Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes Social Science History Chapter 3
The following topics from this chapter are being highlighted the most in the previous 3 years’ examinations and thereby hold significant importance.
- Formation of the Weimer Republic
- The rise of Hitler’s power
- The flow of Nazi around the world
- The Racial Ideology of Hitler and how it affected other countries
- How the years of Depression affected the German Economy.
Birth of the Weimer Republic
Germany fought the First World War (1914-1918) along with the Austrian empire and against the Allies (England, France and Russia).
Germany initially made gains by occupying France and Belgium. However, the Allies won defeating Germany and the Central Powers in 1918.
A National Assembly met at Weimer and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure. The republic, however, was not received well by its own people largely because of the terms it was forced to accept after Germany’s defeat at the end of the First World War. Many Germans held the new Weimer Republic responsible for not only the defeat in the war but the disgrace at Versailles.
The Effects of the War – The war had a devastating impact on the entire continent both psychologically and financially. From being a creditor, Europe became a debtor. The supporters of the Weimer Republic were criticized and became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles. Soldiers came to be placed above civilians. Aggressive war propaganda and national honour became important.
Political Radicalism and Economic Crisis – The birth of the Weimer Republic coincided with the uprising of the Spartacist League on the pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The Spartacists founded the Communist Party of Germany.
Political radicalization was heightened by the economic crisis of 1923. As Germany refused to pay the war reparations, France occupied its leading industrial area, Ruhr. Germany retaliated with printing paper currency recklessly. The value of the German mark collapsed. Prices of goods soared. There was hyperinflation.
The Years of Depression
1924-1928 saw some stability, yet it was built on sand. In 1924, with the introduction of the Dawes Plan by the Americans, Germany came out from the financial instability. Germany was totally dependent on short-term loans, largely from the USA. This support was withdrawn with the crash in 1929 of the Wall Street Exchange. The German economy was hit badly. The middle class and working population were filled with the fear of proletarianization.
The Weimer Republic had some inherent defects:
- Proportional Representation
- Article 48 which gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree.
Hitler’s Rise to Power
Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. He earned many medals for bravery in the First World War.
The German defeat horrified him. The Treaty of Versailles made him furious.
He joined the German Workers Party and renamed it National Socialist German Workers’ Party. This later came to be known as the Nazi Party.
Nazism became a mass movement only during the Great Depression. The Nazi propaganda stirred hopes of a better future. Hitler was a powerful and effective speaker. He promised the people a strong nation where all would get employment.
The Destruction of Democracy: Hitler achieved the highest position in the cabinet of ministries on 30 January 1933. Hitler then set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule.
The Fire Decree of 28 February 1933 suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press, and assembly. The Communists were hurriedly packed off to newly established concentration camps. All political parties were banned. Special surveillance and security forces were created to control the people and rule with impunity.
Reconstruction: Economist Hjalmar Schacht was given the responsibility of economic recovery. This was to be done through a state-created economic programme.
Hitler pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936 and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan: One people, One empire, One leader.
He then took Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. Hitler had the unspoken support of England.
He did not stop here. He chose war as a way out of the Economic Crisis.
Resources were to be accumulated through the expansion of territory. In September 1940′ Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. The USA resisted involvement in the war. But when Japan extended its support to Hitler and bombarded Pearl Harbour, the USA entered the war. The war ended in 1945 with Hitler’s defeat and the US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
The Nazi World Wide
According to Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only racial hierarchy. The Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were considered undesirable. They wanted a society of pure and healthy Nordic Aryans. Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, Russian, Poles, even certain Germans, and abnormals were considered undesirable.
The other aspect of Hitler’s ideology related to the geopolitical concept of Lebensraum, or living space. Jews were the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany. Hitler believed in pseudoscientific theories of a race which said that conversion was no solution to the Jewish problem. It had to be solved through their total elimination.
From 1933-1938 – the Nazis terrorized, pauperized and segregated the Jews, compelling them to leave the country.
