According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) what size (in diameter) of particulate is responsible for causing greater harm to human health? [NEET (Oet.) 2020]

(a) $3.5$ micrometers

(b) $2.5$ micrometers

(c) $4.0$ micrometers

(d) $3.0$ micrometers


Ans. (b)

According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), particulate size $2.5$ micrometers or less in diameter (PM 2.5) are responsible for causing the greatest harm to human health. These fine particulates can be inhaled deep into the lungs and can cause breathing and respiratory symptoms, irritation. inflammation and damage to the lungs and premature deaths.


 Which of the following is an occupational respiratory disorder? [NEET 2018]

(a) Botulism

(b) Silicosis

(c) Anthracis

(d) Emphysema


Ans. (b)

Silicosis is an occupational respiratory disorder which is caused due to excessive inhalation of silica dust. It usually affects the workers of grinding or stone breaking industries. The long-term exposure can cause lung fibrosis (or stiffeningl leading to breathing difficulties. Anthracis or Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. Botulism is food poisoning infection caused by Clostridium botulinum. Its symptoms include diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal distention, etc.Emphysema is a lung disease, that damages the air sacs and causes shortness of breathe. It may be caused by smoking, deficiency of enzymes alpha-1-antitrypsin and air pollution.


 Which one of the following options correctly represents the lung conditions in asthma and emphysema, respectively? [NEET 2018]

(a) Increased respiratory surface: Inflammation of bronchioles

(b) Increased number of bronchioles: Increased respiratory surface

(c) Inflammation of bronchiales; Decreased respiratory surface

(d) Decreased respiratory surface: Inflammation of bronchioles


Ans. (c)
Asthma is inflammation of bronchioles. Its symptoms include wheezing. coughing and difficulty in breathing mainly during expiration.
Emphysema is an inflation or abnormal distension of the bronchioles ar alveolar sacs of the lungs. Many of the septa between the alveoli are destroyed and much of the elastic tissue of the lungs is replaced by connective tissue. As a result alveolar septa collapse and the surface area get greatly reduced.


Name the chronic respiratory disorder caused mainly by cigarette smoking [NEET 2016, Phase I]

(a) asthma

(b) respiratory acidosis

(c) respiratory alkalosis

(d) emphysema


Ans. (d)
Emphysema is characterised by inflation or distension of alveoli by dissolution of wall of the two adjacent lung alveoli. It generally occurs due to chronic cigarette smaking.


 Name the pulmonary disease in which alveolar surface area involved in gas exchange is drastically reduced due to damage in the alveolar walls. [CBSE AIPMT 2015]

(a) Pleurisy

(b) Emphysema

(c) Pneumonia

(d) Asthma


Ans. (b)
Empysema is a chronic respiratory disease where there is over-inflation of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lung. causing a decrease in lung function and often, breathlessness. In this disease, the alveolar walls are damaged leading to drastic reduction in gas exchange.


 Which one of the following is the correct statement for respiration in humans? [CBSE AIPMT 2012]

(a) Cigarette smoking may lead to inflammation of bronchi

(b) Neural signals from pneumotoxic centre in pons region of brain can increase the duration of inspiration

(c) Workers in grinding and stone breaking industries may suffer, from lung fibrosis

(d) About $90 \%$ of carbon dioxide $\left(\mathrm{CO}_2\right)$ is carried by haemoglobin as carbamino haemoglobin


Ans. (c)

Irritating gases, fumes, dusts, etc., present in the work place result in lung disorders.
This is because the defence mechanism of the body cannot fully cope with this situation of so much dust.
Long exposure can give rise to inflammation leading to fibrosis (proliferation of fibrous tissue) and thus causing serious lung damage.

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