conservatives. During the First World War, the Tsar took decisions without consulting the Duma. Large scale casualties of Russian soldiers in the war further alienated the people from the Tsar. Burning of crops and buildings by the retreating Russian armies created a huge shortage of food in Russia. All of these led to the collapse of the Tsarist autocracy in 1917.
4. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.
→ 22nd February: Factory lockout on the right bank took place,
→ 25th February: Duma was dissolved.
→ 27th February: Police Headquarters ransacked. Regiments support the workers. Formation of Soviet.
→ 2nd March: The Tsar abdicated his power. The Soviet and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government for Russia.
The February Revolution had no political party at its forefront. It was led by the people themselves. Petrograd had brought down the monarchy, and thus, gained a significant place in Soviet history. Trade Unions grew in number.
→ 16th October: A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by Soviet.
→ 24th October: The uprising against provisional government begins. Military Revolutionary Committee controls the city by night and ministers surrender. The Bolshevik gained power.
The October Revolution was primarily led by Lenin and his subordinate, Trotskii and involved the masses who supported these leaders. It marked the beginning of Lenin’s rule over the Soviet, with the Bolsheviks under his guidance.
5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
The main changes which were brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution:
→ Banks and Industries were nationalised.
→ Land was declared social property, thereby allowing peasants to seize it from the nobility.
→ In urban areas, houses were partitioned according to family requirements
→ Old aristocratic titles were banned, and new uniforms were designed for the army and the officials.
→ New uniforms were introduced for the army and the officials.
6. Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(ii) The Duma
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.
(iv) The Liberals.
(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme.
(i) It is the Russian term for wealthy peasants who Stalin believed were hoarding grains to gain more profit. By 1927-28 the towns of Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Kulaks were thought to be partly responsible for this. Also to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines the Party under the leadership of Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks.
(ii) During 1905 Revolution, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative parliament in Russia. This elected consultative parliament in Russia was called Duma.
(iii) They made up 31% of the factory labour force by 1914 but were paid almost half and three-quarters of the wages given to men. However, interestingly, it was the women workers who led the way to strikes during the February Revolution.
(iv) They espoused a nation that was tolerant towards all religions; one that would protect individual rights against the government. Although the liberals wanted an elected parliamentary form of governance, they believed that the right to vote must only belong to men, and that too the ones who were property holders.
(v) Stalin believed that collectivization of agriculture would help in improving grains supplies in Russia. He began collectivization in 1929. All peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms (kolhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of the collective farm. Many peasants protested such attempts and destroyed livestock to show their anger. Collectivization did not bring the desired results in the food supply situation turned even worse in subsequent years.
Socialism in Europe and the Russia Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
One of the groups which liked to change the society, was the ________ .
Industrialisation broughf men, women and children to ________ .
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini.
He was an Italian nationalist.
Marx argued that industrial society was the ________ .
Workers in England and Germany began to form associations to fight for ________ .
Better living and working conditions
Socialists took over the government in Russia through the ________ .
October Revolution of 1917
Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia and its empire in ________ .
Government supervised large factories to ensure the ________ .
Minimum wages and limited hours of work
All political parties were illegal in ________ .
Russia before 1914
What was the new name given to the Bolshevik Party ?
Russian Communist Party
The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in ________ .
1898 by Socialists.
In Russia, the war was initially popular and people rallied around ________ .
Tsar Nicholas II.
The government tried to control the demonstrators and called out the ________ .
Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the ________ .
Monarchy in February 1917.
On 2nd March, Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a ________ .
Provincial Government to run the country.
What type of a nation did liberals want ?
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions.
The political party formed in mid-1920 in India, by the inspiration of Russian Revolution was the ________ .
The government suspended the Duma on ________ .
Mention the most significant result of the February Revolution.
The abdication of Tsar Nicholas-II.
Explain the significance of the Russian revolution.
The major significance of the Russian revolution was the establishment of a socialist state.
What does the term ‘conservative’ mean ?
The conservatives believed in respect for the past and change through a gradual process.
List the names of two workers associations.
(a) Labour Party in Britain
(b) Socialist Party in France.
Name the international body formed to coordinate socialist efforts.
