NCERT Solutions for Class 9 SST Geography Chapter 5 Natural vegetation and wildlife (Updated for 2021 – 22)

Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Class 9 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 5

India is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world. They are a group of countries that have the majority of the Earth’s species and therefore, considered extremely bio-diverse.

Being a vast country, India having 47,000 plant species (out of which 15,000 are flowering plants, i.e. 6 per cent in the world), occupies 10th position worldwide and 4th in Asia. Non-flowering plants such as ferns, algae and fungi also grow here. It also has around 90,000 species of animals (including marine and water fishes) and insects.

Natural Vegetation
Natural or virgin vegetation means the plant community which has grown naturally without any human intervention for a long time. That natural vegetation, which are left undisturbed over a long period of time are called virgin vegetation.

Virgin vegetation are of two types

  • Endemic species Those plant species which originated from the country, are termed as endemic species.
  • Exotic species Those plant species which originated outside the country are termed as exotic species.

Factors Affecting Diversity
Factors which influence the variety of flora and fauna include Relief (land and soil), Climate (temperature, photoperiod and precipitation) and the Ecosystem. These are as follows

Relief
It includes land and soil.

Land
It affects the natural vegetation both directly and indirectly. The nature of the land i.e. whether it is plain, hilly or a plateau, determines the kind of vegetation which will grow in it. Fertile lands are used for growing crops, vegetables and fruits.

Undulating (Wavy) and rough surfaces generally develop either into grasslands or woodlands (forests). Different types of land accordingly sustain and provide shelter to different kinds of wildlife.

Soil
The soils also vary place to place. Different kinds of soils provide different kinds of vegetation. For example, alluvial or deltaic soil of a river delta near the sea will sustain mangrove forests while slopes of hills have conical trees. The sandy soils of desert sustain thorny bushes.

Note Animals and birds also inhabit locations based on relief. For example, migratory birds like the Siberian cranes and flamingoes are found to nest in the wetlands of the Rann of Kuchchh, where the desert merges with the sea.

Climate
It includes temperature, photoperiod and precipitation.

Temperature
The temperature along with the humidity in the air and precipitation determine the character of vegetation and its extent.
As the climate gets colder, either by increase in altitude (above 915m) or by going away from the equator, the vegetation will change from tropical to sub-tropical, temperate and then alpine.

For example, on the slopes of the Himalayas and hills of the Peninsula, the fall in temperature affects the type of vegetation and its growth.

Photoperiod (Sunlight)
The amount and duration of sunlight is known as photoperiod. The difference in latitude, altitude and season brings variation in duration of sunlight in different places. In warmer regions and climates, plant growth is faster due to longer duration of sunlight, especially with availability of adequate moisture. An instance is the fact that the Southern slopes of the Himalayas are covered with thicker vegetation than the Northern slopes.

Precipitation
Advancing South-West monsoon (June to September) and retreating North-East (October- November) monsoons bring almost all the rainfall in India. Areas of heavy rainfall always have denser vegetation than other areas with lesser rainfall. The South-West monsoon rains on the windward side of the Western Ghats, thus cause a heavy growth of tropical evergreen forests there, whereas the leeward side does not have any such forests.

Ecosystem
Various species of plants occur in areas having similar climatic conditions. To a large extent its nature determines the animal life in that area. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other in their physical environment and form an ecosystem.

Thus, an ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the non-living, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight.

Biome
It is a major community of plants and animals having similar life forms existing under similar environmental conditions. A biome is identified on the basis of plant existing there. It is also termed as ‘major life zone’.

Human Influence In an Ecosystem
Human beings influence ecosystem in the following manner

  • They utilise the vegetation and wildlife.
  • The greed of human beings leads to over utilisation of natural resources.
  • Human beings cut the trees and kill the animals creating ecological imbalance.
  • Due to the activities of human beings, some of the ‘ plants and animals have reached the verge of extinction.

Importance of Forests
Forests are advantageous for the environment. They influence climate, reduce soil erosion, regulate stream flow, provide raw material for industries and livelihood for many, etc. They control wind force and temperature and cause rainfall. They also provide shelter to various animal species.

Change in Nature of Vegetation in India
Factors like growing demand for cultivated land, development of industries and mining, urbanisation have changed natural vegetation. The vegetation cover of India in large parts is no more natural in the real sense, except in some inaccessible regions like the Himalayas, the hilly region of Central India and the Marusthali. In most of the places, it is either modified, replaced or degraded by human interference.

