NCERT Solutions for class 9 SST Geography Chapter 3 Drainage Questions (Updated for 2021 – 22)

Drainage Class 9 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 3

Significant  topics from this chapter.

  • Drainage Patterns
  • Various River Basin System
  • Pollution of Rivers.

Drainage’ is a term signifying the river system of an area.

A drainage basin or river basin is an area w’hich is drained by a single river system.

An upland that separates two drainage systems that are next to each other is called a water divide.

On the basis of origin, there are two river systems of India — The Himalayan rivers and the Peninsular rivers.

Himalayan rivers are rainfed and snowfed, so they have w?ater in them throughout the year, i.e., they are perennial and thus navigable.

Himalayan rivers create meanders, oxbow lakes and other depositional features on their course.

Peninsular rivers are seasonal; mostly depending on rainfall and thus non-navigable.

Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow’ towards the Bay of Bengal.

The Himalayan Rivers

A river along with its tributaries may be called a river system.

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.

The Indus River System

Rising near Lake Mansarovar in Tibet, the Indus enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Rivers Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join Indus near Mithankot, Pakistan and flow southwards to fall into the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.

With a total length of 2,900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers of the world.

The Ganga River System

The headwaters of the Ganga are called ‘Bhagirathi’.

Bhagirathi is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devprayag.

Ganga meets the tributaries from the Himalayas such as Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and the Yamuna.

A major river Yamuna, arising from Yamunotri Glader in the Himalayas, joins Ganga at Allahabad.

Other tributaries — Chambal, Betwa and Son — come from Peninsular uplands to join Ganga.

Ganga is joined by the Brahmaputra and flows through Bangladesh to reach the Bay of Bengal.

The delta formed when the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal is known as the Sunderban Delta.

The length of the Ganga is over 2,500 km and it develops large meanders.

The Brahmaputra River System

Originating in Tibet, very close to the sources of Indus and Satluj, Brahmaputra enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and flows to Assam, joined by many tributaries.

The tributaries that join the Brahmaputra are Dibang, Lohit, and Kenula.

The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam to form many riverine islands.

Unlike other north Indian rivers, the Brahmaputra is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed, causing the riverbed to rise.

The Peninsular Rivers

The major rivers of the peninsula—Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri—flow eastwards to drain into the Bay of Bengal.

The Thai and Narmada are the only rivers which flow west to make estuaries and drain into the Arabian Sea.

The drainage basins of the peninsular rivers are comparatively small in size.

The Godavari Basin

The Godavari begins in Nasik district of Maharashtra. It is the largest peninsular river.

Its large basin covers most parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

The tributaries which join the Godavari include Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga and Penganga.

Because of its length and the area, it covers, the Godavari is also known as the Dakshin Ganga.

The Godavari drains into the Bay of Bengal.

The Mahanadi Basin

The Mahanadi, a 860 km long river, rises in Chhattisgarh to flow through Orissa to reach the Bay of Bengal.

Principal tributaries of Mahanadi river are Sheonath, Jonk, Hasdeo, Mand, lb, Ong and Tel.

Mahanadi river basin is shared by Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Is is one of the major east flowing peninsular rivers draining into Bay of Bengal.

The Krishna Basin

The 1,400 km long Krishna river rises from a spring in the Mahadev range near Mahabaleshwar and falls into the Bay of Bengal.

The tributaries of Krishna include Bhima, Musi, Ghatprabha, Koyana and Tungabhadra. The Krishna basin is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

The Narmada Basin

Rising in the Amarkantak Plateau of Maikala Range, Narmada flows to create a gorge in marble rocks of Madhya Pradesh.

Narmada flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting. •

Narmada river has 41 tributaries. The important ones are: Barna, Ganjal, Chhota Tawa, Hiran, Janatara, Kolar, Orsang, Sher.

The Tapi Basin

Originating in Betul, Madhya Pradesh, the Tapi flows through a basin that covers Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharatpuzha and Periyar.

The entire Tapi basin can be divided into three sub-basins: upper, middle and lower and into two well- defined physical regions, viz, the hilly regions and the plains or Tapi Basin.