The Second International body was formed in 1870, to coordinate socialist efforts throughout Europe.
Who were socialists ?
Socialists were those people who were against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.
Who was the ruler of Russia during the October Revolution.
Kerenskii was the ruler of Russia during the October Revolution.
Socialism in Europe and the Russia Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Why did Kerenskii’s Government become unpopular in Russia ?
The Kerenskii’s government become unpopular in Russia because :
- His failure to feel the pulse of the nation. He tried to suppress the workers movement and the Balshevik influence.
- People wanted peace, but he tried to continue the war.
- The non-Russian nationals failed to get an equal status under his government.
Which event in Russian history is known as Bloody Sunday ?
- On 9th January, 1905 a mass of peaceful workers with their wives and children was fired at St. Petersburg while on its way to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar.
- More than a hundred workers were killed and about 300 were wounded.
- The incident known as Bloody Sunday in history of Russia as the massacre had taken place on Sunday.
What were the immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution ?
The immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution were :
(a) Most industries and banks were nationalized in November 1917. This meant the government took over the ownership and management. Land was declared social property.
(b) In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
(c) They banned the use of old title of aristocracy.
What was the basic principle of the Marxist theory ?
The basic principle of the Marxist theory were :
(a) Marx believed that the conditions of workers could not improve if profit was accumulated by private capitalists.
(b) Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
(c) Workers must construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society and a Communist Party was the natural society of the future.
How did the Bolshevik Party contribute to the Russian Revolution of October 1917 ?
- The Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies to end the war, transferred the land to the peasants and advanced the slogan, “All power to the Soviets”. On the question of non-Russian nationalities, Bolsheviks were the only party with a clear policy.
- Lenin had proclaimed the right of all people to self-determination, including those under the Russian Empire.
Describe reforms introduced by the Russian Tsar Nicholas II after the Revolution.
- After 1905, most committees and unions worked unofficially. Since they were declared illegal. Severe restrictions were placed on Kerenskii political activity.
- Power to make laws was conferred upon on elected body called the Duma.
- He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were kept out.
State any three events after the Bloody Sunday which led to the revolution of 1905 in Russia.
Three events after the Bloody Sunday which led to the revolution of 1905 in Russia were :
- The news provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia. Strike took place all over the country.
- The universities of Russia were closed when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
- Lawyers, doctors, engineers, middle class workers established Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.
Explain the main demands of “April Theses”.
In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from his exile. He and the Bolsheviks had opposed the war since 1914. Now he felt it was time for soviets to take over power. He put three demands which were known as Lenin’s April Theses.
The three demands were :
(a) He declared that the war to be ended
(b) Land to be transferred to the peasants
(c) The banks to be nationalized.
Discuss the positive aspects of the Bolshevik government on Soviet Union and its people.
The positive aspects of the Bolshevik government on Soviet Union and its people were :
- Immediately after coming to power, Lenin announced his decision to with draw from the First World War.
- Private property in the means of production was abolished. Economic exploitation by capitalists and landlords came to an end.
- The control of industries was given to workers. All the banks, industries and mines . water transport and railways were nationalized.
How did the 1905 Revolution in Russia prove to be a dress rehearsal of October 1917 Revolution ? Explain.
- In 1904—05, there was war between Russia and Japan. In this war, Russia was defeated by Japan. The Russian people began to oppose the Tsar. They believed that the only cause of this defeat was the government of Tsar which had failed to carry out war properly.
- A procession of thousands of peaceful workers along with their wives and children went to the palace of Tsar to show their anger and present a petition on Sunday, 9 January, 1905. While the workers were on the way to the Winter Palace of Tsar, they were fired at by the army of the Tsar.
- More than one hundred people were killed and about three hundred were wounded.
What were the significant changes in the Soviet Union after the death of Lenin ?
In 1925, Stalin became General Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Union after the death of Lenin.
The following were the significant changes in the Soviet Union after the death of Lenin.
- The economic and military power of the Soviet Union was enhanced rapidly.
- The unemployment and economic backwardness was controlled to some extent.
- The international position of the Soviet Union became much better than the previous time and it became one of the super powers of the world.
How was the bad condition of women responsible for Russian Revolution ?
