Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 2
SAMPLE PAPER 2 (Solved)
Who remarked, ‘When France Sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’?
How many countries comprise the Indo-China?
Indo-China comprises three countries, i.e., Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
Name the allegory of the French nation in the 19th century.
Marianne, a popular Christian name which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
Who was Paul Bernard?
Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy maker who believed that economy of the colonies needed to be developed.
Minerals are deposited and accumulated in strata of which rocks?
Which soil is also known as Regur?
Which is the largest multi-purpose project of India?
Bhakhra Nangal is the largest multi-purpose project of India.
Which language is spoken by the majority of Belgians?
What are non-renewable resources?
Resource which are not replenished by nature and get exhausted. For example, minerals.
Why were the 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe? Give any three reasons.
The 1830s were called the year of great economic hardship in Europe.
- During the first half of the nineteenth century there was an enormous growth of population requiring lakhs of jobs. Due to the rise of population, unemployment also increased.
- The job seekers or unemployed people migrated from villages to cities for earning bread. The conditions of towns were also worse because of heavy production and cheap rates of products from England (it happened because of industrial Revolution of England).
- In agriculture, the peasants suffered because of less agrarian facilities and high inflation. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty.
Write three main characteristics of Trieu Au, the rebel woman of Vietnam.
Trieu Au was one of the most venerated rebel women of Vietnam during the third century CE. She was an orphan and lived with her brother. She resisted Chinese occupation until her death. When she grew up she left home, went into the jungle and organised a large army. At last when her army was crushed she drowned herself instead of surrendering. After her death, she was worshipped as a martyr with a sacred image. Reason behind her worship was her dedication to and sacrifice for her nation.
How and when nationalism captures the hearts and minds of people?  Answer:
When people begin to believe strongly that they are part of the same nation. Also, when they discover common bonds that unite them, when they share the same struggles and have a common folklore, history and culture, then nationalism grips their hearts and minds.
Why are petroleum refineries termed as ‘nodal industries’?
Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. During fractional distillation of mineral oil, apart from petrol, diesel and kerosene which act as fuel, a number of byproducts like naptha, phyneyl, paraffin wax, asphalt or tar and a number of petrochemicals are obtained. Chemicai fertilisers, insecticides and chemicais, artificiai fibres and artificial rubber are products of petrochemicals. Thus, petrochemicals, provide raw materials for fertilisers, numerous chemicals, synthetic textiles, synthetic rubber and plastic industries.
Why are metalled roads better than unmetalled roads? What is the role of border roads and national highways in transportation?
Metalled roads are made of either cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal are therefore more durable than unmetalled road. Unmetalled roads go out of use in rainy season.
Border roads play an important role in connecting strategically important difficult areas and helps in the economic development of the area. National Highways are the primary road system which links extreme parts of the country.
Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to shift to and concentrate in the southern and western states in India? Give any three reasons.
Three main reasons are as follows :
(i) The cane produced has a higher sucrose content.
(ii) The cooler climate ensures a longer crushing season.
(iii) The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
What are the forms of challenges faced by different countries in respect to democracy?
- Countries which are not yet democratic face a foundational challenge-making a transition to democracy and establishing democratic governments.
- Many countries face the challenge of expansion. This means applying principles of democracy to all the state, local and regional levels. It means including all social and economic groups including women empowerment.
- All the democracies face the challenge of deepening of democracy. They have to improve and strengthen all institutions of democracy and curb all anti-democratic activities.
Write a short note on one-party system.
- One-party system is followed in China, North Korea and Cuba. This system was also prevalent in the USSR till its breakup into 15 independent states.
- They are mostly communist countries. There is no competition in this system. The lone party nominates candidates and the voters have to say “yes” or “no” only against the name of the candidates. They have another choice of not voting at all. ‘
- One-party system is popular in communist or authoritarian countries. Supporters of one-party system claim that this system helps the government in mobilising the talents of all citizens towards a common goal.
- But this system limits the choices and freedom of the citizens, hence it is not a good system for a democracy. In democracy people must have at least two parties to choose from.