The next phase, 1939-1945, aimed at concentrating them in certain areas and then killing them in gas chambers in Poland.
The Racial Utopia
Genocide and war became two sides of the same coin. Occupied Poland was divided. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by the ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe.
Youth in Nazi Germany
Hitler felt that a strong Nazi society could be established by teaching Nazi ideology to children.
All schools were given German teachers. Children were divided into two groups- desirable and undesirable.
Textbooks were rewritten, functions of sports in schools was to nurture the spirit of violence and aggression. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys joined ‘Hitler Youth’, they joined the Labour Service at 18.
The Nazi Cult of Motherhood – Women were told to be good mothers and rear pure-blooded Aryan children. They were encouraged to produce many children.
The Art of Propaganda – The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect. They used films, pictures, radio, posters, etc., to spread hatred for Jews.
Crimes Against Humanity – People saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke the Nazi language. At times even the Jews began to believe in the Nazi stereotypes about them.
Knowledge about the Holocaust – It was only after the war ended that people came to know about what had happened. The Jews wanted the world to know about the atrocities and sufferings they had endured during the Nazi killing operations. They just wanted to live, even if it was for a few hours, to tell the world about the Holocaust.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler History Social Studies (S.St)
Page No: 74
1. Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.
The problems faced by the Weimar Republic were:
→ Versailles treaty: The Versailles Peace Treaty at the end of the First World War dispossessed Germany of its territories, its resources and its pride as a nation. He also had to pay 6 billion pounds as war compensation. In spite of the harsh terms, the Weimar Republic accepted the humiliating treaty, thereby making it unpopular amongst the German masses.
→ Economic Crisis: The German state was financially crippled due to overwhelming war debts which had to be paid in gold. Subsequently, gold reserves depleted and value of German mark fell. Prices of essential goods rose dramatically.
→ Political defects: The Weimar Republic was weak due to inherent constitutional irregularities such as proportional representation and Article 48 (which gave the President the power to impose emergency and rule by decree). The democratic parliamentary system seemed to give the people no solutions or benefits in the times of the severe economic crisis.
2. Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930 due to lot of reasons:
→ The most apparent being the Great Depression. The Weimar Republic did little to remedy the country’s economic downfall, and Hitler was presented as a saviour to the humiliated German people living in economic and political crises.
→ The powerful speeches of Hitler in which he sought to build great nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty, restore the dignity of German people and provide employment for all stirred hopes in people.
→ Nazi propaganda was unique. Red banners with the Swastika, Nazi salute and the rounds of applause attracted the people making Nazism very popular.
3. What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
The peculiar features of Nazi thinking were
→ A belief in racial heirarchy and Lebensraum or living space.
→ Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the jews formed the lowest rung of the racial ladder.
→ They believed that only the strongest race would survive and rule.
→ New territories must be gained for enhancing the natural resources and power of Germany.
4. Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for jews.
Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for the jews:
→ The Nazis used the language and media effectively with great care. The racial theory put forward by the Nazis that the Jews belonged to a lower race and as such were undesirable.
→ The traditional Christian hatred for the Jews, because they were accused to have killed Christ, was fully exploited by the Nazis in order to make the Germans pre-judicial against Jews.
→ The Nazis injected hatred against the Jews even in the minds of the children from the very beginning during the days of their schooling. The teachers who were Jews were dismissed and Jews children were thrown out of the schools. Such methods and new ideological training to the new generation of children went a long way in making the Nazi’s propaganda quite effective in creating hatred for the Jews.
→ Propaganda films were made to create hatred for the Jews. Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked. For example, one such film was‘The Eternal Jew’.
5. Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.
Role of women in Nazi society followed the rules of a largely patriarchal or male-dominated society. Hitler hailed women as “the most important citizen” in his Germany, but this was true for only Aryan women who bred pure-blood, “desirable” Aryans. Motherhood was the only goal they were taught to reach for, apart from performing the stereotypical functions of managing the household and being good wives. This was in stark contrast to the role of women in the French Revolution where women led movements and fought for rights to education and equal wages. They were allowed to form political clubs, and schooling was made compulsory for them after the French Revolution.