The bad condition of women responsible for Russian Revolution because :
- Most of the women were working in small factories.
- Women made up about 31% of the factory labour force by 1914.
- They were paid less wages and were forced to work for long hours.
- When they launched an agitation, they were fired by the police.
Why were socialists against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills ?
The people who propagated socialism said that individuals, who owned property, did provide employment to many people but they were concerned with personal gains only. They did not bother about the welfare of the people. They felt that if society- controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests socialists wanted this change and campaigned for it.
Differentiate between the ideas of the liberals and radicals in Europe.
(a) The liberals did not believe in universal franchise. In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on most of a country’s population.
(b) Liberals felt men of prosperity mainly should have the vote. They did not want the vote for women. On the other hand, the radicals supported women’s suffragette movements and opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
(c) Radicals were not against the existence of private property but disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few.
Which basic principles, ideas and values had the Russian Revolution for rest of the world ?
The basic principles, ideas and values had the Russian Revolution for rest of the world :
(a) Economic equality
(b) Social Equality
(e) International fraternity of all the peasants, craftsmen and workers.
Socialism in Europe and the Russia Revolution Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution.
The circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution as given below :
- The Russian peasantry was in a miserable condition. The farmers could not get even two square meals a day. Their land holdings were very small and they had to pay heavy taxes.
- The Russian as well as the foreign capitalist industrialists exploited the workers by taking 12-14 hours of work and paying very low wages to them. The workers had no right to form trade unions or seek reforms. They led a miserable life.
- The Tsar Nicholas II was a despotic and autocratic ruler. He enjoyed unlimited powers and rights. The people of the higher strata enjoyed great privileges. The bureaucracy was corrupt and inefficient. The common people who suffered most, were fed up with the absolute rule of the Tsar and wanted to get rid of him.
- Karl Marx propagated ‘Scientific Socialism’. He strongly opposed capitalism which meant untold exploitation of the common men.
Explain in brief Lenin’s contribution to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
- Lenin had played an important part in the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is true that after the fall of Tsar, Lenin led the revolutionaries. Really, it was the beginning of the revolution.
- The Provisional Government, under the leadership of Kerenskii, could not implement the demand of the people and failed.
- Under Lenin’s leadership, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies to end the war, transfer the land to the peasants and advance the slogan ‘All power to the Soviets’.
- He had described the Russian empire as a Prison of Nations and had declared that . no genuine democracy could be established unless all the non-Russian people were given equal rights.
What were the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries ?
The main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries were :
- The Tsar had thrown Russia into the First World War to fulfil his imperialistic desires. It was the demand of the revolutionaries that Russia should withdraw from the war. So, it withdrew from the First World War in 1917 after the Revolution.
- After the Revolution, the land was given to the tillers. The landlords had to give the land to the government. Kolkhoz and Sovkhoj farms were established. In Kolkhoz farms, the peasants worked collectively.
- The revolutionaries had demanded an improvement in the conditions of the industrial workers. They demanded better wages, good working conditions and removal of exploitation. After 1917, the industries were nationalised and the dream of workers was fulfilled.
- The next aim of the revolutionaries was that the non-Russians should be given equal status. Lenin believed that without this status these people could never become real Russians.
How Lenin’s name became inseparable from the Russian Revolution ?
Lenin’s name became inseparable from the Russian Revolution :
- After completing his education, he joined the Communist Revolutionary Party and started spreading revolutionary ideas among the workers. He favoured the workers. He also favoured the setting up of the new society based on the principles of socialism of Karl Marx.
- He set up a Communist Government in place of the despotic rule in Russia. Therefore, Lenin’s name became inseparable from the Russian Revolution.
- Lenin united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and directed the revolution against the Provisional Government.
- Efforts were made to set up a Socialist Government on the basis of principles of Karl Marx. The private property was confiscated. Lenin took the land from the landlords and distributed it among the peasants. The Government nationalised all the factories and handed over their management to the workers. All debts were remitted. The property of the Church was also confiscated.
What was the impact of the Russian Revolution on Russia ?
The impact of the Russian Revolution on Russia were :
- The Revolution put an end to autocratic monarchy in Russia. The Tsarist empire was transformed into a new state known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union.
