NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern world(Updated for 2021 – 22)

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes Social Science History Chapter 5

Pastoralism has been important in societies like India and Africa for years. Pastoralism is a way of keeping animals such as cattle, sheep, that involves moving from one place to another to find water and food. Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.

Movement Of Pastoral Nomads In Mountains
Mainly pastoral communities are found in mountainous regions.

Gujjar Bakarwals
Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated here in the 19th century in search of pastures for their cattle and settled here.

In winter, when the mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of Siwalik range. Here, the dry scrub forests provided pastures for their herds. They crossed the Pir Panjal passes and entered Kashmir valley.

In summer, when the snow melted in the mountains and mountainsides were left lush green, they moved onto high levels. The variety of sprouted grass provided rich nutritious forage for their animals.

By the end of September, they used to start moving again for their downward journey back to their winter base. Several households came together for this journey forming a kafila.

Mandaps of Ringal:
The Gujjar cattle herders live in the mandaps, made of ringal—a hill bamboo—and grass from the Bugyal. A mandap was also a workplace. Here, the Gujjar used to make ghee which they ‘ took down for sale. In recent years, they have begun to transport the milk directly in buses and trucks. These mandaps are at about 10,000 to 11,000 feet, as buffaloes cannot climb any higher.

Gaddi Shepherds:
Gaddi shepherd is a pastoral community of Himachal Pradesh. They had a similar cycle of seasonal movements like Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.

Movement of Gaddi Shepherds:
During winter, Gaddi Shepherds grazed their flocks in scrub forests of the low hills of Siwalik range.

By April, they moved North and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. Further to the East, in Garhwal f and Kumaun, the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabhar in the winter and went up to the high meadows-the bugyals in summer. Many of the Gujjar cattle herders were originally from Jammu and Kashmir and came to the uphills in the 19th century in search of good pastures.When the snow melted on the high mountains, they moved onto higher mountain meadows (dhars). By September, they began their return movement. On the way, they stopped once again in the villages of Lahul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crop.

On the way down, they stop for a while to have their sheep sheared. The sheep are bathed and cleaned before the wool is cut valley near Palampur in Himachal Pradesh is one of the areas where shearing of wool is being done. Then, they further descend to their winter base the Siwalik hills.

Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris Many pastoralists of the Himalayas like the Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris also followed cyclic movement between summers and winters in search of pastures. They all had to adjust to seasonal changes and make proper use of available pastures. When the pasture was exhausted or unusable in one place, they moved their herds and flock to new areas. This continuous movement of the pastoralists allowed the pastures to recover.

On The Plateaus, Plains And Deserts

The pastoral communities are also found in the plateaus, plains and deserts of India.

Dhangars:
Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. In the early 20th century, their population was more than 4 lakhs. They were mainly shepherds, blanket weavers and buffalo herders. Dhangars stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. In the monsoon, this track became a vast grazing ground for their flocks.

By October, the Dhangars harvested the bajra and started to move towards West. After a month, reached. Konkan which had high rainfall and rich soil. Here, they were welcomed by the Konkani peasants.

After the harvest of the Kharif crop, the fields had to be fertilised and made ready for the rabi harvest. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce.

With the onset of monsoon, they returned to their settlements on the dry plateau as sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions.

The Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas The Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas are the important pastoral communities of the dry central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Gollas herded cattle. The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets.

They lived near the forests, cultivated small patches of land, engaged in a variety of small trades and took care of their herds. The movement of these pastoralists depended on monsoon and dry season.

In the dry season, they moved to the coastal tracts and left when the rains came. Only buffaloes liked the swampy, wet conditions of the coastal areas during the monsoon months. Other herds had to be shifted to the dry plateau at that time.

Movement Of Pastoral Nomads On The Plateaus, Plains And Deserts

Bhabhar A dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun.
Bugyals Bugyals are vast natural pastures on the high mountains, above 12,000 feet. They are under snow in the winter and come to life after April. At this time, the entire mountainside is covered with a variety of grasses, roots and herbs. By monsoon, these pastures are thick with vegetation and carpeted with wild flowers. Kharif The autumn crop, usually harvested between September and October. Rabi The spring crop, usually harvested after March. Stubble Lower ends of grain stalks left in the ground after harvesting.

Banjara Tribes
They were an important group of graziers, which were found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In search of good pasture land for their cattle, they moved over long distances. They sold their plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange of grain and fodder.

Ratios
They lived in the deserts of Rajasthan. Before 1947, they used to migrate to Sindh and grazed their animals on the banks of the Indus. But after partition, when Sindh became a part of Pakistan, this activity was restricted. Now, they started migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvest. The rainfall in the region was less and uncertain. So, they combined cultivation with pastoralism.

During the monsoon, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available. By October, when those grazing grounds were exhausted, they moved out in search of new pastures. They returned in their home villages during the next monsoon.