Types Of Vegetation
Relief and climatic factors develop different types of vegetation. Based on the major forest types, India has following types of vegetation.

  1. Tropical Evergreen Forests
  2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
  3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
  4. Montane Forests
  5. Mangrove Forests

Note: According to India State of Forest Report (SFR) 2015, the forest cover in India is 21.34% which was 21.05% in the year 2011.

1. Tropical Evergreen Forests
These are also called tropical rainforests. They cover about 12% of the total forested areas of India. They are found in areas where the annual rainfall is over 200 cm.

Regions of Occurrence
Western slopes of the Western Ghats, both groups of islands (Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands), upper parts of Assam and some parts of the coasts of Tamil Nadu and Odisha.

Characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forest

  • As these areas are warm and wet almost throughout the year, they have abundant vegetation with tall trees (up to 60 m), creepers and bushes.
  • The vegetation occurred in a multilayered structure.
  • These appear green throughout the year, as the trees shed their leaves at different times.

Flora and Fauna
Ebony, mahogany, cinchona, rubber and rosewood trees are useful commercial trees found here. Animals found here include rhinoceros, elephants, various species of monkey, lemur, deer, many bird varieties, bats, sloth, scorpions and snails.

2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
These cover about 64% of the fetal forested areas of the country and are the most abundant variety of forests in India. These are also called monsoon forests and also spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 to 70 cm. Trees of this forest type shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in dry summer.

Types of Tropical Deciduous Forest
On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.

Moist Deciduous
Forests growing in annual rainfall areas between 100 and 200 cm are classified as moist deciduous. They cover about 34% of the country’s forested area.
They are found mostly in the Eastern part of the country such as North-Eastern states, West Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, foothills of the Himalayas and the leeward side of the Western Ghats. Teak (dominant species), bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun and mulberry trees are found in these forests.

Dry Deciduous
Forests growing in annual rainfall areas between 70 and ‘100 cm are classified as dry deciduous. They cover about 30% of the country’s forested area. These are found in rainier parts of the Peninsular plateau and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Teak, sal, peepal and neem trees grow in these areas. Many parts of these areas have been cleared for agricultural activities and for grazing. Besides lions, tigers, elephants, pigs and deer many varieties of birds, lizards, snakes and tortoises are found in these forests.

3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
These cover about 5% of the total forested areas of India. These are found in areas where the annual rainfall is less than 70 cm.

Region of Occurrence
These are found in North-Western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, some areas of Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh, as well as parts of the Deccan Plateau.

Characteristics of Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
The trees found in tropical thorn forest and scrubs are scattered.

Other such plants which have long roots, succulent stems and small thick leaves are also found here.

All these characteristics have developed to minimise evaporation and conserve moisture. Only scrubs are found in desert areas with the least rainfall.

Flora and Fauna
Trees like acacia palm euphorbia and cactus found in these areas. Fox, wolf, rats and mice, wild ass, horses, tiger, lion, camels and similar animals are found in these areas.

4. Montane Forests
These forests cover about 17% of the total forested areas of India and are found in mountainous areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Natural vegetation changes with corresponding change in temperature with increasing altitude in the mountainous region. These succession of natural vegetation belts is same as in the order from tropical to tundra vegetation.

Altitudinal Distribution of Montane Forests

  • Wet Temperate Forest At lower altitude between 1,000-2,000 m, wet temperate forests with evergreen broad leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts are prominent.
  • Temperate Forest At the altitude between 1,500-3,000 m, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found. These forests cover mostly the Southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in Southern and North-East India.
  • Temperate grasslands These are found at higher elevations. At high altitude above 3,600 m, temprate forest and grasslands give way to the alpine vegetation.
  • Alpine vegetation This vegetation through shrubs and scrubs merge into alpine grasslands. These area extensively used by nomadic tribes like Gujjars and Bakarwals for grazing.
  • Tundra vegetation Mosses and lichens are part of tundra vegetation are found at higher altitudes.

Flora and Fauna
Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair are found here. Silver firs, pines, junipers, birches, etc are trees common here.