6. In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
The Nazis established control over its people by various means:
→ They used different propaganda through posters or films to glorify their behaviour.
→ Media was carefully used to win support for the regime and popularise it.
→ Nazism worked on the minds of the people, tapped their emotions and turned their hatred and anger against those marked as ‘undesirable’.
→ Special surveillance and security forces to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted, was created.
→ The police forces had powers to rule with impunity. Genocide also created an atmosphere of fear and repression which helped them to establish total control over its people.
Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
The Great Depression was a period of _______ .
What is the German Parliament known as ?
The German Parliament is known as the Reichstag.
A camp where people were isolated and detained without due process of law, referred to as _______ .
Which Article of the Weimar Constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree ?
Who offered the chancellorship to Hitler on 30 January 1933 ?
People of Weimar Republic lost confidence in the democratic _______ .
The Nazi Party had become largest party by _______ .
The Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Japan and _______ .
Nazi propaganda projected _______ .
Hitler as a messiah
Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age were called _______ .
What was Auschwitz ?
Auschwitz was the centre for mass killing during Nazi rule.
What was the original name of Nazi party ?
The National Socialist German Workers Party.
The gas chambers that looked like bathrooms, equipped with fake shower heads, were labelled as _______ .
How did Hitler view war ?
Hitler viewed war as the way out of the approaching economic crisis.
When was the Enabling Act passed in Germany ?
On 3rd March, 1933
Name the four countries included in the Allied Powers in World War II.
England, France, Russia and USA were included in the Allied Powers.
What was the significance of the Enabling Act ?
The Enabling Act enabled Hitler to sideline the Parliament and rule by decree.
Which concept of Hitler’s ideology revealed his desire for an extended empire ?
The geopolitical concept or concept of living space revealed his desire for an extended empire.
Which country used atomic bombs during World War II ?
USA used atomic bombs during World War II against Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What was the work entrusted to the International War Tribunal set up in Nuremberg after the war ?
It was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for crimes against peace, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
What was the name given to separately marked areas where the Jews lived ?
The separately marked areas where the Jews lived were called ghettos.
Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war ?
Japan’s unprovoked attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour in December 1941 persuaded the USA to join the war.
What do you know about Wall Street Exchange ?
It is the name of the world’s biggest stock exchange.
Which countries were known as Axis Powers in World War II ?
Germany, Italy and Japan were known as Axis Powers.
When did Youth League of the Nazis found ?
The Youth League of the Nazis was founded in 1922.
Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Trace any three main features of the foreign policy of Hitler.
- On 30th January 1933, Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany and established dictatorship.
- Right from the beginning, he followed a policy of aggression and war towards other countries.
- He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied Rhineland in 1936 and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan ‘One people, One empire, One leader’.
The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. Explain the statement with any three examples.
- In the First World War, Germany was defeated. The peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace.
- Germany lost its overseas colonies and also much of its territories in Europe.
- Germany lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France and other countries.
- The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to £ 6 billion.
- The Allied forces occupied the resources rich Rhineland till the 1920s. (Any three)
Explain the three fold plan of Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany to consolidate the Nazi power.
- Hitler’s three fold plan comprised of capturing the legal authority to rule, crushing the country’s political opposition and eliminating rivals within the party.
In the pursuit of first, he used the Reichstag fire incident to clamp down the communists. He armed himself with the emergency powers and murdered and jailed key communist leaders and suppressed civil liberties.
- In March 1933, the German Reichstag passed the enabling laws which transferred all the powers from the Reichstag to the government headed by him.
- Further, Hitler turned his attention to the rival political parties. He outlawed all existing and potential opposition institutions. By July 1933, the Nazis were the only legitimate party in Germany.
When did Hitler formally announce his violation of the Treaty of Versailles ?
What reason did he give for this ?
- Hitler formally announced his violation of the Treaty of Versailles in March 1935.
- Hitler claimed that he was trying to make Germany equal in position to the other European powers.