Maru Raikas
One group of Raikas were known as Maru Raikas who reside in the Thar desert near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. Their settlement is called a dhandi. They herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat. Maru Raikas know the history of their community from a genealogist. The genealogist is the one, who recounts the history of tribes. Such oral traditions give pastoral groups their own sense of identity. These oral traditions can tell us about how a group looks at its own past.

Camel Fairs
The camel fairs are held at different places of Rajasthan such as Pushkar, Balotra, etc. Camel herders come to the fair to sell and buy camels. The Maru Raikas also display their expertise in training their camels. Horses from Gujarat are also brought for sale at this fair.

Factors that Contributed to the Movement of Pastoralists
The life of pastoral groups is not easy. It was sustained by careful consideration of a host of factors. They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area and know where they could find water and pasture. They needed to calculate the timing of their movements and ensure that they could move through different territories.

Customary Rights Rights that are used by people by custom and tradition.
They had to set up a relationship with farmers on the way so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil. They combined a range of different activities viz., cultivation, trade and herding to make their living.

Colonial Rule And Pastoral Life

The Colonial Government made different laws from time to time which severely affected the lives of the pastoralists. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated, they had to pay high revenue, their agricultural stock declined and their trades and crafts were also affected adversely.

The colonial power believed that all grazing lands were wastelands because they were unproductive. These lands did not produce revenue or agricultural products. From the mid-19th century, Wasteland Rules were enacted in various parts of our country.

Wasteland Rules and Forest Acts
The government granted selected individuals various concessions and encouraged to settle them in these areas. Even some of them were made as headmen of villages. In most areas, the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists as their customary rights.

They believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor. The herds crushed the saplings and munched away shoots. These prevented new trees to grow. The Forest Acts made by the British Government changed the lives of pastoralists. Some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared as ‘reserved’.

In the reserved forests, no pastoral activity was allowed and in the protected forests their activity was strictly restricted. In the protected forests, they needed a permit for entry. The permit specified the timing of their entry and departure. If they overstayed there, they were liable to fines.

Criminal Tribes Act
British officials were very suspicious of nomadic people. They wanted to rule over a settled population which could be easily identified and controlled. In 1871, the British Government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act. By this act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes.

They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. As a result of this act, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements and they were not allowed to move without a permit. The village police also kept a strict watch on them.

The imposition of Grazing Tax
In the mid—19th century, Grazing Tax was introduced by the British Government in most pastoral lands of India. In order to increase income, the government imposed tax even on animals.

The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of the collection was made increasingly efficient. In the decades between the 1850s and 1880s, the right to collect the tax was carried out by contractors. These contractors tried to extract high tax so that they could earn the profit. By the 1880s, the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists.
Each of them was given a pass. The pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed in the pastures. To enter a grazing tract, the pastoralist had to show the pass and pay the tax.

Report by the Royal Commission on Agriculture
The Royal Commission on Agriculture in 1928 reported that the extent of the area available for grazing has gone down tremendously with the extension of the area under cultivation because of increasing population, an extension of irrigation facilities, acquiring the pastures for government purposes, e.g. defence, industries and agricultural experimental farms. Now breeders find it difficult to raise large herds. Thus, their earnings have gone down. The quality of their livestock has deteriorated, dietary standards have fallen and indebtedness has increased.

Effects of Colonial Changes on the Lives of Pastoralists:
Wasteland Rules, Forest Acts, Criminal Tribes Act and the imposition of grazing tax affected the lives of pastoralists badly. The effects were

  • These measures led to the serious shortage of pastures as grazing lands were turned into cultivable land.
  • The shepherds and cattle herds could no longer freely graze their cattle in the forests.
  • Nomadic people had to move frequently from one place to another in search of pastures.
  • The animal stock declined as underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.

Ways by which Pastoralists Cope with the Changes Pastoralists coped up with the changes in a variety of ways

  • Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers.
  • Some discovered new pastures when a movement to old grazing grounds became difficult.
  • Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life.
  • Many poor pastoralists borrowed money from moneylenders to survive.
  • Some of them became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.
  • In spite of such difficulties, pastoralist communities still exist and are considered the most important form of life ecologically.

Pastoralism In Africa

Africa is a country where over half the world’s pastoral population lives. Even now, over 22 million Africans depend on some forms of pastoral activities for their livelihood.

The different pastoral communities of Africa are Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana. Most of them lived in semi-arid grasslands where rainfed agriculture is difficult.

They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys. They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some of them earn through trade and transport. Others combine pastoral activity with agriculture field and still, others do a variety of odd jobs.

The life of Maasai Community
The Maasai are nomadic and pastoral people who depend on milk and meat for subsistence. The title Maasai derives from the word ‘Maa’. Maai-sai means ‘My People’.

Before colonial rules, Maasailand stretched over a vast area from North Kenya to the steppes of Northern Tanzania. In the late 19th century, European imperial powers divided the region into different colonies.