5. Mangrove Forests
These are found in coastal delta areas influenced by sea tides. Due to this fact, they are also called tidal forests. The roots of the predominate mangroves are submerged under water. Such forests are found in the delta areas of rivers oh the East coast of India (Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri) due to mud and silt brought down by the rivers.

Flora and Fauna

  • In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees providing durable timber are prominent. Other trees are palm, coconut, keora and agar.
  • Animals found here include the Royal Bengal Tigers, snakes, turtles, gharials and crocodiles.

Wildlife
India is also rich in its fauna (animal life) same as in flora (plant life). It has approximately 90,000 animal species and 2,000 species of birds.

They constitute 13% of the total world’s stock. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock.
It also shares between 5 and 8 % of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The existence of animals in our country varies place to place.

Distribution of Wildlife in India
The elephants are the most majestic animals among the mammals. They are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.

One-horned rhinoceroses are the other animals, which live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal.

Arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar desert are the habitat for wild ass and camels, respectively.

India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sunderbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.

Leopards too are members of the cat family. They are important among animals of prey.

The Himalayas harbour a hardy range of animals, which survive in extreme cold. Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox (weighing around 1 tonne) the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass).

The ibex, bear, snow-leopard and very rare red panda are found in certain pockets.

In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.

The gharial is the only representative of a variety of crocodile, found in the world today.

Birdlife in India is colourful. Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and wetlands of the country.

Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull), chousingha (four homed antelope), gazel and different species of deer are some other animals found in India in different places. It also has several species of monkeys.

Note: The Gir Forest is the last remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion.

Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972 in India.

Migratory Birds
Some of the wetlands of India are popular with migratory birds. During winter, birds such as Siberian crane come in large numbers. One such place favourable with birds is the Rann of Kutch. At a place where the desert merges with the sea, flamingo with their brilliant pink plumage, come in thousands to build nest mounds from the salty mud and raise their young ones. It is one among many extraordinary sights in the country.

Need Of Environment Conservation
Our crops consist of edible plants from a bio-diverse environment. Many medicinal plants are also used by us. The animals were selected from large stock provided by nature as milch animal. They also provided us draught power, transportation, meat, eggs.

The fish provide nutritive food. Many insects help in pollination of crops and fruit trees. They also exert biological control on such insects which are harmful. Thus, it can be said that every species has a role to play in the ecosystem. So, its conservation is essential.

Due to excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings, the ecosystem has been disturbed. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct. Quite a few animal species are also endangered and some have become extinct.

Summary
India is one of the twelve mega biodiverse countries in the world.

The plant community which has grown naturally without human intervention are called natural vegetation.

Natural vegetation which are left undisturbed by human for a long time is termed as virgin vegetation.

The type of virgin vegetation which are purely Indian are called Endemic or Indigenous species.

The virgin vegetation which comes from outside the country are called exotic species.

Various,relief and climatic factors are responsible for distribution of natural vegetation.

Land and soil are the relief factors affecting the type of vegetation.

Temperature, photoperiod and precipitation are the climatic factor affecting vegetation of a region.

Based on temperature, vegetation zones are divided into Tropical, Sub-tropical, Temperate and Alpine type.

Forest are renewable resources and play major role in enhancing quality of Environment.

Most of India’s natural vegetation are found in Himalayas, hilly regions of central India and in desert.

Biomes are very large ecosystem on land and have distinct types of vegetation and animal life.

Major vegetation types identified in India are tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous forests, tropical thorn forest and scrubs, montane forests and Mangrove forests.

Tropical Evergreen forest is found in region of very high rainfall.

Tropical deciduous forest or monsoon forests are the most widespread forests of India.

The thorn forest and scrubs are found in region with less that 70 cm rainfall.

Montane forests are high altitude alpine vegetation.

Mangroves are tidal vegetation found along the coastal region. Sundari is an important mangrove tree.

The World Conservation Union publishes Red list of critically threatened and endangered plant species.

India has 13% of the world’s total bird species and 12% fish stocks.

The Wildlife Protection Act in India was implemented in 1992.

The excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by Human beings led them to become endangered and extinct.

Hunting, pollution, the introduction of alien plant and animal species, deforestation are major threats for the ecosystem.

Government of India has taken many steps to protect plant and animals such as – setting up of national parks, biosphere reserves etc, the introduction of different projects to conserve critically endangered species e.g. project tiger, project rhino etc.