- Since European nations had not followed the policy of disarmament, German rearmament was a necessity.
What was the ideology of the Nazis regarding the Jews ?
The ideology of the Nazis regarding the Jews were :
- All schools were cleansed and purified under Nazism. Those teachers were dismissed who were found to be Jews or seen as politically unreliable.
- German and Jew children were not allowed to sit or play together.
- All the undesirable children—Jews, Gypsies, and the physically handicapped were dismissed from schools and.Jinally were taken to gas chambers in the 1940s.
What do you know about ‘Nazi schooling’ ?
All ‘Good German’ children were subjected to a prolonged period of ideological training—a process of Nazi schooling. School textbooks were rewritten. Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews, and worship Hitler. Even sports was used to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Hitler believed boxing made children iron-hearted, strong and masculine.
What was the Nazis ideology regarding motherhood ?
In Nazi Germany, children were repeatedly told that women were radically different from men. It was preached that the fight for equal rights for men and women was wrong and it would destroy the society. The boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine and steel-hearted. The girls were taught to become good mothers. They were supposed to rear pure-blooded Aryan children and maintain the purity of the race. They had to distance themselves from Jews, look after the home, and over and above teach their children the Nazi values.
What were the results of the victory of Nazism in Germany ?
- The victory of Nazism in Germany led to the destruction of democracy and establishment of dictatorship.
- It also led to the militarism and preparation for the war.
- In Germany, all other political parties were banned except the Nazi Party.
- Nazism opposed Socialism and Communism, so the advocates of these philosophies were either jailed or killed.
Why did the USA show unwillingness to get involve in the Second World War initially ? Why did it change its attitude afterwards ?
The USA had resisted involvement in the war. It was unwilling to once again face all the economic problems that the First World War had caused. But it could not stay out of the war for long. Japan was expanding its power in the east. It had occupied French Indo-China and was planning attacks on US naval bases in the Pacific.
When Japan extended its support to Hitler and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor, the US entered the Second World War. The war ended in May 1945 with Hitler’s defeat and the US dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan.
Why was the International Military Tribunal set up in Nuremberg at the end of the Second World War ?
At the end of the Second World War the International Military Tribunal was set up in Nuremberg to prosecute Nazi War Criminals. The Tribunal prosecuted the Nazi’s for crimes against Peace, for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. However, the Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many other imprisoned for life.
What is hyperinflation ? What were the factors that led to hyperinflation in Germany ?
Hyperinflation is a situation when prices rise phenomenally high. This situation occurred in Germany in 1932 due to following reasons :
- Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. This depleted gold reserves at a time resources were scarce.
- In 1923 Germany refused to pay, and the French occupied its leading industrial area, Ruhr, to claim their coal. Germany retaliated with passive resistance and printed paper currency recklessly. With too much printed money in circulation, the value of the German mark fell.
Explain the factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany.
The factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany were :
- Germany was compelled to sign the treaty by which she had to pay a huge war indemnity. This treaty created the feeling of dissatisfaction among the people of Germany. The Weimar Republic was regarded as a symbol of national disgrace. Hitler assured the Germans about the restoration of the old prestige, so they became his followers.
- Germany had to face a Great Economic crisis after the First World War. Many soldiers were no more in service, so they became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined. In 1929, there was, however, a great slump in Europe. Germany was in the grip of unemployment and starvation. The prices rose and the value of money fell.
- The Germans had no faith in democracy. It was against their culture and tradition. They, at once, gave support to a strong man of action like Hitler who could turn their dreams into reality.
What were the provision of the famous Enabling Act ?
On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. The provisions of the Enabling Act were given below :
- This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree.
- All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
- Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted.
What promises did Hitler make to the German people ? How did he mobilise them ?
Hitler was a powerful speaker. His passion and his words moved people. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people.
He promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth. He promised to weed out all foreign influences and resist all foreign ‘conspiracies’ against Germany.