After colonial rule, best grazing lands of Maasai community were gradually taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

By changing conditions, the Maasai were forced to agriculture. They started growing crops such as maize, rice, potatoes, cabbage. Maasai believed that tilling the land for crop farming is a crime against nature. Once you cultivate the land, it is no longer suitable for grazing.

Effects of Colonial Ryle on Naassi Community

Maasais Lost their Grazing Lands
From the late 19 th century, the British Colonial Government in East Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields. The Maasai community lost about 60% of their land and were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.

In pre-colonial times, the Maasai pastoralists had dominated their agricultural neighbours both economically and politically. By the end of colonial rule, the situation became the opposite. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.

They lost their grassing lands in the following ways

Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. The Serengeti National Park has created over 14,760 km of Maasai grazing land.

Without grass, livestock (cattle, goats and sheep) were malnourished, which meant less food available for families and their children.

The Kilimanjaro Water Project cuts through the communities of the area near Amboseli National Park. But the villagers are barred from using the water for irrigation or for livestock.

The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created a serious problem for the pastoralists. Feeding the cattle became a persistent problem due to the unavailability of enough grazing lands.

Effect of Closed Borders on Pastoralists
Pastoral groups were forced to live within the confines of special reserves. The boundaries of these reserves became the limits within which they could now move.

They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. They were not even allowed to enter the markets in white areas. They were prohibited from participating in any form of trade.

The new territorial boundaries and restrictions imposed on them suddenly changed the lives of pastoralists. This adversely affected both their pastoral and trading activities. Earlier, pastoralists not only looked after animal herds but traded in various products. The restrictions under colonial rule did not entirely stop their trading activities but they were now subject to various restrictions.

Effect of Dried Pastures on Maasais
The Maasais were forced to live in semi-arid tracts prone to frequent drought. Since they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available, large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease in these years of drought.

The colonial rules had unequal effects on elders and warrior groups of Maasai society. The Elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes.

The Warriors consisted of young people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. The Warrior class proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars.

The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare. Thus, the traditional authority of both Elders and Warriors was negatively affected.

The chiefs appointed by the Colonial Government accumulated wealth over time. They had regular income with which, they could buy animals, goods and lands. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed it to pay taxes. They started to live in towns and involved in trades. Their family stayed back in villages to look after lands and animals. These rich chiefs managed to survive devastations due to war and drought.

The poor pastoralists did not have the resources to tide over bad times and thus, they were compelled to do odd jobs, like charcoal burners, workers in road and building construction, etc.

Rituals to become Maasai Warrior
Even today, Maasai young men go through an elaborate ritual before they become warriors, although actually it is no longer common. They must travel throughout the section’s region for about 4 months, ending with an event where they run to the homestead and enter with an attitude of a raider.

During the ceremony, boys dress in loose clothing and dance non-stop throughout the day. This ceremony is the transition into a new age. Girls are not required to go through such a ritual.

Kaokoland Herders of Namibia
In Namibia, in South-West Africa, the Kaokoland herders traditionally moved between Kaokoland and nearby Ovamboland and they sold skin, meat and other trade products in neighbouring markets. All this was stopped with the new system of territorial boundaries that restricted movements between regions.

In most places in colonial Africa, the police were given instructions to keep a watch on the movements of pastoralists and prevent them from entering white areas.

Conclusion
Pastoral communities in different parts of the world are affected in a variety of different ways by changes in the modern world. New laws and new borders affect the patterns of their movement.

They change the path of their annual movement, reduce their cattle numbers, press for rights to enter new areas. They exert political pressure on the government for relief, subsidy and other forms of support and demand a right in the management of forests and water resources.

They are not people who have no place in the modern world. Environmentalists and economists have increasingly come to recognise that pastoral nomadism is a form of life that is perfectly suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world.

Pastoralism is a way of keeping animals and moving from one place to another to find water and food.

Gujjar Bakarwals migrated in the 19th century to Kashmir crossing Pir Panjal. They shifted their grazing lands from highlands in summer to lower hills of Siwalik range in winter. They used to move to form kafila.

Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh like Gujjar Bakarwals used to come down to the dry forest of bhabhar in winter and went up to the high meadows of bugyals in summer.

Shearing of wool is being done at Uhl valley near Palampur in Himachal Pradesh.

To adjust to seasonal changes and make proper use of available pastures Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris also involved in cyclic movement between summer and winter.

Dhangars.of Central Plateau, Maharashtra were mainly shepherds, blanket weavers and buffalo herders. After harvesting bajra, they move towards Konkan to reap benefits of high rainfall and rich soil.

Gollas, Kurumas and kurubas are cattle herders of dry Central Plateau Qf Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Cyclic movement of Pastoralist communities in Plateaus, Plains and desert was defined by alteration of monsoon and dry season.