What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?
(i) The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general views.
(ii) It is necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion, race, linguistic group, etc. Different persons or groups should be allowed to form a government as a result of an election conducted.
Which are the two major sources of formal sector credit in India ? Why do we need to expand the formal sources of credit?
The two major sources of formal sector credit in India are — commercial banks and cooperative societies.
We need to expand formal sources of credit due to following reasons :
(i) Informal sources of credit exploit the poors resulting in putting them into debt-traps.
(ii) Formal sources of credit are cheaper and thus they help in country’s development.
Describe three features of Self-Help Group (SHG).
The features of Self-Help Group (SHG) are :
(i) People form their personal groups for the purpose of savings and also lend money among themselves.
(ii) Rate of interest is lower than informal service providers.
(iii) They can also avail loans from banks if their savings are regular.
How does foreign trade lead to integration of markets across the countries? Give any three examples.
Foreign trade is the main channel which connects the markets of various countries. Foreign trade lead to integration of markets across the countries as follows:
- Creates opportunities for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets or the markets of their own countries.
- Import of goods from various countries provides choice of goods for consumers beyond the goods thet ere produced domesticeMy.
- Producers of different countries compete with each other although they are thousands of miles away.
Write a short note on the developments or innovations in the printing technology in the 19th century.
There were a series of innovations in the printing technology in the 19th century.
- Richard M. Hoe of New York perfected the power-driven cylindrical press.
- He could print 8000 sheets per hour. His press was very useful for printing newspapers.
- The late 19th century saw the development of offset press capable of printing six colours at a time.
- Electrically-operated press in the early 20th century increased the rate of printing operations.
- Methods of feeding paper improved, quality of plates became better, machines were fed automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of colour register were introduced.
Outline the changes in technology and society which led to an increase in readership of the novel in the 18th century in Europe.
Technological improvement and development in printing led to more and more books being printed. More books led to larger sales. In fact, the novels were mass produced and sold rapidly. More books brought the prices down and even the poor could afford them. In the beginning novels were not cheap. One volume of ’Tom Jones ’ written by Henry Fielding cost three shillings and there were six volumes of the book. The price was more than a labourer could earn in a week. Novels were lent out by circulating libraries and publishers made profit.
Discuss why the Europeans were motivated to establish colonies.
Europe became the centre of world trade by the nineteenth century, mainly sustained by colonies.
Colonisation of Americas was motivated more by the greed of wealth and search for a better life. On the other hand, colonisation of Asian and African countries was also motivated by conditions in Europe, caused by the Industrial Revolution and greed for economic and political dominance of the world.
Many factors motivated the Europeans to establish colonies :
- Some Europeans left for America seeking better life, and some were dissenters and prisoners.
- The Industrial Revolution created the need for unlimited resources and cheap labour. They needed raw materials to feed the growing industries. They also needed markets for distribution. They needed colonies.
- Missionary zeal of the Jesuits and nationalism inspired further exploration, conversion and territorial expansion.
How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry? Explain.
A series of inventions in the 18th century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry.
- Each step means carding, twisting, spinning and rolling. They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more and produce stronger threads and yam.
- Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Before this, cloth production was carried out within village households. Now costly machines could be set up in the mill and all the mill processes were completed under one roof.
- Spinning jenny devised by James Hargreaves in 1764 speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel, a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at a time.
- The steam engine, invented by James Watt in 1781, was used in cotton mills.
- Factories came up in large numbers and by 1840, cotton textile became the leading sector in industrialisation. The expansion of railways also helped in production of textile goods.
Discuss how London emerged as the largest city in the world in the nineteenth century.
The city of London became the largest city in the world by the late nineteenth century. It was the most powerful imperial centre by the beginning of the twentieth century. Various factors were responsible for it, as given below : Causes:
- Increase in population. One out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Industrial Revolution started in Britain. The enclosures of farms and abolishment of com laws made many farmers migrate to towns and cities such as London, Manchester and Leeds. Migrants from rural areas were attracted to the textile mills of Manchester and Leeds in large numbers after the 1850s.