We all should be aware of the fact that a natural ecosystem is very important for our survival.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th: Ch 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Geography Social Studies (S.St)

Page No: 43

1. Why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation cover as compared to northern slopes of the same hills?

Answer
The northern slopes of the hills in Himalayan region are at high altitude and have low temperature or are snow covered. This does not allow much vegetation. In the southern part of the hills there are plains and valleys watered by rivers and with fertile soil and pleasant temperature levels all required for dense growth of vegetation.

2. Why have the western slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests and not the eastern slopes?

Answer
The westward facing slopes receive much more rain than the eastward facing slopes and the Western Ghats are considerably wetter than the dry Deccan to the east.


Page No: 51

Exercise
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra 
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen

► (d) Tropical Evergreen

(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than:
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) Less than 50 cm
► (a) 100 cm

(iii) In which of the following states is the Simplipal bioreserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal
► (c) Odisha

(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi
► (a) Manas

Page No: 52

2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.
(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?

(iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.

(iv) Name two animals having habitat in different types of vegetation.


Answer
(i) All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other. The plants and animals, alongwith their physical environment make the ecosystem. Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.
 
(ii) Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:
(a) Relief: Land and soil
(b) Climate: Temperature, Humidity, Photoperiod and Precipitation.
 
(iii) Bio-reserves are the large areas where vegetation, wildlife and the environment are conserved to preserve the biological diversity. In totality there are 14 bio-reserves in India. For e.g. Sunderbans Bio-reserve in West Bengal and Nanda Devi Bio-reserve in Uttaranchal.
 
(iv) Tropical animals: Tiger, Elephant
Montane animals: Snow Leopard, Spotted dear

3. Distinguish between

(i) Flora and Fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests


Answer
(i)

Flora
Fauna
The Plant species of particular region or period are called Flora.The animal species of particular region or period are called Fauna.


(ii)

Tropical Evergreen Forests
Tropical Deciduous Forests
These are also called Rain ForestThese are also called Monsoon Forest.
Since the region is warm and wet throughout the year, there is no definite time for the trees to shed their leavesThe trees shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer
Examples: ebony, mahogany, rubber, rosewoodExamples: teak, bamboo, sandalwood, peepal, neem
Common animals found in these forests are elephants and monkeys.Common animals found in these forests are lions and tigers
Present in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfallPresent in areas receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm


4. Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

Answer
The different types of vegetation found in India are:
(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(iv) Montane Forests
(v) Mangrove Forests
Alpine vegetation is found at places over 3,600 m in height. The trees common to these are silver fir, junipers, pines and birches. The trees get stunted as they reach the snow line. There are shrubs and scrubs that ultimately merge into Alpine grasslands. Tundra vegetation is limited to lichens and mosses.

5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

Answer
Few species of plants and animals are endangered in India because of:
→ Increase in population.
→ Urbanization and Industrialization.
→ Large scale deforestation.
→ Pollution.
→ Hunting for pleasure and commercial purpose, etc.

6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

Answer
India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna due to following reasons:
→ India is a diverse country with different relief features (i.e. mountains, plateaus, plains, etc.) Different types of vegetations are found in these regions and the vegetations support different type of animals.
→ Availability of different types of soil providing base for different type of vegetations.
→ Variation in the climatic conditions (Temperature, humidity, etc.). Climate of India differs from north to south and east to west. Thus, supporting large variety of flora and fauna.
→ India has a monsoon type of climate where rainfall varies from 20 cms to 300 cms distributed through out the year supporting large amount of flora and fauna.
→ Variation in the duration of sunlight at different places due to difference in the latitude and altitude.

Map Skills
On an outline map of India, label the following.
(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii)Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country

Answer

 

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The number of flowering plants in India is about _______ .
Answer:
15,000

Question 2.
Name two non-flowering plants.
Answer:
Algae, fungi and ferns.

Question 3.
The sandy soils of desert support _______ .
Answer:
Cactus and thorny bushes.