Banjara tribes were found in villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, who also moved over long distance in search of Pastures.

Raikas of Rajasthan had to combine cultivation with pastoralism when Sindh became part of Pakistan after 1947. Maru Raikas of Jaisalmer lived in a settlement called dhandi and know about their community from a genealogist.

Camel fairs were held in Pushkar, Balotra where Maru Raikas display their expertise in training camels.

Pastoralists had to set up a relationship with farmers and combined a range of different activities like cultivation, trade and herding.

Colonial Government considered that all grazing lands were unproductive. Hence, they categorised forest into the reserved forest (no pastoral activity allowed) and protected forest (permit system prevailed). These laws affected the customary rights of the traditional pastoralist.

Criminal Tribe Act of 1871 classified many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists as criminal tribes.

British Government introduced Grazing Tax, which was auctioned out to contractors.

The changes brought by laws of British Government reduced the available area for pastureland. Thus continuous grazing in the same piece of land degraded the quality of pasture.

To adapt to the changing circumstances, pastoralists reduced the number of cattle, discovered new pasture. Some even bought land and started settling down.

Pastoralism is still considered an ecologically most viable form of life.

Africa houses over half of the world’s pastoral population. Pastoral communities like Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Tukana lived here.

The Maasai community lost about 60% of their land and were confined to arid zones due to colonial laws, even though they dominated in economic and political fields in the pre-colonial era.

Territorial boundaries and restrictions were imposed on Pastrolists and required the social permit to move out of it. For exp. Kaokoland herders of Namibia were severely affected by these territorial boundaries.

Maasai society was divided into Elders and Warriors.

Elders were ruling community who settled disputes and decided on affairs of the community.

The Warriors were young people who raided cattle and participated in wars. But restrictions imposed’ by Britishers affected the traditional authority of both Elders and Warriors.

Though the traditional difference between Elders and Warriors was disturbed it did not breakdown. With social change new distinction between wealthy and poor pastoralist developed.

The relevance of Maasai tribe can be realised from the fact that even today young men go through an elaborate ritual before they become warriors. The boys in the ceremony wear loose clothing and dance throughout the day.

Pastoral communities are greatly affected by the new laws and new borders of the countries. But they are not redundant communities rather recognised as the perfectly suitable communities for many hilly and dry regions by environmentalists and economists.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World History Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 137

Questions

1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Answer

There were many need of nomadic tribes to move from one place to another:

→ The nomadic tribes had no regular fields of their own from where they could get fodder for their cattle.

→ They lived with their herd in the low hills of Himalayas from September to April because; the huge mountains or high altitude were covered with snow during this period. In these areas, the dry scrub forests provided pastures for their herds during this period.

→ With the onset of summer, as the snow melted and the hills side began to be covered with lush green with a variety of new grasses, the pastoralists started their northward march for their summer grazing grounds.

→ Again with the onset of winter when the mountains began to be covered with snow and there were dearth of nutritious forage, these pastoralists on the move again, this time on their downward journey.

The movement of the nomadic pastoralists from the downward to the upward areas and vice-versa allowed sufficient time for natural restoration of vegetation grounds. Their continuous shifting provided sufficient forage to the different animals both at the high mountains and the lower hills. They also helped in maintaining the quality of the pastures.

2. Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:

Answer

(i) Waste Land rules: All grazing lands were considered ‘waste land’ by the colonial rulers as they brought no revenue to them. If this land could be transformed into cultivated farmland, it would result in an increase in land revenue and production of crops such as jute, cotton and wheat. This is why the Waste Land rules were formulated. However, they sounded the death knell for pastoralists because an increase in cultivated land meant an obvious decline in pastures and a consequent loss of a means of livelihood for them.

(ii) Forests Acts:These were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of
commercial importance. These acts changed the life of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. They issued permits which monitored their entry and exit into forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the number of days and hours they could spend in the forests.

(iii) Criminal Tribes Act: The British government eyed nomadic people with suspicion and disregard on account of their continuous movement. They could not be tracked down or placed in one particular place, unlike rural people in villages who were easy to identify and control. Hence, the colonial power viewed nomadic tribes as criminal. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871 and it further ruined the lives of the pastoralists who were now forced to live in notified settlements and were disallowed from moving out without a government permit.

(iv) Grazing Tax: It was imposed by the colonial government to expand its revenue income. Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. This right was now auctioned out to contractors. They extracted as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could. Later the government itself started collecting taxes. This created problems for the pastoralists who were harassed by tax collectors. It also became an economic burden on them.

3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer

The Maasais lost their grazing lands due to the following reasons:

→ In 1885, Maasai land was cut in half by an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.

→ The best pastures were reserved for white settlements, and the Maasai tribes were given arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures into a small area in south Kenya and north Tanzania.

→ The British colonial government in east Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields.

→ Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves where pastoralists were not allowed to enter.