Hitler devised a new style of politics. He understood the significance of rituals and spectacle in mass mobilisation. Nazis held massive rallies and public meetings to demonstrate the support for Hitler and instil a sense of unity among the people. The Red banners with the Swastika, the Nazi salute, and the ritualised rounds of applause after the speeches were all part of this spectacle of power.
From whom did Hitler borrow his racist ideology ? Explain.
(a) Hitler borrowed his racist ideology from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
(b) Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and • animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Darwin never
advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection.
(c) Herbert Spencer later added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions.
However, his ideas were used by racist thinkers and politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered peoples.
Describe the effect of Great Economic depression on Germany ?
The effect of Great Economic depression on Germany were :
- The German economy was the worst hit by the Great Economic depression. By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40% of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages.
- The number of unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million. Men could be seen on streets with placards saying,’ Willing to do any work’. As jobs disappeared, youth took to criminal activities, and total despair became common place.
- There were deep anxieties and fears in people. The middle classes, especially salaried employees and pensioners, saw their savings diminish when the currency lost its value.
- The large mass of peasantry was badly affected by a sharp fall in agricultural prices.
‘In my state the mother is the most important citizen.’ Discuss this statement made by Hitler.
(a) Though Hitler said that in my state the mother is the most important citizen, it was not true.
(b) All mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially desirable children were awarded, while those who bore racially undesirable children were punished.
(c) Women who bore ‘desirable’ children were entitled to privileges and rewards. They were given special treatment in hospitals and concessions in shops and on theatre tickets and railway fares.
Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
What steps were taken by Adolf Hitler for the destruction of democracy ?
The following steps were taken by Hitler for the destruction of democracy :
- A mysterious fire that broke out in the German Parliament building in February, 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights. It is said that the fire was broken out by Hitler’s supporters, while Hitler blamed his political enemies for it. The Fire Decree of 28 February, 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights such as freedom of expression, speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar Constitution.
- After that Adolf Hitler turned on his enemy, i.e., the Communists of Germany, most ‘ of the communists were quickly packed off to the newly established concentration camps.
- The repression of the Communists was severe. Their membership was in thousands. They were, however, only one among the 52 types of victims persecuted by the Nazis across the country.
- On 3rd March, 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Adolf Hitler all political and administrative powers to sideline German Parliament and rule by decree.
What were the main effects of Nazi rule on Germany ?
The victory of Nazism produced far reaching effects on Germany :
- Hitler tried to pull his country out of the Economic Crisis that had befallen on Germany as a result of her defeat in the First World War.
Different types of industries were set up to provide work to the workmen. Trade was encouraged with the same aim in mind.
- Hitler inspired to make Germany a powerful country and enhanced his military power in all possible ways.
- All political parties except the Nazi Party were banned. And, then a Reign of Terror was let loose in Germany. Assassinations of anti-Nazi leaders took place on a large scale.
- The Communist Parties were also banned.
- Trade unions were suppressed.
What did Hitler do to overcome the economic crisis that badly hit the German economy ?
After establishing his dictatorship in Germany,he took major steps towards the economic reconstruction.
Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme.
In foreign policy also, Hitler acquired quick successes. He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936, and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader.
He then went on to wrest German speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and gobbled up the entire country. In all of this he had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.
Hitler chose war as the way out of the approaching economic crisis. Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. In September 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan, strengthening Hitler’s claim to , international power.
Hitler now moved to achieve his long-term aim of conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans. He attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941. In this historic blunder Hitler exposed the German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.
Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for the entire Europe ?
Nazi ideology specified that there was racial hierarchy and no equality between people.
(a) The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were located somewhere on the lowest rung of the ladder.
(b) The number of people killed by Nazi Germany was 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans.
(c) Nazism glorified the use of force and brutality. It ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy.
(d) Nazi Germany became the most dreaded criminal state. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching the economic crisis.
(e) Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England in September 1940.
Explain the impact of the First World War on European society and polity.
The First World War left a deep imprint on European society and polity. It had a devastating impact on the entire continent.
