Class 8 Science , Notes ,Test Papers, Sample Papers, NCERT Solutions(2020-2021)

Physics : Class VIII

Force and Pressure

  • Idea of Force : A push or a pull
  • Force and Motion – Change in State of Motion
  • Force – Interaction of Forces and Change in Shape due to Force
  • Contact Force – Friction, Applied Force and Normal Force
  • Non-Contact Force – Gravitational Force, Electrostatic Force and Magnetic Force
  • The Concept of Pressure
  • Hydro-static Pressure – Pressure Exerted by Fluids
  • Atmospheric Pressure – Hydro-static Pressure exerted by Gases



  • Friction – factors affecting friction
  • Sliding and rolling friction
  • Kinetic Friction
  • Advantages and disadvantages of friction for the movement of automobiles
  • Airplanes and boats/ships : Fluid Friction
  • Friction and Frictional Force – A Necessary Evil



  • Sound produced by vibrating bodies
  • Sound produced by humans
  • Medium of Propagation
  • How do we hear sound ?
  • Amplitude, Time Period, And Frequence of a vibration
  • Loudness and Pitch
  • Audible and in audible sound
  • Difference between noise and music
  • Noise pollution and its preventive measures


Chemical Effects of Electric Current

  • Electric Current
  • Conduction of Electricity: Do Liquids Conduct Electricity?
  • Conduction of Electricity in Liquids – Electrolysis
  • Electrolysis and Electroplating


Some Natural Phenomena

  • Lightning
  • Charging by rubbing
  • Transfer of Charge
  • The Story of Lightning
  • Lightning Safety
  • Phenomena related to earthquakes
  • Protection against earthquakes



  • Reflection of Light – The Laws of Reflection
  • Characteristics of image formed with a plane mirror
  • Reflection of Light – Regular Reflection, Diffused Reflection and Multiple Reflection
  • Sunlight – white or colored ?
  • Structure of the eye
  • Non-Optical Low Vision Aids – Devices to Help the Blind and the Visually Impaired
  • Optical Low Vision Aids – Devices to Help the Blind and the Visually Impaired
  • Braille – Helping the Blind and the visually impaired read


Stars And The Solar System

  • Celestial Bodies
  • Moon
  • Stars
  • Planet
  • Constellations
  • Motion of celestial objects in space
  • The Solar System
  • Other Members of the Solar System


Synthetic Fibres and Plastics

  • Synthetic fibers
  • Plastics and other synthetic materials
  • Usefulness of plastics
  • Disadvantages of plastics
  • Fibrous materials in use


Materials: Metals & Non-Metals

  • Metals : Physical and Chemical Properties and Uses
  • Non-Metals : Physical and Chemical Properties and Uses


Coal and Petroleum

  • Coal and its story
  • Natural Resources : Inexhaustible and exhaustible natural resources
  • Useful products obtained from coal
  • Formation of coal and petroleum in nature
  • Petroleum and refining of petroleum
  • Natural Gas
  • Natural resources are limited
  • Consequences of over extraction of coal and petroleum


Combustion and Flame

  • Combustion and types of combustion
  • Flame
  • Fire Control
  • Fuels : Types of fuels
  • Heat released from fuels
  • Fuel efficiency and cost
  • Effects of burning fossil fuels


Pollution of Air and Water

  • Agrochemicals and their effects
  • Air Pollution and Effects of Air Pollution – Acid Rain and Taj Mahal
  • Greenhouse effect
  •  How to reduce air pollution?
  • Water pollution
  • Potable water
  • How to reduce water pollution

Crop Production and Management

  • Agricultural practices
  • Preparation of soil
  •  Sowing
  • Irrigation
  •  Protection form weed
  • Harvesting and shortage
  • Food from animals


Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

  • Microorganisms
  • Microorganism and us: Friendly microorganisms
  • Disease causing microorganisms
  • Food preservation
  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Nitrogen Cycle


Conservation of Plants and Animals

  • Deforestation and its causes and consequences
  • Conservation of wildlife, sanctuary, national park, zoo, forest reserves
  •  Flora and Fauna
  • Endemic species
  • Endangered species and red data book
  • Migration
  • Reforestation


Cell – Structure and Function

  • Discovery of cell
  • Organism show variety in cell number, shape and size
  • Cell structure and function, Parts of cell: cell membrane, cytoplasm
  • Nucleus, vacuole and chloroplast
  • Comparison of plant and animal cell


Reproduction in Animals

  • Modes of reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction: male and female reproductive organs
  • Internal and external fertilization, development of embryo
  • Viviparous and oviparous organisms, young ones to adults
  • Asexual reproduction


Reaching the Age of Adolescence

  • Adolescence and puberty: Secondary sexual characteristics
  • Role of hormones in initializing reproductive functions
  • Reproductive phase in humans
  • How is the sex of baby determined
  • Hormones other than sex hormones
  • Role of hormones in completing the life history of insects and frogs
  • Reproductive Health
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