The Kaveri Basin

Originating in the Brahmagiri range of the Western Ghats, the Kaveri reaches the Bay of Bengal at Kaveripatnam, sharing its basin with Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry or Pondicherry.

The main soil types found in the basin are red and yellow soils.

Lakes

Most lakes are permanent while others contain water only during the rainy season.

Some lakes are the result of the glacial action and ice sheets and some may have been formed by wind, river action and human activities.

A river meandering across a floodplain forms cut-offs that later develop into oxbow lakes.

Glacial lakes are formed when glaciers dig out a basin which is later filled with snowmelt.

Some lakes like Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir result from tectonic activity.

Apart from natural lakes, the damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of lakes.

Lakes help to regulate river water flow, prevent flooding, aid to develop hydel power, moderate climate, maintain aquatic ecosystem, enhance natural beauty, develop tourism and provide recreation.

Role of Rivers in the Economy

Rivers are a natural source of water. It forms the main backbone for agriculture.

Settlements on the river banks have developed into cities.

Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation, all vital for India, and agricultural economy.

River Pollution

Quality of river water is affected by the growing domestic, municipal, iftdustrial and agricultural demand.

A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the river affecting the river’s self-cleansing property.

Concern over rising pollution in our rivers led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers like Narmada Bachao Movement.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 3 Drainage Geography Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 17
1. Which river has the largest basin in India?
Answer
Ganga river has the largest basin in India
Page No: 22
1. The name of the biggest waterfall in India.
Answer
The Kunchikal Falls in Karnataka.

Page No: 23
Exercise
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) Which one of the following describes the drainage patterns resembling the branches of a tree?
(a) Radial 
(b) Dendritic 
(c) Centrifugal 
(d) Trellis

► (b) Dendritic
Page No: 24
ii) In which of the following States is the Wular Lake located?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab
(d) Jammu and Kashmir
► (d) Jammu and Kashmir
(iii) The river Narmada has its source at:
(a) Satpura
(b) Brahmagir
(c) Amarkantak
(d) Slopes of the Western Ghats
► (c) Amarkantak
(iv) Which one of the following lakes is a salt water lake?
(a) Sambhar
(b) Dal
(c) Wular
(d) Gobind Sagar
► (a) Sambhar
(v) Which one of the following is the longest river of the Peninsular India?
(a) Narmada
(b) Krishna
(c) Godavari
(d) Mahanadi
► (c) Godavari

(vi) Which among the following rivers flows through a rift valley?
(a) Damodar
(b) Tungabhadra
(c) Krishna
(d) Tapi
► (d) Tapi

2. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example.
(ii) Which is the largest river basin in India?
(iii) Where do the rivers Indus and Ganga have their origin?
(iv) Name two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they to form the Ganga?
(v) Why does Brahmaputra in the Tibetan part have less silt despite a longer course?
(vi) Which two peninsular rivers flow through troughs? What features do they form while entering the sea?
(vii) State some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.
Answer
(i) Any upland or a mountain separating two adjoining drainage basins is known as water divide. An example of water divide is the Western Ghats.
(ii) The Ganga river basin is the largest river basin in India.
(iii) The Indus river has its origin in Tibet near the Mansarovar Lake while the Ganga River has its origin in Gangotri Glacier in Uttaranchal.
(iv) Alaknanda and Bhagirathi are the two headstreams of the Ganga. They both meet to form the Ganga at Devprayag.
(v) The Brahmaputra river, which is known as Tsangpo in Tibet, carries a smaller volume of water and less silt as it is a cold and dry area. But once it enters India, Brahmaputra is fed by heavy rains, and it carries lot of water and silt.
(vi) The two rivers that flow through troughs are Narmada and Tapi. They form estuaries while
entering the sea.
(vii) River is very beneficial for agricultural purpose and generating hydro-electricity. It provides fisheries, inland channels for transport. Lakes like the Sambhar Lake provide edible salt. They also help develop tourism and provide recreation.
3. Below are given names of a few lakes of India. Group those under two categories – natural and created by human beings.
(a) Wular (b) Dal (c) Nainital (d) Bhimtal (e) Gobind Sagar (f) Loktak (g) Barapani (h) Chilika (i) Sambhar (j) Rana Pratap Sagar (k) Nizam Sagar (l) Pulicat (m) Nagarjuna Sagar (n) Hirakud