(a) In society, soldiers were ranked higher than civilians. Trench life of the soldiers was glorified by the media. The media glorified trench life.
(b) Politicians and publicists laid great stress on the need for men to be aggressive and masculine.
(c) Aggressive war propaganda and national honour occupied centre stage in the public sphere.
(d) Popular support grew for conservative dictatorships that had recently come into being.
(e) Democracy as a young and fragile idea could not survive the instabilities of interwar Europe.
Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions
Trace the events that led to the birth of the Weimar Republic.
In the 20th century Germany was a powerful Empire. During the First World War Germany took up the cause of Austria against the Allies. Many countries joined the war hoping to gain something, without realizing the fact that the war would prolong and drain Europe of its resources. Though Germany made initial gains by occupying France and Belgium, the Allies became stronger when the US joined them in 1917 and defeated Germany and the Central Powers.
The defeat of Germany resulted in the abdication of the German Emperor. This gave an opportunity for the parliamentary parties to bring in a change, in German politics. A democratic constitution with a federal structure was formed by the National Assembly, which met at Weimar and the Weimar Republic came into existence.
What was the out come of the Versailles treaty?
At the end of the First World War, in which Germany lost, a peace treaty was signed at Versailles with the Allies. The Versailles treaty was harsh and humiliating, for the Germans. Germany lost its
Over seas colonies
One tenth of its population
13% of its territories
75% of its iron and
26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
The Allied powers demilitarized Germany to weaken its power.
The War Guild Clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allied countries suffered.
Germany was forced to pay a compensation of £ 6 billion.
The Allied armies occupied the resource- rich Rhineland.
What was the impact of the war on the European Society and politics?
The impact of the war on the European Society was devastating. It affected the economic, social and political fibre of Europe.
- The soldiers were placed above the civilians.
- Politicians and publicists emphasized on the need for men to be aggressive, strong and masculine.
- Trench life was glorified by the media though in actual practice the soldiers led a miserable life in the trench with rats feeding on the corpses and faced poisonous gas.
- Though war and national honour was brought to the fore front, people were in support of the conservative dictatorship.
- Due to the instabilities of war, European democracy could not survive, as it was a new idea.
Write a short note on the Spartacist League.
Germany had to pay war reparation after its defeat in the First World War. But Germany refused to pay the reparation and France occupied Ruhr to claim Germany’s coal. In retaliation Germany printed paper currency recklessly. As a result, the value of German mark collapsed and prices of goods soared.
In December 1923, 1 US dollar was equal to 98,860,000 marks. People had to carry a cart load of currency to buy a loaf of bread. This crisis is known as hyperinflation.
What brought about the Great Economic Depression?
There was some financial stability between 1924 and 1928. Short term loans from the USA helped industrial recovery in Germany. In 1929, when the Wall Street Exchange crushed, the US withdrew all the loans. People rushed in to sell their shares as they thought that the prices would go down drastically. It was said that on the 24th October alone about 13 million shares were sold. This brought about the Great Economic Depression.
The national income of the US fell by nearly 50% between 1929 and 1932. The factories were shut down, exports fell, farmers were affected badly and the speculators withdrew their money from the market. All these affected not only the US but the entire world.
How did the Great Economic Depression affect Germany?
As in the USA and the rest of the world, the Great Economic Depression had adverse effect on Germany and its people. The industrial production came down to less than 40% compared to 1929.
Workers either lost their jobs or were paid less.
About 6 million people were left without any employment.
As jobs disappeared the youth took to criminal activities.
Total despair, a deep anxiety and fear became common place in people.
The saving of salaried people and the pensioners began to diminish when the value of money went down.
Small businessmen, self employed and the retailers were ruined.
Big business was not possible.
The sharp fall in agricultural prices affected the peasants to a great extent.
Women were in deep despair as they could not feed their children properly.
What were the powers that were given to the Police Forces in the Nazi State?