→ This lack of good grazing lands and a two-year drought led to losses of almost 60% cattle belonging to the Maasai tribes.

Thus, with the expansion of British colonisation, the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

 
4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
 

Answer

There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Here are two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders:

→ All uncultivated land was seen as ‘waste land’ by colonial powers. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. This land was brought under cultivation. In most areas, the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists, so the expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and a problem both for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai.

→ From the 19th century onwards, the colonial government started imposing restrictions on the pastoral communities. They issued permits which allowed them to move out with their stock and it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of _________ .
Answer:
Goat and sheep

Question 2.
When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the _________ .
Answer:
Low hills

Question 3.
The Gaddi shepherds belong to _________ .
Answer:
Himachal Pradesh

Question 4.
The Gaddi shepherds spent their winter in _________ .
Answer:
The low hills of Siwalik range

Question 5.
Why were wasteland rules enacted by the colonial officials ?
Answer:
To turn the uncultivated lands into cultivable lands.

Question 6.
Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their _________ .
Answer:
Livelihood

Question 7.
The Maasai cattle herders live primarily in _________ .
Answer:
East Africa

Question 8.
Name the pastoral communities of the mountains.
Answer:
Gujjars, Gaddis, Bhotiyas and Sherpas

Question 9.
The word Maasai means _________ .
Answer:
My people

Question 10.
In 1885, Massailand was cut into half with an international boundary between :
Answer:
Kenya and Tanganyika

Question 11.
Give one advantage of changing grazing lands into cultivated farms by British in India.
Answer:
Land revenue was one of the main sources of income, by expanding cultivation it would increase its revenue collection.

Question 12.
Large areas of grazing land in East Africa were turned into _________ .
Answer:
Game reserves.

Question 13.
When did European imperial powers divide Africa into different colonies?
Answer:
1885.

Question 14.
Maasai society was divided into two social categories _________ .
Answer:
Elders and warriors.

Question 15.
What kind of permit was given to the pastoralists by the forest department?
Answer:
The permit specified the periods in which these pastoralists could live legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were made to pay fines.

Question 16.
The Criminal Tribes Act, 1871 classified the communities of craftsman, traders and pastoralists as _________ .
Answer:
Criminal Tribes.

Question 17.
What was the status of the Massai pastoralists in pre-colonial times ?
Answer:
They had dominated their agricultural neighbours both economically and politically.

Question 18.
Who were called “The Elders’ in Maasai society?
Answer:
The Elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes.

Question 19.
What are the main occupations of Raikas?
Answer:
Raikas combined a range of different activities-cultivation, trade, and herding to make their living.

Question 20.
Who were ‘Dhangars’ ?
Answer:
‘Dhangars’ were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.

Question 21.
What are the major activities of the pastoral communities of Africa?
Answer:
They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys. They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.

Question 22.
What kind of duty was assigned to the warriors?
Answer:
They defended the community and organised cattle raids.

Question 23.
Where is the Serengeti National Park located?
Answer:
The Serengeti National Park is in Tanzania.

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who are nomadic pastoralists ?
Answer:

  • Nomads are people who do not live at one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.
  • In many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastoralists on the move with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle.
  • They move place to place in search of new pastures for their herds of goats and sheep.

Question 2.
What happened to the animal’s stock when pasture lands were turned into cultivated lands ?
Answer:
As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures. Usually nomadic pastoralists grazed their animals in one area and moved to another area. These pastoral movements allowed time for the natural restoration of vegetation growth. When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements, grazing lands came to be continuously used and the quality of pastures declined. This in turn created a further shortage of forage for animals and the deterioration of animal stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.

Question 3.
What do you know about the lifestyle of Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaun ?
Answer:

  • In Garhwal and Kumaun, the Gujjar cattle herders came to the dry forests of the bhabar in the winter, and went to the high meadows, the Bugyals, in summer.
  • Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to the UP hills in the 19th century’ in search of good pastures.
  • This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas.

Question 4.
Describe the life of pastoralists inhabiting the mountains of India.
Answer:
(a) The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, the Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaun, the Bhotiyas, the Sherpas and Kinnauris move annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds governed by the cycle of seasonal movements.
(b) They adjust their movements to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. When pastures are exhausted or unstable in one place they move their herds to new areas.

Question 5.
Discuss the main features of the pastoral nomads of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:

  • In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, we found the dry central plateau covered with stone and grass inhabited by cattle, goat and sheep herders.
  • The Gollas herded cattle and the Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their herbs.
  • The pastoral nomads of these two southern states lived near the forests, cultivated small patches of land, engaged themselves in different petty trades and took care of the herds.

Question 6.
Name the pastoral communities of Africa. Where are they found ? What are their occupations ?
Answer:

  • The Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana are some of the pastoral communities of Africa.
  • Most of them are found in semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult.
  • They raise cattle, camels, goats, etc. and sell their products like milk and meat. Others earn their living through trade and transport. Some of then combine pastoral activity with agriculture while still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings.