Answer
Natural Lakes: Wular, Dal, Nainital, Bhimtal, Chilika, Pulicat, Sambhar, Barapani, Loktak
Created by human beings: Gobind Sagar, Hirakud, Rana Pratap Sagar, Nagarjuna Sagar, Nizam Sagar
4. Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Answer

Himalayan Rivers
Peninsular Rivers
Originate from HimalayasOriginate in the Western Ghats
These are perennial rivers.These are seasonal rivers.
They receive water from rain as well as from melted snow from the lofty mountains.These rivers are dependent upon rainfall. During the dry season, even the large rivers have reduced flow of water

5. Compare the east-flowing and the west-flowing rivers of the Peninsular Plateau.
Answer

East Flowing Rivers
West Flowing Rivers
Major rivers flowing eastwards: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, KaveriOnly two long rivers flow westwards: Narmada, Tapi
These rivers drain in the Bay of Bengal.These rivers drain in the Arabian sea.
Carry greater amount of sediments, so form deltas at their mouthsCarry lesser amount of sediments, so form estuaries at their mouths
Greater number of tributariesLesser number of tributaries
These river flow not through very deep canals.These rivers flow in troughs.

6. Why are rivers important for the country’s economy?
Answer

The rivers important for the country’s economy because:
→ It is source of natural fresh water which is required for the survival of most of the animals including human.
→ The water from the rivers is used for various domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes.
→ The presence of rivers boosts trade and commerce by helping in the easy transport of goods. They are also a potential source of energy.
→ The water from rivers is used for running hydro-electric dams.
→  It is also used for navigation and transport thus, important for commercial activities.
→ It also provides fishing and great scenic and recreational value. Thus,serve as good tourist spots.
Map Skills

(i) On an outline map of India mark and label the following rivers: Ganga, Satluj, Damodar, Krishna, Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, and Brahmaputra.
(ii) On an outline map of India mark and label the following lakes: Chilika, Sambhar, Wular, Pulicat, Kolleru.
Answer


Page No: 25

Project/Activity
Across
1. Nagarjuna Sagar is a river valley project. Name the river?
2. The longest river of India.
3. The river which originates from a place known as Beas Kund.
4. The river which rises in the Betul district of MP and flows westwards.
5. The river which was known as the “Sorrow” if West Bengal.
6. The river on which the reservoir for Indira Gandhi canal has been built.
7. The river whose source lies near Rohtang Pass.
8. The longest river of Peninsular India.
Down
9. A tributary of Indus originating from Himachal Pradesh.
10. The river flowing through fault, drains into the Arabian Sea.
11. A river of South India, which receives rain water both in summer and winter.
12. A river which flows through Ladakh, Gilgit and Pakistan.
13. A important river of the Indian desert.
14. The river which joins Chenab in Pakistan.
15. A river which rises at Yamunotri glacier.

 
Answer
 

Drainage Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The area drained by a single river system is called a _______ .
Answer:
Drainage

Question 2.
The world’s largest drainage basin is of the river _______ .
Answer:
Amazon

Question 3.
The largest delta in the world is _______ .
Answer:
Sunderban delta

Question 4.
An area through which a river and its tributaries flow is called _______ .
Answer:
Basin

Question 5.
What is the total length of the Indus river?
Answer:
The total length of the Indus river is 2900 km.

Question 6.
Which is the largest tributary of the Ganga?
Answer:
Yamuna

Question 7.
Most of the Himalayan rivers are _______ .
Answer:
Perennial

Question 8.
A river along with its tributaries may be called
Answer:
River system

Question 9.
The Brahmaputra rises in _______ .
Answer:
Tibet

Question 10.
Name any one freshwater lake of India.
Answer:
Wular lake.

Question 11.
When the streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure, a _______ pattern is developed.
Answer:
Radial drainage.

Question 12.
What does NRCP stands for?
Answer:
National River Conservation Plan

Question 13.
What controls the drainage systems of India?
Answer:
The board relief features of the subcontinent control the drainage system of India.