- Colonisation and political dominance in global trade led to great wealth and capital, making London the hub of world trade and commerce.
- The population expanded throughout the nineteenth century from one million in 1810 to 4 million in 1880. They constituted aristocrats, administrators, semi-skilled and skilled artisans, workers, traders, beggars, etc.
- Important industries were the dockyards, clothing, footwear, metallurgy, etc.
- During the First World War, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods.
Give examples of traditional water harvesting systems prevalent in various parts of India.
Traditional water harvesting systems prevalent in various parts of India includes the following methods :
- Diversion channels like ‘guls’ and ‘kuls’ of Western Himalayas are built in hilly and mountain areas for irrigating agricultural fields.
- In hilly areas of Meghalya, bamboo-drip irrigation system taps stream and spring water.
- Inundation channels are constructed to irrigate agricultural fields in the floodplains of Bengal.
- In the arid regions of Rajasthan agricultural fields were converted into rainfed storage structures locally known as ‘Khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan. These structures allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.
- Rooftop rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water particularly in Rajasthan. In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground ‘tankas’ or ‘tanks’ for storing drinking water.
What makes India a federation?
The Constitution declared India as a Union of states. The following points clearly show that the Indian Union is based on the principles of federalism –
- The Constitution clearly provided a three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union government and the State governments in the three lists—Union, State and Concurrent lists.
- Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
- This sharing of power is basic to the structure of the Constitution, and it cannot be changed by Parliament; it has to be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures.
- In a federation, judiciary solves the disputes between different levels of government. In any such case of a dispute, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.
Do you agree with the view that casteism has not disappeared from Indian society? Discuss.
Although the old barriers of caste system are breaking down, casteism still continues to be there in the Indian society. Some of the older aspects of caste system have persisted :
- Even now most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
- Untouchability has not ended completely, despite the constitutional provisions to prohibit it.
- Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continue to be felt today. For example, the caste groups that had access to education under the old system, have done very well in acquiring modem education as well, while those that were prohibited have lagged behind.
The table below shows the estimated number of workers in India in the organized and unorganized sectors. Read the table carefully and answer the questions that follow :
|Workers In Different Sectors (In Millions)|
|Total in Percentage||7%||93%||100%|
(i) Which is the most important sector that provides most jobs to the people?
(ii) What is the number of persons engaged in the unorganised sector?
(iii) Why is the unorganised sector more important? Give one reason.
(iv) Which is the most important organised sector? Give one reason.
(i) The primary sector is the most important sector that provides most jobs to the people.
(ii) The number of person engaged in the unorganised sector is 370 million.
(iii) Unorganised sector is more important because it provides employment to a far greater number of people, specially from lower strata of society, when compared to those employed by the organised sector.
(iv) Tertiary sector is the most important organised sector because it employs more people as compared to primary and secondary sectors. In addition, it is the backbone which further boosts the growth of primary and secondary sectors. For example, infrastructure and communication help in smooth flow of goods and services across the country.
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these? 
Two different kinds of people are engaged in service sector. These are
(i) Highly skilled and educated workers in small numbers.
(ii) A very large number of unskilled workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, transport persons (drivers) etc.
Highly educated workers include teachers, lawyers, doctors and people producing other services.
(iii) Highly skilled workers draw bigger salaries and perks than unskilled workers.
Locate and label the following in the given outline political map of India.  Answer:
Two features (A) and (B) are marked in the given outline political map of India Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map. 
(A) The centre of calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(B) The place where the Indian National Congress session of September 1920 was held.
Three features A, B and C are marked in the given outline political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map. 
(A) Terminal station of the East West Corridor.
(B) Oil Field
(C) Thermal Power Plant
Note : The following questions are for blind candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 26, 27, and 28. 
(28.1) Where was the first peasant Satyagraha held by Gandhiji?
(28.1) Where was the non-cooperation movement called off?
(28.1) Where is the Terminal station of East- West Corridor?
(28.1) Name an oilfield in Gujarat.
(28.1) Name a thermal power plant in Telangana.