Question 7.
Under colonial rule, what were the changes in the life of pastoralists ?
Answer:
Following were the changes that took place in the life of pastoralists under the colonial rule :

  • Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank.
  • The revenue they had to pay was increased.
  • Their movements were regulated.
  • Their agricultural stock declined and their trades and crafts were adversely affected. (Any three points)

Question 8.
What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive ?
Answer:
Following factors had to be kept in mind by pastoralists in order to survive :

  • They had to judge how longtfie herds could stay in one area and know where they could find water and pasture.
  • They needed to calculate the timing of their movements, and ensure that they could move through different territories.
  • They also had to set up a relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil.
  • They also had to combine a range of different activities-cultivation, trade and herding-to make their living. (Any three points)

Question 9.
How did the Forest Acts change the life of pastoralists ?
Answer:
The Forest Acts change the life of pastoralists in the following ways :
(a) Forest Acts were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of commercial importance.
(b) They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. Even in the areas they were allowed entry, their movement were regulated.
(c) They were issued permits which monitored their entry into and exit from forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the periods in which they could be legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were liable to fives.

Question 10.
What was the impact of frequent drought on the pasture lands of Maasai community ?
Answer:
Drought affects the life of pastoralists everywhere. When rains fail, and pastures are dry, cattle are likely to starve unless they can be moved to areas where forage is available. But from the colonial period, the Maasai were bound down to a fixed area, confined within a reserve, and prohibited from moving in search of pastures. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts.

Since they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available, large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease in these years of drought. An enquiry in 1930 showed that the Maasai in Kenya possessed 720,000 cattle, 820,000 sheep and 171,000 donkeys. In just two years of severe drought, 1933 and 1934, over half the cattle in the Maasai Reserve died.

Question 11.
Who were Banjaras ?
Answer:

  • Banjaras were another well-known group of graziers. Banjaras were nomadic.
  • They were to be found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • In search of good pastureland for their cattle, they moved over long distances, selling plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.

Question 12.
What kind of life did the chiefs appointed by the colonial government lead ?
Answer:
The chiefs appointed by the colonial government often accumulated wealth over time. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. Many of them began living in towns and became involved in trade. Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals. These chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. They had both pastoral and non-pastoral income and could buy animals when their stock was depleted.

Question 13.
Explain any three laws which were introduced by the colonial government in India, which changed the lives of pastoralists.
Answer:

  • From the mid-nineteenth century, Wasteland Rules were enacted in various parts of the country. By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected ‘ individuals.
  • By the mid-nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were also enacted in different provinces. Through these Acts some forests which produced valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. Other forests were classified as ‘protected’.
  • In 1871, the colonial government in India passed the ‘Criminal Tribes Act’. By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Once this act came into force, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements.
  • To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possible source of taxation. So, tax was imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods, and even on animals (the Grazing Tax). (Any three)

Question 14.
Write a short note on Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer:
The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. Gradually, over the decades, they established themselves in the area, and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.

In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.

By end September the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey, back to their winter base. When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the low hills.

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Where do the Raikas live ? Mention characteristics of their economy and life.
Answer:
The Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan. The characteristics of their economy and life are :

  • As the rainfall in Rajasthan,was meagre and uncertain, so the Raikas found the cultivation of their land tracts very difficult. Their harvest fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown. Therefore, the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
  • During the monsoons, the Raikas of Banner, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
  • By October, when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, the Raikas moved out in search of other pasture and water, and returned again during herded next rainy season.
  • One group of Raikas—known as the Maru (desert) Raikas—herded camels and another group reared goats and sheep.
  • Therefore, we can say that the life of the Raikas as pastoral groups was sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors. They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area of Rajasthan, and know where they could find water and pasture in Rajasthan and nearby provinces.

Question 2.
Discuss the main features of life of the Dhangars pastoral community of Maharashtra.
Answer:
The main feature of life of the Dhangars :

  • Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. In the early twentieth century, their population in this region was about 4,67,000.
  • Most of the Dhangars were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and still others were buffalo herders.
  • The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. This was a semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil. It was covered with thorny scrub. Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here.
  • In the monsoon, the central plateau became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks.
  • By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move towards west. After a march of about a month, they reached the Konkan. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by Konkan peasants.

Question 3.
Write down the main features of the life of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.
Answer:
The main features of the life of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh as given below :

  • In different areas of the mountains, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had cycle of seasonal movement. In winter, they moved downward and in summer, they moved upward to the valley. Gaddi shepherds also spent their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their flocks in scrub forests. By April, they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them move on to higher mountain meadows.
  • By September, Gaddi shepherds bean their return movement. On the way, they stopped once again in the villages of Lahul and Spiti, reaping their Kharif crop and sowing their Rabi crop. Then,- they come down with their flock to their lower areas or plains on the Siwalik hills.
  • Next April, with the coming of summer, Gaddi shepherds, once again, began their march with their sheep and goats, to the summer meadows.