Question 14.
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase – I started in the year _______ .
Answer:
1985

Question 15.
Which state is not drained by the Godavari river?
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh

Question 16.
The Narmada Basin creates many picturesque locations. Name two of them.
Answer:

  • The ‘Marble rocks’ near Jabalpur.
  • The ‘Dhuadhar falls’.

Question 17.
What is common between river Damodar and the river Kosi?
Answer:
Both of these rivers are considered as “Rivers of Sorrow”. They cause flood every year and cause destruction of life and property.

Question 18.
The river Brahmaputra is known as the Tsang Po in Tibet and _______ in Bangladesh.
Answer:
Jamuna

Question 19.
The Sundarban delta is the home of which animal?
Answer:
Royal Bengal Tiger

Question 20.
Most of the freshwater lakes are in the _______ .
Answer:
Himalayan region

Question 21.
Which is the largest peninsular river?
Answer:
The Godavari is the largest peninsular river.

Question 22.
Name some freshwater lakes of India.
Answer:
The Wular lake, the Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani.

Question 23.
Which city is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems?
Answer:
Ambala city is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.

Question 24.
Mention the course of the river Mahanadi.
Answer:
The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh. It flows through Odisha to reach the Bay of Bengal. The length of the river is about 860 km. Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odhisha.

Question 25.
Write a short note on the Krishna Basin.
Answer:
Rising from a spring near Mahabaleshwar, the Krishna flows for about 1400 km and reaches the Bay of Bengal. The Tungabhadra, the Koyana, the Ghatprabha, the Musi and the Bhima are some of its tributaries. Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Drainage Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give an account of the Tapi Basin.
Answer:
The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. It also flows in a rift valley parallel to the Narmada, but it is much shorter in length. Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
The coastal plains between Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea are very narrow. Hence, the coastal rivers are short. The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha and Periyar.

Question 2.
Write the salient features of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.
Answer:
The salient features of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta are :

  • It is the largest delta of the world on the mouth of the Bay of Bengal.
  • This has formed owing to split of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra in several rivulets i.e., distributaries.
  • Its lower portion is marshy owing to mess up of the sea and the freshwater together.
  • It is the most fertile and densely populated delta.

Question 3.
What are the major sources of river pollution?
Answer:
The major source of river pollutants are :

  • A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the river.
  • The leakage of oil from ships.
  • Excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers.

Question 4.
Why are the Peninsular rivers not navigable?
Answer:
Peninsular rivers are not navigable because :

  • These all are seasonal rivers and generally dries up in summer.
  • River beds are uneven, rocky and have sharp slopes.
  • Construction of dams is difficult as a result of which navigation is not possible.

Question 5.
Describe some specific characteristics of the Brahmaputra river system.
Answer:
Some specific characteristics of the Brahamputra river system are :

  • It originates from Tibet and is slightly longer than the Indus.
  • It carries huge amount of silt.
  • It flows parallel to the Himalayan Mountains in Tibet.
  • It takes a ‘U’ turn at Namcha Barwa (height 7757 mts.) and enters Arunachal Pradesh.

Question 6.
Write a short note on National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).
Answer:
The river cleaning programme in the country was initiated with the launching of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) in 1985. The Ganga Action Plan was expanded to cover other rivers under the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) in the year 1995. The objective of the NRCP is to improve the water quality of the rivers, which are major water sources in the country, through the implementation of pollution abatement work.

How does the trellis and rectangular patterns of drainage develop? Trellis patterns : In the trellis pattern of drainage, the tributaries join the main river at approximately right angles and make it look like a rectangular arrangement. It develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.

Rectangular patterns : This drainage pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain Trellis Drainage.

Question 9.
Which basin rises in the range of the Western Ghats.
Answer:

  • The Kaveri rises in the Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats and it reaches the Bay of Bengal in sojith of Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu.
  • The total length of the river is about 760 km.
  • Its main tributaries are Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini. Its basin drains parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Question 10.
Why are most of the freshwater lakes found in the Himalayan region?
Answer:
Most of the freshwater lakes are found in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. In other words, they are formed when glaciers dug out a basin, which was later filled with snowmelt. The Wular lake in Jammu and Kashmir, in contrast, is the result of the tectonic activity. It is the largest freshwater lake in India. The Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are some other important freshwater lakes.

