NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalization
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalization
Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalization’?
Marginalization is the social process of being confined to a lower social standing. Marginalization involves people being denied their fundamental rights which results in lowering their economic and social status.
List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised?
Adivasis have been marginalised because:
- They live on the margins of social, economic development.
- They are poor, ‘low’ in social status.
- They are less educated.
- Most of them live in remote areas, and do not have access to towns/cities.
Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority and being marginalized.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Minority is the term which means the communities which are small in number in comparison to the communities which are more in numbers.
Example: Muslims are in minority as compared to Hindus.
You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the . following statement: Muslims are a marginalised community.’ Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
The literacy rate of the Muslim population in India is the lowest. It is only 59%.
43.2% of Hindus have access to electricity while only 30% of Muslims have access to electricity.
The above statistics support the statement that Muslims are a marginalized community in India.
Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be , dancing all the time.” List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Adivasi community is generally shown in a particular stereotype way:
- They are portrayed in colourful costumes, headgear, sometimes made of leaves or skin of animals.
- They are shown dancing with spears or hunting animals. This makes people believe that they are exotic, primitive, and backward.
- Often they themselves are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change.
- On the other side, Dance is a common act of most of the tribals on the occasion of:
- Their festivals
- Generally at the time of cutting crops
- This is also their way of enjoying life.
For poor people, this is enjoyment at no or a little cost.
In the storyboard, you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Adivasis are primitive community living in and/or near forests:
- Around 8% of India’s population is of Adivasis. Most important mining and industrial centers like Bokaro, Rourkela, Jameshdpur are located in their area.
- They are not homogeneous populations: There are about 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
- They are in large numbers in the states like Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, North Eastern States.
- Odisha is home for at least 60 different tribal groups.
- Other states where Adivasis live in sufficient numbers are:
- Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan.
- They do not have a hierarchical social structure like other communities.
- They are radically different from other Indian societies in which the caste system is there.
Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Yes, economic and social marginalisation is interlinked. When Adivasis were displaced from their lands, they lost much more than a source of income. They lost their traditions and customs – a way of living and being. Destruction in one sphere impacts the other.
Understanding Marginalization NCERT Class 8 Social and Political life Extra Questions
Mention the levels on which marginalization can take place.
Marginalization can take place on three levels.
They are…. Individual Community Global .
Mention the Names of the communities which experience marginalization in India?
The major communities which experience marginalization in India are the Adivasis, Dalits and Muslims.
What are the reasons why a community is marginalized, and how does it affect the community?
The reasons for a community to be socially marginalized are….. Different language
Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised. Marginalized groups are viewed with hostility and deprived of opportunities that are available to other communities. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness against more powerful and dominant sections of society.
Write a brief note on Adivasis.
The Adivasis are indigenous peoples and are believed to be the first inhabitants of India. Adivasis have distinct languages, religions and forms of self-government, together with a deep bond to their land and respect for nature. 8 per cent of India’s population are Adivasis. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
Adivasi communities do not have any hierarchy among them. They are totally different from communities organised around principles of the caste system.
The religion of Adivasis is different from Islam, Hinduism or Christianity. The Adivasis worship their ancestral, village or nature spirits.
During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history. Adivasis have their own languages which may be as old as Sanskrit. The Adivasi language has influenced the formation of Indian languages, like Bengali.
How are Adivasis portrayed today?
Today, Adivasis are portrayed as exotic, primitive and backward people. Cultural shows are presented with Adivasis dances. They are represented through colourful costumes and headgears.
Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
This negative portrayal of the Adivasis has led to the marginalization of this community in modern India.
What were the hardships faced by the Adivasis?
The Adivasis were pushed out of the forests of Jharkhand and they had to migrate to other parts of India and the world. The Adivasis experienced hardship and death during the migration. Five lakh Adivasis had perished in these migrations.
When forests were cleared for mining a majority of tribals are displaced. Wide areas of forest land were submerged under water when many dams were built in India after 1947. Due to this many Adivasis were displaced from the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
In the North east, Adivasi lands are war-torn and occupied by the military.
There are 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries in India. These Parks cover an area of 1, 09,652 sq km. of forest land. The Adivasis were evicted from these forests.
Who headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India?
Justice Rajindar Sachar headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India.
What was the conclusion reached by the Justice Rajindar Sachar Committee?
The committee came to the conclusion that on a range of social, economic and educational indicators the situation of the Muslim community is comparable to that of other marginalised communities like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
How can we tackle marginalization?
Marginalization is a complex and delicate issue and has to be handled by the Government very carefully. To rectify marginalization a variety of strategies, measures and safeguards have to be undertaken.
It is the duty of every citizen of this country to ensure that the Fundamental Rights of all citizen, whether they belong to the majority community or the minority community is protected. It is only the effort of everyone that will protect the diversity that makes our country unique and promote equality for all.
What are the consequences of marginalization?
Marginalization results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources enjoyed by the majority communities.