Question 4.
Describe the social organisation of the Maasai tribe in the pre-colonial times.
What changes occurred in Maasai community during colonial period ?
Answer:
Maasai society was divided into two social categories – elders and warriors. The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. They defended the community and organised . cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was asserted. Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders.

To administer the affairs of the Maasai, the British introduced a series of measures that had important implications. They appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe. The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare. Consequently, the traditional authority of both elders and warriors was adversely affected.

Question 5.
How did the Indian pastoralists cope with the changes that was brought about by the British colonial officials ?
Answer:
Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated, and the revenue they had to pay increased.

  • Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds, since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers.
  • Others discovered new pastures when movement to old grazing grounds became difficult. After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas, for instance, could no longer move into Sindh and graze their camels on the banks of the Indus, as they had done earlier
  • In recent years they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. This is the time that the fields need manure that the animals provide.
  • Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became settled peasants cultivating land, others took to more extensive trading.
  • Many poor pastoralists, on the other hand, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive. At times they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
Where do the Pastoralists normally live?
Answer:
The Pastorals normally live in the mountainous areas. These mountain areas are e generally covered with lots of shrub forests. These shrubs provide food for their cattle and sheep.

Question 2.
Name the pastoralists in India and mention where they lived?
Answer:
There were seven major pastoralist communities in India. They were

  • The Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir
  • The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh
  • The Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon
  • Dhangars of Maharashtra.
  • The Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Banjaras of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra
  • The Raika of the Rajasthan desserts.

Question 3.
Trace the movement of the Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer:
The Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir reared goats and sheep. They lived with their herds on the low hills of the Siwalik range.

In winter, when the mountains were covered with snow they moved on to the valleys of Kashmir. Several families moved together in a Kafila. The crossed the Pir Panjal passes of the mountains and entered the valley.
In summer when the snow melts, the Bakarwals return to the mountains which are now covered with lush green grasslands.

Question 4.
Name the two groups in the Raikas of the Rajasthan deserts.
Answer:
The Raikas of the Rajasthan desserts can be classified into two groups according to the animals they reared. The Marus Raikas reared camels while the Raikas reared sheep and goats.

Question 5.
What were the activities that the Raikas were involved in?
Answer:
The Raikas combined a range of different activities – cultivation, trade and herding – to make their living .
During the monsoons, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their villages and cultivated crops. They traded with the local farmers to get their requirement. They also had to maintain good relations with the local farmers so that the farmers would let their cattle graze in harvested fields.

The Raikas had to be good in predicting the weather so that they would be able to move about safely. They had to be experts in sporting natural resources water and pasture.

Question 6.
Write a note on the Dhangars of Maharashtra.
Answer:
Dhangars were an important pastoral community in Maharashtra. In the early twentieth century their population was estimated to be 467,000. The Dhangras were mainly shepherds. Some of them were blanket weavers, while a few reared buffaloes.

The Dhangars stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoons. The central plateau had very low rain fall and was very dry. It was covered with only thorny shrubs. As the soil was poor only dry crops like bajra could be grown there.

During monsoon the picture was entirely different. The area became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. The Dhangars harvested their bajra by October every year and then moved westward.

The Dhangars reached Konkan in the month of March, annually. Konkan was a flourishing agricultural land with high rainfall and rich soil. The pastoralists were welcomed by Konkani peasants. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice to the Dhangars , who took it back to the plateaus, where grain was scarce.

As the monsoons set, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau as their sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions.
Constant movement was the way of life of the pastoralists.

Question 7.
What are Gujjar Mandaps?
Answer:
The huts in which the Gujjar cattle herders, of Ghahwal stay, are called Gujjar Mandaps. These huts are made up of bamboo and grass. They are situated at about 10,000 to 11,000 feet, as buffaloes cannot climb any higher. The mandap is also a work place for the herders. They make ghee in these huts.

Question 8.
Mention the Acts that were enforced by the colonial government that affected the lives of the pastoralist community.
Answer:
The colonial government enforced four major laws that affected the pastoralists in a devastating manner. They were
Waste Land rules
Forest Acts
Criminal Tribes Act
Grazing Tax.

Question 9.
How did the laws enforced by the colonial government affect the lived of the pastoralists?
Answer:
The laws brought a lot of hardship to the pastoralists. The laws led to a serious shortage of pastures, which was very important for the nomads. Under the new laws grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivating fields and thus the available area of pastureland declined.

The reservation of forests meant that shepherds and cattle herders could no longer freely graze their cattle in the forests.
The restrictions and reservations the laws enforced threatened the very livelihood of the pastoralists and many had to resettle and adapt themselves to the new ways of the world.