Question 11.
What is drainage and drainage basin?
Answer:
Drainage: The term ‘drainage means the river system of an area. It is a system of flowing water from the higher level to the lower level. Drainage Basin : Some small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main river, which ultimately drains into a large water body such as a lake or a sea. The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.

Question 12.
Name the three Himalayan river systems. Give two tributaries of each.
Answer:
Three Himalayan river systems are :

  • The Indus river system
  • The Ganga river system
  • The Brahamaputra river system.

Tributaries of the Himalayan rivers are :

  • Indus river system – Satluj and Beas
  • Ganga river system – Yamuna and Ghaghara
  • Brahmaputra river system – Dibang and Lohit.

Question 13.
How is Sundarban delta formed?
Answer:
When the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal, here the river splits into the Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal. The main stream flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, it is known as the Meghna. This mighty river, with waters from the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal. The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sundarban Delta.

The Sundarban Delta derived its name from the Sundari tree, which grows well in marshland. It is the world’s largest and fastest growing delta.

Question 14.
Mention some of the characteristics of the lakes.
Answer:
India has many lakes. These differ from each other in size and other characteristics. Most lakes are permanent; some contain water only during the rainy season, like the lakes in the basins of inland drainage of semi-arid regions. There are some lakes which are the result of the action of glaciers and ice sheets, while the others have been formed by wind, river action, and human activities.

Question 15.
From where does the river Ganga originates? Name the tributaries of the the Ganga river.
Answer:

  • The headwaters of the Ganga, called the ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier,
  • The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers, such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.

Question 16.
What are the different types of lakes found in India?
Answer:
The types of lakes found in India.

  • Freshwater lake : Most of the freshwater lakes are in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. They formed when glaciers dug out a basin, which was later filled with snowmelt.
  • Salt water lake : India’s famous salt water Lake is the Sambhar lake, found in Rajasthan. It is a salt water lake and its water is used for producing salt.

Question 17.
Which river is known as ‘Dakshin Ganga’? Describe its main features.
Answer:
The Godavari river is known as the ‘Dakshin Ganga’.
The main features of the river Godavari are :

  • It is the largest Peninsular river, which rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
  • Its length is about 1500 km that drains into the Bay of Bengal.
  • A number of tributaries joins the Godavari river such as the Purna, the Wardha, the Penganga, the Manjra, the Wainganga, and the Pranhita.

Question 18.
Describe the three main features of the Narmada basin.
Answer:
The river Narmada emerges from the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
The main features of the Narmada basin are :
(a) It flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting.
(b) It creates many picturesque location like the Marble Rocks near Jabalpur and Dhuandhar Falls.
(c) All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short and most of them join the main stream at right angles. The Narmada Basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

Question 19.
What is a lagoon? Which state of India is known for it?
Answer:

  • When a small portion of sea in the coastal areas is separated from the main body of water by sand bars of spits, a salt lake is formed. It is called lagoon.
  • These are found in Kerala and Odisha. The Chilka lake in Odisha is an example of a lagoon.

Drainage Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why are the rivers considered as the lifeline of human civilization?
Answer:
The Rivers are considered as the lifeline of human civilization because of the following reasons.

  • Abundant Supply of Drinking Water : The rivers and lakes fulfill the basic need of all living being including, human beings.
  • Water for Irrigation : Rivers are the main source of irrigation. :
  • Navigation : Rivers are the cost-free means of water transportation of goods and people from one place to another.
  • Biologically Productive Areas : Most of the estuaries formed at the meeting point of freshwater and saline water of the sea. These are found in the most suitable places for fish breeding.
  • Source of Generation of Hydro-Power : Rivers are an abundant source of generating electricity. Large dams have been built for this purpose.

Question 2.
Define the term drainage? What are the different types of drainage patterns?
Answer:
The term drainage describes the river system of an area. The streams within a drainage basin form certain patterns, depending on the slope of land, underlying rock structure as well as the climatic conditions of the area.
The different drainage patterns are :

  • Dendritic Pattern : The dendritic pattern develops where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The stream with its tributaries resembles the branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic.
  • Trellis Pattern : A river joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles, develops a trellis pattern. A trellis drainage pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
  • Rectangular Pattern : A rectangular drainage pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain.
  • Radial Pattern : The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure.