Question 4.
Sundari trees are found in _______ .
Answer:
Tidal Forests

Question 5.
A very large ecosystem on land having distinct type of vegetation and animal life is called _______ .
Answer:
Biome

Question 6.
At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of _______ .
Answer:
Tundra vegetation

Question 7.
The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between _______ .
Answer:
100 cm and 70 cm

Question 8.
The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by sea _______ .
Answer:
Tides

Question 9.
Royal Bengal Tiger is found in _______ .
Answer:
Mangrove forests

Question 10.
Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in India in _______ .
Answer:
1972

Question 11.
The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the _______ .
Answer:
Gir forest in Gujarat

Question 12.
Give an example of biosphere reserve in India.
Answer:
Pachmarhi

Question 13.
Which type of forests does Sundari tree belong to?
Answer:
Mangrove Forests

Question 14.
The moist Tropical Deciduous Forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of India because :
Answer:.
These areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall.

Question 15.
Where do flamingos migrate in large numbers in India?
Answer:
Rann of Kachchh

Question 16.
The elephants are found in the hot-wet forests of _______ .
Answer:
Assam and Karnataka

Question 17.
Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona are the important trees of _______ .
Answer:
Tropical Evergreen Forests.

Question 18.
What are Tropical Rain Forests?
Answer:
These forests grow in the areas having annual rainfall of more than 200 cm.

Question 19.
Where is the Project Rhino being implemented?
Answer:
Assam.

Question 20.
Where was the first biosphere reserve set up?
Answer:
Nilgiri.

Question 21.
What does ‘Natural Vegetation’ mean?
Answer:
Natural vegetation refers to a plant community, which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time.

Question 22.
Name some of the important species of Moist Deciduous Forests.
Answer:
Teak, bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, aijun and mulberry are some of the important species of Moist Deciduous Forests.

Question 23.
Which medicinal plant has both antibacterial and antibiotic properties?
Answer:
The neem plant has both anti-bacterial and anti-biotic properties.

Question 24.
Name some important birds found in India.
Answer:
Some of the important birds found in India are peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons.

Question 25.
Where is Nanda Devi biosphere reserve located?
Answer:
Nanda Devi biosphere reserve is located in Uttarakhand.

Question 26.
Name two every green broad-leaf trees.
Answer:
Oaks and Chestnuts.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Answer:
Human beings influence the ecology of a region in the following ways :

  • They utilise the vegetation and wildlife of a particular region.
  • The greed of human beings leads to overutilisation of these resources.
  • They cut trees and kill the animals, thereby, creating an ecological imbalance.

Question 2.
What are endangered species? Give examples.
Answer:

  • The plants and animals that are at the verge of extinction are called endangered species.
  • Rhinoceroes, Great Indians bustards and tigers are some of the examples of endangered species of animals.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the biodiversity in India.
Or
‘India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world’. Explain
Answer:
Our country India is one of the 12 mega bio-diversity countries of the worid. With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity.

  • There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India, which account for 6 per cent in the world’s total number of flowering plants.
  • The country has many non-flowering plants, such as ferns,’algae and fungi. India also has 90,000 species of animals, as well as, a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters.

Question 4.
Discuss how flora and fauna are interrelated to each other.
Answer:
The interrelation between flora and fauna is as under :

  • Flora refers to the autotrophs, i.e., producer of their own food themselves, while fauna refers to the heterotrophs, i.e., getting their food directly or indirectly from autotrophs.
  • Food webs and food chains make ex-facie the interrelation between the flora and fauna.
  • Flora provides food to all living organisms while fauna provides nutrients to the soil from its waste and decay.

Question 5.
Name any three medicinal plants found in India with atleast one use of each.
Answer:
The tree medicinal plants found in India are :

  • Sarpagandha: It is used to treat blood pressure. It is found only in India.
  • Jamun: The juice from ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar, which is carminative and diuretic, and has digestive properties.
  • Arjun: The fresh juice of leaves is a cure for earache. It is also used to regulate blood pressure.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Mangrove Forests.
Answer:
The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides. Mud and silt get accumulated on such coasts. Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged under water. The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation. In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber. Palm, coconut, keora, agar, etc., also grow in some parts of the delta.

Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.

Question 7.
Distinguish between the moist and dry deciduous forests.
Answer:

Moist Deciduous ForestsDry Deciduous Forests
1. These are found in areas receiving annual rainfall between 100 cm and 200 cm.1. These forests are found in areas receiving annual rainfall between 70 cm and 100 cm.
2. Trees found in these forests are teak, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair and bamboos.2. There are open stretches in which, teak, sal, peepal, neem, etc. grow.
3. These forests are generally found in Jharkhand, West Odisha, Chhattisgarh and on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.3. These forests are found in the rainer parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of U.R, and Bihar.