- The most important result of the Bolshevik Revolution was the establishment of a Socialist Government in Russia. All the means of production were brought under state control. Banks, mines, factories, railways, telephones, etc. all were declared as government property and the property of the Church was nationalised. Work became an essential requirement for every person. The non-working person was not entitled to vote.
- The condition of the Russian mass had become miserable due to the First World War. The prime need of the Russian mass was food, not expansion.
- As a result of the Bolshevik Revolution, the government took all the means of production under its control and nationalised all small and big industries. Hence, within a few years Russia emerged as a powerful industrial state. With the growth of industrial and agricultural production, poverty started disappearing and the country moved on to the path of prosperity.
What was the global impact of the Russian Revolution ?
The global impact of the Russian Revolution were :
- The Bolshevik Revolution helped in the spread of Socialist and Communist ideas all over the world. Communist Governments were established in many European countries.
- Most of the Bolshevik leaders believed that a series of revolutions will sweep other countries of the world along with revolution in Russia. Many non-Russians from outside the USSR participated in the conference of the people of the east and the Bolshevik-founded Comintern, an international union of Pro-Bolshevik socialist parties.
- The Bolshevik government ‘granted freedom to all its colonies immediately after coming to power. Thus, the new Soviet State came forward as a friend of the subjugated people and proved to be a source of great inspiration to the freedom movements of various Asian and African countries.
- By the end of the 20th century, the international reputation of the USSR as a socialist country had declined through it was recognised that socialist ideals still enjoyed respect among its people.
How did Russia’s participation in the World War cause the fall of the Tsar ?
(a) The war was initially popular, and people rallied around Tsar Nicholas II.
(b) As the war continued, support became thin and Tsar’s popularity declined. Anti-German sentiments became high.
(c) The Tsarina Alexandra’s German origins and poor advisers, especially a monk called Rasputin, made the autocracy unpopular.
(d) Defeats were shocking and demoralising. Russia’s armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917.
(e) The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government and the Tsar. Soldiers did not wish to fight such a war.
Explain the main effects of the First World War on the industries in Russia.
Effects of the First World War on the industries in Russia were :
- Russian industries were very few and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea.
- Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe.
- By 1916 railway lines began to break down. Able bodied men were called up to the war.
- As a result, there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essential commodities were shut down.
- Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in the cities, bread and flour became scarce. By the winter of 1916, riots at bread shops were common.
Socialism in Europe and the Russia Revolution Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions
What was the cause for the French Revolution?
The demand for individual rights was the cause for the French Revolution. The Church and the Aristocracy dominated the society. The peasants, businessmen and the rest of the society who were called the 3rd estate were dissatisfied. When living conditions became harsh the poor among the 3rd estate revolted. This lead to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil which included the trial and execution of the king, vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power. Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape.
Who were the Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives?
The Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives were totally opposed in their views.
The Liberals wanted individual rights for the citizens, religious tolerance, and an elected parliament. They were not in favour of giving women the right to vote and they wanted only men with property to vote.
In contrast to the Liberals the Radicals were opposed to only wealthy men having the right to vote. They were in favour of women’s rights and wanted a Government that represented the majority of the population.
The Conservatives were truly conservative in their views . They wanted changes for the better, but wanted the changes to take place slowly, giving due respect to the past .
What was the impact of Industrialisation?
Due to rapid industrialisation men, women and children were forced to work in factories as their was a great demand for labourers. Labourers were made to work long hours and were paid poorly. Though industrialisation was rapid the demand for industrial goods was low . This resulted in poor working conditions. The rapid growth in towns also caused problems in housing and sanitation.
List out the Socialist Ideas of the mid 19th century.
The Socialist Ideas of the mid 19th century are as follows:
- They were against private property.
- Private property was the root cause for all social ills.
- The propertied individual owners were concerned only about their own profits.
- The welfare of the workers was neglected.
- They wanted a society controlled property rather than the individual owned as that would pay more attention to the social interest.