Question 3.
What do you know about the Ganga River System?
Answer:
The Ganga System : The Ganga acquires its name after its two head streams—the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi join at Devprayag. The Ganga enters the plains from the Himalayas at Haridwar. It is joined by a large number of tributaries from the north. Among them the Ghaghara, the Gandak, and the Kosi enter the northern plains of India from Nepal. They are the rivers, which flood parts of the northern plains every year, causing widespread damage to life, whereas, they enrich the soil for agricultural use. These rivers have tremendous potential to generate waterpower and to irrigate lands both in Nepal and India. By mutual trust and cooperation, the sharing of river water for developmental purposes can used in prosperity to the people of both the countries. The main tributaries, which come from the peninsular uplands, are the Chambal, the Betwa and the son.

The length of the Ganga is over 2,500 km. In India, it has the largest basin. The Ganga river system drains most of north India.

Question 4.
Write a note on the Brahmaputra Drainage System.
Answer:
The river Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, east of the Mansarowar lake. The river flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas in its upper course. It is known as Tsang Po in Tibet. It carries smaller volume of water and less silt in Tibet as it is a cold and a dry area.

The river takes a U-turn bend at Namcha Barwa (7757 m) and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge. In Arunachal Pradesh, it is known as Dihang. Here, it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit, the Kenula and many other tributaries. The volume of the river increases here, and it is known as the Brahmaputra in Assam.

The region receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon which increases the volume of water and silt content of the river. Devastating floods are caused by the river in Assam and Bangladesh every year during the rainy season. The deposition of the silt in the riverbed due to the heavy load, leads to the formation of braided channels intervened by riverine islands.

The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam. Many riverine . islands like the Majuli, the world’s largest riverine island, are formed in between the channels. The Brahmaputra is known as Jamuna in Bangladesh.

Question 5.
In what different ways do rivers get polluted?
Answer:
Rivers get polluted in the following ways :

  • The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers naturally affects the quality of water.
  • The volume of river is also reduced because more and more water is being drained out of the rivers.
  • A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the rivers. This affects not only the quality of water but also the self-cleansing capacity of the river.
  • The increasing urbanisation and industrialisation also contribute to the river pollution.
  • Dumping of garbage into the streams is another cause of river pollution. They are changing the life-giving rivers into toxic streams.

Drainage Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
The city located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river system is
(a) Jabalpur
(b) Ambala
(c) Meerut
(d) Chandigarh

Answer

Answer: (b) Ambala


Question 2.
Which river is called the Dihang when it enters India in Arunachal Pradesh
(a) The Ganga
(b) The Brahmaputra
(c) The Indus
(d) The Kaveri

Answer

Answer: (b) The Brahmaputra


Question 3.
The world’s largest drainage basin is of the
(a) Amazon river
(b) Nile river
(c) Ganga river
(d) Hwang Ho river

Answer

Answer: (a) Amazon river


Question 4.
Which one of the following peninsular river of India flows west and makes estuaries?
(a) The Krishna
(b) The Mahanadi
(c) The Godavari
(d) The tapi

Answer

Answer: (d) The tapi


Question 5.
The Vembanad Lake is located in
(a) Kerala
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Odisha

Answer

Answer: (a) Kerala


Question 6.
Which one of the following lake is artificial?
(a) Sambhar
(b) Chilika
(c) Pulicat
(d) Rana Pratap sagar

Answer

Answer: (d) Rana Pratap sagar


Question 7.
Which of the peninsular rivers is called the ‘Dakshin Ganga’?
(a) The Mahanadi
(b) The Krishna
(c) Godavari
(d) tha tapi

Answer

Answer: (c) Godavari


Question 8.
The valley of Kashmir is famous for the
(a) Dal Lake
(b) houseboats
(c) shikaras
(d) all of the above

Answer

Answer: (d) all of the above


Question 9.
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-I was started in the year:
(a) 1970
(b) 1975
(c) 1980
(d) 1985