Question 8.
Write a short note on thorny forests and scrubs.
Answer:
The thorny forest and scrubs are found in regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country, including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. Acacias, palms, euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species. Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil to get moisture. The stems are succulent to conserve water. Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimise evaporation. These forests give way to thorn forests and scrubs in arid areas. In these forests, the common animals are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses and camels.

Question 9.
Write three measures to conserve ecosystem.
Answer:
The measures to conserve ecosystem are :

  • Deforestation has disturbed our ecosystem. It must be stopped forthwith.
  • Indiscriminate killing of wild animals has distorted our ecosystem. Hence, killing of
    animals should be stopped immediately.
  • Ecosystem can be conserved by developing more wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves.

Question 10.
Why is conservation of wildlife very essential? Explain.
Answer:
The government has taken many special efforts to preserve endangered species of birds and animals. Periodic census is undertaken to find out the latest position and trends in this regard. The Project Tiger has been a great success. We have many tiger reserves in various parts of the country. Likewise, the Project Rhino is being implemented in Assam. The Indian Bustard of Rajasthan and Malwa Plateau are yet another endangered species. Even the number of lions had been dwindling for long. Conservation of wildlife is essential in order to protect the endangered species of birds and animals and also to maintain the ecological balance. The Government of India has so far set-up eighteen biosphere reserves.

Question 11.
What do you know about migratory birds?
Answer:
Some of the wetlands of India are popular with migratory birds. During winters, birds, such as Siberian Crane come in large numbers. One such place favourable with birds is the Rann of Kachchh. At a place where the desert merges with the sea, flamingo with their brilliant, pink plumage come in thousands to build nest mounds from the salty mud and raise their young ones.

Question 12.
How does the land influence the vegetation cover of India?
Answer:
Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The nature of land influences the type of vegetation. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grasslands and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wildlife.

Question 13.
Which human activities are disturbing the ecosystem?
Answer:
The following human activities are disturbing the ecosystem :

  • Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing the forest areas, i.e., deforestation.
  • Excessive hunting of animals.
  • Overgrazing by animals.
  • Rapid rise in population leading to overexploitation of resources.

Question 14.
What is a biome?
Answer:
Biome means plant community occurring in distinct groups in areas having similar climatic conditions. In other words, a very large ecosystem on land having different types of flora and fauna is termed as biome. The biomes are categorized or identified on the basis of plant species.

Question 15.
How has the soil influence the vegetation cover of India?
Answer:
The soils also vary over spaces. Different types of soils provide basis for different types of vegetation. The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes. While wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation. The hill slopes with some depth of soil have conical trees.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do the forests play both a productive and protective role?
Answer:
Productive Role of Forests :

  • The forests supply us wood, pulp, cellulose, packaging material etc. to run a number of industries like paper industry, packaging industry etc.
  • We obtain a number of consumer goods like fuel wood, timber, medicinal herbs, resins, gums, lac and honey from our forests.
  • Forests control the wind force and temperature and cause rainfall.

Protective Role of Forests :

  • Forests help in maintaining the ecological balance and providing pollution free air.
  • These help in checking soil erosion and raising the water table which receding presently at a faster rate.
  • These provide humus to the soil and make it fertile.
  • These provide manure to the plants as their leaves and stems after they die, decompose in a natural way.

Question 2.
What are the different steps taken by the government to protect flora and fauna?
Answer:
The different steps taken by the government to protect flora and fauna are :

  • Eighteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora fauna.
  • The Sunderbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiris have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves.
  • Financial and technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens by the government since 1992.
  • Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced by the government.
  • 103 National Parks, 535 Wildlife Sanctuaries and Zoological Gardens are set up to take care of natural heritage.

Question 3.
Write a short note on wildlife in India.
Answer:
India is also rich in its fauna. It has approximately 90,000 animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.

The elephants are the most majestic animals among the mammals. They are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. One-horned rhinoceroses are the other animals, which live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal. Arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar Desert are the habitat for wild ass and camels respectively. Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull), chousingha (four-horned antelope), gazel and different species of deer are some other animals found in India. It also has several species of monkeys.

India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.