Give a brief note on the following personalities.
a. Robert Owen
b. Louis Banc of France
c. Karl Marx.
a. Robert Owen (1771 – 1858)
Robert Owen was an English Manufacturer. He advocated a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
b. Louis Banc of France (1813 – 1882)
Louis Banc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace the capitalist enterprises. He advocated that people who produced the goods should form an association and the profit should be divided according to the work done.
c. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
Karl Marx called the industrial society as the ‘Capitalist’ society. He championed the cause of the workers and said that the condition of the workers would improve only if the workers overthrow the capitalists and the rule of private property. So. Marx said that the workers had to create a society where the property was socially controlled. Only in such a radically socialist society the workers would be freed from the capitalist exploitation. According to him such a society would be a communist society and he called it as the natural society of the future.
What were the demands workers’ associations formed in England and Germany?
Workers in England and Germany formed associations. They demanded reduction in the working hours and the right to vote. These Association also set up funds to help workers in distress.
Mention the Czars who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 and write a brief account on each on them .
The Czars who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 were …
Alexander I (1801-25)
Nicholas I (1825-55)
Alexander II (1855-81),
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Nicholas II (1894 –1917)
Alexander I (1801-25)
Alexander began his regime as a liberal but was later influenced by the staunch reactionary.
Nicholas I (1825-55)
Nicholas I, had no sympathy for western liberalism and crushed revolts at home and also in Poland.
Alexander II (1855-81)
One of the most important reforms that Alexander II carried out in his country was the liberation of millions of Serfs. This is called the famous Edict Emancipation (1861). He drew up a programme by which the serfs became free and owned plots of agricultural land. However they were made to pay a sum of money every year to compensate the landlord for the loss of his land. After some time the Czar lost much interest in the reforms and started his reactionary rule. He was assassinated in 1881.
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Alexander III , to avenge his father’s murder, let loose the reign of oppression. He tightened press censorship and ordered the arrest of all suspected persons who opposed the rule.
Nicholas II (1894 –1917)
Nicholas II also continued to remain as oppressive as the earlier Czars. The common people began to hate him and his notorious ministers.
What made the Czarist government bow to the demands of the common man?
The disastrous defeat in the Far East culminated in the outbreak of riots in the cities and district towns. The Russian peasants rose in revolt and burnt the homes of their rich landlords. In the meanwhile, the people marched down the streets of the capital to the royal palace to submit a petition containing their grievances but the Czar was in no mood to entertain them. The royal guards opened fire and hundreds were killed and this horrible incident sent a wave of shock throughout the country. The news of the death of hundred of Russians provoked the workers in the cities to go on a general strike. The industrial workers’ strike spread throughout the country and the Czarist government became seriously concerned with the worsening crisis. The Czar was frightened at the halting of the country’s wheels of progress and finally yielded. He bowed to the demands of the common people and introduced many reforms.
During the 1905 Revolution what did the Russian Czar promise the common man?
During the 1905 Revolution, the Russian Czar promised the common man.
- Freedom of press, speech and assembly
- He recognized the trade unions.
- He also cancelled arrears of land payments by the peasants.
- He promised to hold elections for the Duma (Russian parliament).
Why did the Revolution of 1905 fail?
Soon after the royal troops returned from the Far East the Czar began his oppressive rule. The Czar revised the election rules in such a way that only the loyal upper class representatives were voted to power. The new Duma meekly submitted to the power of the Czar. Thus the Revolution of 1905 failed.
Trace the down fall of the Czar Rule .
The entry of Russia into World War I was an act of crowning folly on the part of the Czar. The country was hardly prepared for war of such magnitude against such a formidable enemy like Germany. The war weary Russian soldiers could hardly make any progress on the war front. Thousands of ill-equipped and untrained peasants were sent to the war front only to get killed by the highly trained German troops. The Czar was forced to abdicate (March 1917). His wife and a number of nobles were killed.
Who headed the Provisional Government after the downfall of the Czar rule?
A moderate social revolutionary called Alexander Karensky, who introduced a number of social reforms, headed the provisional government.
List out Lenin’s early measures.
Lenin’s early measures were
- He seized the properties of large landowners and the capitalists
- Lands which belonged to the people, were distributed to the poor peasants
- Factories were taken over by the government and handed over to the committee members, elected by workers who were to run it.
- The banks were nationalized and the depositors lost their money
- The New Economic Policy (NEP) was implemented in 1921
- A stable currency was introduced
- A new constitution was drawn up in 1923.