Answer

Answer: (d) 1985


Question 10.
The drainage basin of the Mahanadi is not shared by
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Chhattisgarh
(d) Jharkhand

Answer

Answer: (a) Madhya Pradesh


Question 11.
Which one of the following describes the drainage patterns resembling the branches of a tree?
(a) Radial
(b) Dendrite
(c) Centrifugal
(d) Trellis

Answer

Answer: (b) Dendrite


Question 12.
In which of the following states is the Wular lake located?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab
(d) Jammu and Kashmir

Answer

Answer: (c) Punjab


Question 13.
The river Narmada has its source at
(a) Satpura
(b) Dal
(c) Amarkantak
(d) Gobind Sagar

Answer

Answer: (d) Gobind Sagar


Question 14.
Which one of the following lakes is a salt water lake?
(a) Sambhar
(b) Dal
(c) Wular
(d) Gobind Sagar

Answer

Answer: (a) Sambhar


Question 15.
Which one of the following is the longest river of the Peninsular India?
(a) Narmada
(b) Krishna
(c) Godavari
(d) Mahanadi

Answer

Answer: (c) Godavari


Question 16.
Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley?
(a) Mahanadi
(b) Tungabhadra
(c) Krishna
(d) Tapi

Answer

Answer: (d) Tapi


Question 17.
TheWainganga and the Penganga are tributaries of which of the following rivers?
(a) The Mahanadi
(b) The Narmada
(c) The Godavari
(d) The Krishna

Answer

Answer: (c) The Godavari


Question 18.
Which of the following rivers is not a tributary of river Godavari?
(a) Purna
(b) Ghatprabha
(c) ardha
(d) Pranhita

Answer

Answer: (b) Ghatprabha


Question 19.
Which of the following rivers rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra?
(a) Mahanadi
(b) Narmada
(c) Godavari
(d) Koyna

Answer

Answer: (c) Godavari


Question 20.
The drainage basin of which of the following rivers covers parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu?
(a) Godavari
(b) Krishna
(c) Kaveri
(d) Musi

Answer

Answer: (c) Kaveri


Question 21.
Which of the following rivers originates from the Hazaribagh plateau of Chhota Nagpur region and flows eastwards?
(a) Amravati
(b) Bhima
(c) Ghatprabha
(d) Damodar

Answer

Answer: (d) Damodar


Question 22.
Which type of lakes contain water only during the rainy season?
(a) Oxbow lakes
(b) Lagoons
(c) Lakes in basins of inland drainage
(d) Glacial lakes

Answer

Answer: (c) Lakes in basins of inland drainage


Question 23.
Which one of the following lakes is a saltwater lake?
(a) Wular Lake
(b) Sambhar Lake
(c) Barapani Lake
(d) Dal Lake

Answer

Answer: (b) Sambhar Lake


Question 24.
Which of the following lakes is formed as a result of tectonic activity?
(a) Wular Lake
(b) Kolleru Lake
(c) Loktak Lake
(d) Dal Lake

Answer

Answer: (a) Wular Lake


Question 25.
Which one of the following is not a lake created by human beings?
(a) Gobind Sagar
(b) Nizam Sagar
(c) Barapani
(d) Hirakud

Answer

Answer: (c) Barapani


Question 26.
which of the following states are Nainital and Bhimtal located?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Uttarakhand

Answer

Answer: (d) Uttarakhand


Question 27.
Lakes are of great value to human beings. Which of the following statements about lakes given below is incorrect?
(a) Helps to regulate the flow of rivers
(b) It results in flooding
(c) Can be used for developing hydel power
(d) Enhances natural beauty

Answer

Answer: (b) It results in flooding


Question 28.
Which of the following is not one of the causes of river pollution?
(a) Dumping of garbage
(b) Aquatic organisms and algae
(c) Discharge of untreated sewage
(d) Discharge of industrial effluents

Answer

Answer: (b) Aquatic organisms and algae


Question 29.
Which of the following is the result of concern over rising pollution in our rivers?
(a) Banning hydroelectric projects
(b) Various river action plans
(c) Rainwater harvesting
(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) Various river action plans


Describe the following river system under the given column—the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

Answer

Answer:


Describe major peninsular rivers under the following column.

Answer

Answer:


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