Question 4.
What is the importance of biosphere reserve? What are its objectives?
Answer:
Biosphere reserves are a series of multipurpose protected areas linked through a global network, intended to demonstrate the relationship between conservation and development. The main purpose of biosphere reserve is conservation of flora and fauna.
The main objectives are :

  • Preserving plant and animal species of the area in natural forms.
  • To protect flora and fauna from their overexploitation.
  • To save endangered species and prevent extinction of valuable species.
  • To undertake research and experimentation in forestry.

Question 5.
Describe how rainfall and relief influence the vegetation of an area.
Answer:
Factors like rainfall and relief influence the natural vegetation of an area.
Rainfall: In India, almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing southwest monsoon (June to September) and retreating northeast monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.

Areas with more than 200 cm of annual rainfall have tropical evergreen rainforests. Tropical moist deciduous forests are found in areas with 100 to 200 cm of rainfall. Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in areas receiving rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. In regions with iess than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes.

Relief: The type of vegetation found in an area depends upon the relief or landform of the area. The fertile level lands of plains are generally devoted to agriculture. Much of the natural vegetation is cleared or altered in such areas. Grasslands and woodlands develop in areas with undulating and rough terrains. Mountainous areas have succession of vegetation types according to the altitude of the area.

Question 6.
Give a brief description of Tropical Evergreen Forests.
Answer:
Tropical Evergreen Forests are found in areas receiving heavy rainfall of over 200 cm, well-distributed throughout the year. They are also known as rainforests.
The warm, wet climate throughout the year supports luxuriant vegetation of all kinds including trees, shrubs and creepers.
The trees grow very tall, reaching a height of 60 metres or even above. As the trees grow very close to each other, they form a thick canopy. The different types of vegetation form a multilayered structure.
The climate supports a large number of broad-leaved trees of different species. Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, cinchona, etc. are commercially important trees.
These trees do not shed their leaves at the same time as there is no distinct dry season.
This makes the forests evergreen as they retain their green look throughout the year.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 MCQs Questions with Answers

Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen

Answer

Answer: (d) Tropical Evergreen


Question 2.
Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm

Answer

Answer: (a) 100 cm


Question 3.
In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal

Answer

Answer: (c) Odisha


Question 4.
Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bio-reserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi

Answer

Answer: (a) Manas


Question 5.
The yak, shaggy-horned wild ox and the Tibetan antelope are found in which one of the following regions?
(a) Tibet
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Ladakh

Answer

Answer: (d) Ladakh
Explanation:
Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox weighing around one tonne, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and the kiang


Question 6.
Which term is used to denote animal species of a particular region or period?
(a) Fauna
(b) Ferns
(c) Flora
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (a) Fauna
Explanation:
The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period. Similarly, the species of animals are referred to as fauna.


Question 7.
Which term is used for virgin vegetation, which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.
(a) Indigenous plants
(b) Endemic species
(c) Exotic Plants
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Exotic Plants
Explanation:
The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.


Question 8.
Which term is used for the original plant cover of an area which has grown naturally?
(a) Garden
(b) Agriculture
(c) Virgin Vegetation
(d) Indigenous species

Answer

Answer: (c) Virgin Vegetation
Explanation:
Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as a virgin vegetation.


Question 9.
Which is not included in the group of non-flowering plants?
(a) Orchids
(b) Algae
(c) Fungi
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (a) Orchids
Explanation:
Orchids are not included in the group of non-flowering plants cultivated crops and fruits, orchards form part of vegetation but not natural vegetation.


Question 10.
How do forests influences the climate of a place?
(a) Modify local climate
(b) Control wind force and temperature
(c) Cause rainfall
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above
Explanation:
Forests influence the climate of a place. It controls wind force and temperature and causes rainfall. It provides humus to the soil and shelter to the wild life.


Question 11.
Which type of vegetation zone is found in the higher reaches of the Himalayas?
(a) Tropical
(b) Alpine
(c) Temperate
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Alpine
Explanation:
Alpine is the types of vegetation zones are found in the higher reaches of the Himalayas with mean annual average temperature below 7°C.


Question 12.
Which type of vegetation grows in the sandy soil of the desert?
(a) Coniferous trees
(b) Grasslands
(c) Cactus and thorny bushes
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (c) Cactus and thorny bushes
Explanation:
The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes while wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation.