The newly organised Police Forces , in the Nazi State, were given so much powers that people could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers, they could be rounded up and sent to concentration camps, or be deported or arrested without any legal procedure. The police force could function with such unwieldy authority that the Nazi state was known as the most dreaded criminal state.
What were Hitler’s Foreign Policies?
Hitler’s Foreign Policies were a great success. He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933. He reoccupied the Rhineland , which was confiscated by the French ,in 1936. In 1938 Hitler integrated Austria and Germany under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader.
He then captured the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, and soon gobbled up the entire country.
In all of his foreign activities Hitler had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes Hitler had at home and abroad reversed the destiny of the country.
What was the historic blunder Hitler committed in 1941?
In June 1941, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union. The German western front was exposed to British aerial bombing and the eastern front was crushed by the powerful Soviet Red Army at Stalingrad. Thus the Soviet established its leadership over entire Eastern Europe for the next 50 years. This was the historical blunder committed by Hitler.
What was the reaction of the common people to Nazism?
The common people reacted positively to Nazism. They saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in the Nazi language. The common man felt anger and hatred when he saw the Jews. They marked the houses of the Jews and reported about suspicious neighbours.
They believed that Nazism would bring prosperity and general well-being.
A large majority of Germans were passive onlookers and were scared to differ or protest.
What were the terms given by the Nazis when they wanted to convey the words ’kill’ or ‘murder in their official communications ?
The Nazis used the words ‘special treatment or final Solution’ to convey mass killing of the Jews. The words , ‘selection or disinfection’ was used for the elimination of the disabled and to deport people to the Gas Chambers the Nazis used the word ‘evacuation’.
Gas Chambers were called ‘disinfection areas’. These chambers looked like a bath rooms with fake showerheads.
How were women treated in Nazi Germany?
Women in the Nazi Germany were treated as important citizens. Motherhood was glorified, but not all mothers were not treated equally. The women who bore desirable children were awarded. They were given favoured treatment in hospitals and concessions in theatres and shops. Those who bore undesirable children were condemned and punished severely.
Honour Crosses were given to women who produced more children. Women with 4 children were given a Bronze cross, women with 5 were given a Silver cross , while women who bore 8 children and more were given a Gold cross.
Aryan women who deviated from the given code of conduct were severely punished
What was expected of the youth in Nazi Germany?
All the young men above the age of 18 years were expected to serve in the armed forces and enter one of the Nazi organisations.
At the tender age of 10 they had to join ‘Jungvolk’ – Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age. At 14 years of age they enrolled in the Nazi Youth Organisation called ‘Hitler Youth’.
The German youth were educated in the spirit of National Socialism by these youth organisations. They were taught to worship war, glorify aggression and violence , condemn democracy , hate Jews, communists, gypsies and all those who were called ‘undesirable’.
Why did the Nazis hate the Jews?
Traditionally the Jews were considered as the killers of Jesus Christ. It was this traditional hostility and the fact that were basically money lenders charging excessive interest that made the Nazis hate the Jews.
Why did the German Mark collapse?
Germany had to pay war reparation after its defeat in the First World War. But Germany refused to pay the reparation and France occupied Ruhr to claim Germany’s coal. In retaliation Germany printed paper currency recklessly. As a result, the value of German mark collapsed and prices of goods soared.
Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers
Choose the correct option:
Where is the Wall Street Exchange?
Answer: (a) America
Which country was defeated after the First World War?
Answer: (b) Germany
The time span of the First World War was
Answer: (b) 1914-1918
The Nazi Party had become the largest party by the
Answer: (d) 1932
Hitler became the Chancellor or Germany in the year
Answer: (c) 1933
The country that dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan was
Answer: (b) America
Who could enter Jungvolk?
(a) Ten-year-old boys
(b) Twelve-year-old boys
(c) Fourteen-year-old boys
(d) Eighteen-year-old boys
Answer: (a) Ten-year-old boys
Who were the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany?