When did Lenin die, and who succeed him?
Lenin died in 1924 and Joseph Stalin succeeded him.
What caused the rise of many revolutionary parties?
Russia was defeated by Japan, a tiny Asiatic country, in the Russo-Japanese war that took place in 1904 . Discontentment rose to a new height. The Czarist government stood exposed for its inadequacy at the war. The Russians suffered a humiliating defeat and signed a number of secret treaties with Japan. As a result of this a large number of secret revolutionary parties sprang up. The Social Democratic Party was most radical in its character. The Social Democrats turned to catch the attention of industrial workers in the Russian cities and their moral mentor was Karl Marx.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers
Choose the correct option:
The leader of the Bolshevik party was
(c) Karl Marx
(d) Louis Blanc
Answer: (a) Stalin
Tsarist power in Russia collapsed in the year
Answer: (c) 1917
Tsarina Alexandra was of the
(a) German origin
(b) French origin
(c) Russian origin
(d) Dutch origin
Answer: (a) German origin
Jadidists were ………………… within the Russian empire.
(a) Muslim reformers
(b) Muslim educationists
(c) Parsi reformers
(d) German refugees
Answer: (a) Muslim reformers
The main occupation of the people of Russia in the beginning of the twentieth century was
(b) poultry farming
Answer: (d) agriculture
A Labour Party in Britain was formed by socialist and
(a) trade unionists
(d) young students
Answer: (a) trade unionists
The Central powers during the First World War included countries like Germany, Turkey and
Answer: (b) Austria
The name associated with April Theses is
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Robert Owen
Answer: (c) Lenin
The successor of Lenin was
(d) Louis Blance
Answer: (a) Stalin
Budeonovka was the name given to the Soviet
Answer: (d) hat
Which among the following groups was against any kind of political or social change?
Answer: (b) conservatives
Which of these statements is/are correct about Europe after the French Revolution?
(a) Suddenly it seemed possible to change the aristocratic society of the 18th century.
(b) However not everyone wanted a complete transformation of society.
(c) Some wanted gradual shift, while others wanted complete change of society.
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Which of the following factors made autocracy unpopular in Russia?
(a) The German origin of the Tsarina Alexandra
(b) Poor advisors like the Monk Rasputin
(c) The huge cost of fighting in the World War I
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b)
How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’?
(a) They did not believe in universal adult franchise
(b) They felt that only men of property should have a right to vote
(c) Women should not have right to vote
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
What kind of developments took place as a result of new political trends in Europe?
(a) Industrial Revolution occurred
(b) New cities came up
(c) Railways expanded
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Who conspired in Italy to bring about a revolution?
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
Answer: (c) Giuseppe Mazzini
What were the demands made by the workers in St. Petersburg who went on a strike?
(a) Reduction of working time to eight hours
(b) Increase in wages
(c) Improvement in working conditions
(d) All the above
Answer: (b) Increase in wages
In the World War I, which started in 1914, Russia fought against
(a) Britain and France
(b) Germany and Austria
(d) All the above
Answer: (b) Germany and Austria
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) By 1916, railway lines in Russia began to break down
(b) There were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down
(c) Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
On 27th February 1917, soldiers and striking workers gathered to form a council called
(a) Soviet Council
(b) Petrograd Soviet
(c) Moscow Union
(d) Russian Council
Answer: (b) Petrograd Soviet
Which of these demands is/are referred to as Lenin’s ‘April Theses’?
(a) World War I should be brought to an end
(b) Land should be transferred to the peasants
(c) Banks should be nationalised
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia during Russian Revolution?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Friedrich Engels
(c) Vladimir Lenin
Answer: (c) Vladimir Lenin
Socialists took over the government in Russia through the?
(a) October Revolution in 1917
(b) November Revolution in 1918
(c) December Revolution in 1919
(d) February Revolution in 1920
Answer: (a) October Revolution in 1917
At the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of Russian people worked in the:
(a) Industrial sector
(b) Agricultural sector
(c) Mining sector
(d) Transport sector
Answer: (b) Agricultural sector
The commune of farmers was known as:
Answer: (c) Mir