Question 13.
The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by which of the climatic factor?
(a) Temperature
(b) Humidity
(c) Precipitation
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above
Explanation:
The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature, humidity and precipitation. Extent of vegetation is mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil.


Question 14.
Which type of vegetation usually develops on undulating and rough terrains?
(a) Mangroves
(b) Grasslands and woodlands
(c) Cactus and thorny bushed
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Grasslands and woodlands
Explanation:
The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wild life.


Question 15.
Which one of the following species is found in Tibet area?
(a) Yak
(b) Shaggy-horned wild ox
(c) Tibetan antelope
(d) All of these

Answer

Answer: (d) All of these
Explanation:
Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox weighing around one tonne, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and the kiang


Question 16.
Ebony, mahogany and rosewood trees are grown in which type of the forests?
(a) Coniferous forest
(b) Tropical rainforest
(c) Tropical thorn forest
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Tropical rainforest
Explanation:
The commercially important trees of the tropical rain forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.


Question 17.
Why is the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation?
(a) On account of more exposure to sunlight
(b) On account of more precipitation
(c) On account of less exposure to colder winds
(d) All the above

Answer

Answer: (d) All the above
Explanation:
The southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation as compared to northern slopes of the same hills on account of more exposure to sunlight, more precipitation, and less exposure to colder wind.


Question 18.
Which one of the following state of India has the least percentage of its area under forest cover?
(a) Bihar
(b) Punjab
(c) Madras
(d) Sikkim

Answer

Answer: (b) Punjab
Explanation:
Punjab has the least percentage of its area under forest cover. According to India State of Forest Report 2011, the forest cover in India is 21.05 per cent.


Question 19.
Due to which reason the vegetation of most of the areas has been modified or replaced or degraded?
(a) Change of climate
(b) Human occupancy
(c) Soil erosion
(d) None of these

Answer

Answer: (b) Human occupancy
Explanation:
In the hilly region of central India and the marusthali, the vegetation of most of the areas has been modified at some places, or replaced or degraded by human occupancy.


(a) Match the following:

Column AColumn B
(i) Rajaji National Park(a) Assam
(ii) Sanjay Gandhi National Park(b) Rajasthan
(iii) Rajgir National Park(c) Maharashtra
(iv) Simlipal National Park(d) Uttarakhand
(v) Ranganthittu Birds Sanctuary(e) Gujarat
(vi) Kaziranga National Park(f) Uttar Pradesh
(vii) Sariska Wild life Sanctuary(g) Bihar
(viii) Gir National Park(h) Rajasthan
(ix) Dudhwa National Park(i) Kerala
(x) Keoladeo Ghana National Park(j) Odisha
Answer

Answer:

Column AColumn B
(i) Rajaji National Park(d) Uttarakhand
(ii) Sanjay Gandhi National Park(c) Maharashtra
(iii) Rajgir National Park(g) Bihar
(iv) Simlipal National Park(j) Odisha
(v) Ranganthittu Birds Sanctuary(i) Kerala
(vi) Kaziranga National Park(a) Assam
(vii) Sariska Wild life Sanctuary(b) Rajasthan
(viii) Gir National Park(e) Gujarat
(ix) Dudhwa National Park(f) Uttar Pradesh
(x) Keoladeo Ghana National Park(h) Rajasthan

(b) Match the following:

Column AColumn B
(i) Sundarbans(a) Uttarakhand
(ii) Gulf of Mannar(b) Assam
(iii) The Nilgiris(c) Madhya Pradesh
(iv) Nanda Devi(d) West Bengal
(v) Nokrek(e) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(vi) Great Nicobar(f) Odisha
(vii) Manas(g) South India
(viii) Simlipal(h) Tamil Nadu
(ix) Pachmari(i) Meghalaya
(x) Agasthyamalai(j) Kerala
Answer

Answer:

Column AColumn B
(i) Sundarbans(d) West Bengal
(ii) Gulf of Mannar(h) Tamil Nadu
(iii) The Nilgiris(g) South India
(iv) Nanda Devi(a) Uttarakhand
(v) Nokrek(i) Meghalaya
(vi) Great Nicobar(e) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(vii) Manas(b) Assam
(viii) Simlipal(f) Odisha
(ix) Pachmari(c) Madhya Pradesh
(x) Agasthyamalai(j) Kerala

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