Question 10.
How did the pastoralists cope with the changes brought about by the new laws?
Answer:
Pastoralists reacted to these changes in a variety of ways. Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds, since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers. Others discovered new pastures, when old grazing grounds were banned by the government.

Over the years, some rich pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life they settled down to cultivating land. Others took to extensive trading.

Poor pastoralists, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive, at times they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.
The changes that took place in India, was also seen in other parts of the world. New laws and settlement patterns forced pastoral communities to alter their lives.

Question 11.
Mention a few Pastoral communities in Africa.
Answer:
There are over 22 million Africans depending on some form of pastoral activity or other for their livelihood, till today.
Some of the Pastoral communities in Africa are :-
Bedouins
Berbers
Maasai
Somali
Boran
Turkana
Most of them now live in the semi-dry grasslands or deserts where rain fed agriculture is difficult.

Question 12.
What were the social changes that occurred in the Maasai pastoral community?
Answer:
The social changes in the Maasai society occurred at two levels.
Firstly, the traditional difference based on age, between the elders and warriors, was disturbed, though it did not break down entirely. Secondly, a new distinction between the wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.

The pastoral communities in different parts of the world were affected in a variety of ways, by the changes in the modern world. New laws and new borders affected the patterns of their movement and their livelihood.

Question 13.
How did the pastoralists in Africa adapt themselves to tide over the bad times?
Answer:
The life of poor pastoralists, in Africa, who depended mainly on their livestock, became very difficult in times of war and famine. during these times they lost every thing.

To tide over the bad times the pastoralists had to go looking for work in towns. Some found a living as charcoal burners and others did odd jobs. A few of the pastoralists were lucky to get more regular work in road or building construction.

Question 14.
How did the British administer the affairs of the Maasai community?
Answer:
The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of the Maasai community to administer their affairs. They were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe. The chiefs appointed by the colonial government accumulated wealth over the years. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. Many of them began living in towns, and became involved in trade.

Question 15.
What were the views of Environmentalists and economists on pastoral nomadism?
Answer:
Environmentalists and economists felt that pastoral nomadism was the way of life that was best suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world.

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
The Maru Raikas herded
(a) camels
(b) goats
(c) sheep
(d) all the three

Answer

Answer: (a) camels


Question 2.
Banjaras were not found in
(a) Punjab
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Delhi
(d) Maharashtra

Answer

Answer: (c) Delhi


Question 3.
The Massais are located in the
(a) east Africa
(b) west africa
(c) north Africa
(d) South Africa

Answer

Answer: (a) east Africa


Question 4.
The warriors consisted of
(a) elder people
(b) younger people
(c) children
(d) healthy people

Answer

Answer: (b) younger people


Question 5.
Why were some forests classified as “protected”?
(a) In these the customary grazing rights of pastorals were granted but their movements were severely restricted.
(b) The colonial officials believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)


Question 6.
Which of these are the pastoral communities of the mountains?
(a) Gujjars
(b) Gaddis
(c) Bhotiyas and Sherpas
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 7.
Dhangars were an important pastoral community of
(a) Gujarat
(b) Maharashtra
(c) U.P.
(d) Assam

Answer

Answer: (b) Maharashtra


Question 8.
Where were the Banjaras found?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Punjab, Rajasthan
(c) Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 9.
According to the ‘Wasteland Rules’
(a) uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals
(b) these individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands
(c) some of them were made headmen of villages in the newly cleared areas
(d) all the above

Answer

Answer: (d) all the above


Question 10.
Which of the following statements best explains pastoralist nomads?
(a) The villagers who move from one place to another
(b) The people who do not have a permanent place to live in
(c) The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd
(d) The people who visit many places for enjoyment

Answer

Answer: (c) The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd


Question 11.
What was the result of overgrazing pastures due to restrictions on pastoral movements?
(a) The quality of pastures declined
(b) This created deterioration of animal stock
(c) Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcity and famine
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 12.
Which of these are the pastoral communities of Africa?
(a) Bedouins, Berbers
(b) Maasai, Somali
(c) Boran, Turkana
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 13.
Which of these statements is true?
(a) Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves
(b) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves
(c) Serengeti National Park was created over 14,760 km of Maasai grazing land
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves


Question 14.
How was the authority of both elders and warriors adversely affected by the British efforts to administer the affairs of the Maasai?
(a) The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai
(b) These chiefs were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe
(c) The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above


Question 15.
Which seasonal movements affect the Dhangars of Maharashtra?
(a) Cold and snow
(b) Climatic disturbance
(c) Drought and flood
(d) Alternate monsoon and dry seasons

Answer

Answer: (d) Alternate monsoon and dry seasons


Question 16.
Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another because of:
(a) Seasonal changes
(b) In search of pastures
(c) To maintain ecological balance
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (b) In search of pastures


Question 17.
Raika pastoral community belongs to:
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Maharashtra

Answer

Answer: (b) Rajasthan


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