Answer: (a) Jews
A bronze cross was given to the woman who produced
(a) two children
(b) four children
(c) six children
(d) eight children
Answer: (b) four children
The game Hitler glorified was
Answer: (d) boxing
What was the response of the Germans to the new Weimar Republic?
(a) They held the new Weimar Republic responsible for Germany’s defeat and the disgrace at Versailles
(b) The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation
(c) It became the target of attacks in the conservative national circles
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Which of the following statements is false about soldiers in the World War I?
(a) The soldiers, in reality, led miserable lives in trenches, survived with feeding on the copra’s
(b) They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling and loss of comrades
(c) All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory
(d) Aggressive propaganda glorified war
Answer: (c) All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory
The Treaty of Versailles (1920) signed at the end of World War I, was harsh and humiliating for Germany, because
(a) Germany lost its overseas colonies, and 13 per cent of its territories
(b) It lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania, was forced to paycompensation of 6 billion pounds
(c) The western powers demilitarised Germany and they occupied resource-rich Rhineland in the 1920s
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
What was Hitler’s historic blunder and why?
(a) Attack on Soviet Union in 1941 was a historic blunder by Hitler
(b) He exposed his western front to British aerial bombing
(c) The Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat on Germany atStalingrad
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
Why did Helmut’s father kill himself in the spring of 1945?
(a) He was depressed by Germany’s defeat in Second World War
(b) He feared that common people would mishandle him and his family
(c) He feared revenge by the Allied Powers
(d) He wanted to die because of the crimes he had committed during Nazi rule
Answer: (c) He feared revenge by the Allied Powers
Which of the following bodies was set up to try and prosecute the Nazi war criminals at the end of World War II?
(a) International Military Tribunal
(b) British Military Tribunal
(c) Allied Military Tribunal
(d) Allied Judicial Court
Answer: (a) International Military Tribunal
Why did the Nuremburg Tribunal sentence only 11 Nazis to death for such a massive genocide?
(a) Only these 11 Nazis were found guilty
(b) The Allies did not want to be harsh on the defeated Germany as they had been after WorldWar
(c) Germany promised never to repeat such an act
(d) Germany was ready to pay a huge compensation to the Allied countries for these killings
Answer: (b) The Allies did not want to be harsh on the defeated Germany as they had been after WorldWar
What was the most important result of the Spartacus League uprising in Germany in 1918-19?
(a) The Weimar Republic crushed the rebellion
(b) The Spartacists founded the Communist Party of Germany
(c) The Weimar government accepted the demands of the Spartacus League
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b)
War in 1917 led to the strengthening of Allies and the defeat of Germany because of entry of
(c) the USA
Answer: (c) the USA
What was ‘Dawes Plan’?
(a) A plan which imposed more fines on Germany
(b) A plan which withdrew all punishment from Germany
(c) A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans
Answer: (c) A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans
What gave Nazi state its reputation as the most dreaded criminal state?
(a) Extra-constitutional powers were given to the newly organised forces like Gestapo, the SS and SD
(b) People could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers and sent to concentration camps
(c) No legal procedures were there for the arrested people
(d) All the above
Answer: (d) All the above
What was the slogan coined by Hitler when he followed his aggressive foreign policy?
(a) Messenger from God
(b) Conquer the world
(c) One people, one empire, and one leader
(d) we are Aryans, the real rulers
Answer: (c) One people, one empire, and one leader
When and among which countries was the Tripartite Pact signed?
(a) 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan
(b) 1939, Germany, Austria and USSR
(c) 1940, England, France and USA
(d) 1938, England, Germany and USSR
Answer: (a) 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan
Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war?
(a) Hitler’s attack on Eastern Europe
(b) Hitler’s policy of genocide of the Jews
(c) Helplessness of England and France
(d) Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour
Answer: (d) Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour
What was Hitler’s ideology of ‘lebensraum’ or living space?
(a) Multi-storeyed buildings should be built in Germany to increase the living space
(b) The world must be occupied enabling the material resources and power of the German nation.
(c) New territories had to be acquired for settlement
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer: (d) Both (b) and (c)