IGCSE Physics (0625) core and supplement: Cambridge IGCSE Physics 0625 syllabus for 2022

Assessment

All candidates take three papers.
Candidates who have studied the Core subject content, or who are expected to achieve a grade D or below, should be entered for Paper 1, Paper 3 and either Paper 5 or Paper 6. These candidates will be eligible for grades C to G.Candidates who have studied the Extended subject content (Core and Supplement), and who are expected to achieve a grade C or above, should be entered for Paper 2, Paper 4 and either Paper 5 or Paper 6. These candidates will be eligible for grades A* to G.

In this page we have complete list of IGCSE Physics 0625 syllabus 2022 for your ready reference.

Core candidates take:

Core candidates – Paper 1

  • Time: 45 minutes (40 marks)
  • 40 four-choice multiple-choice questions Questions will be based on the Core subject content
  • No marks deducted from incorrect answers
  • NO CALCULATOR ALLOWED
  • Data booklet provided
  • 30% weight
  • Externally assessed

Core candidates – Paper 3

  • Time: 75 minutes (80 marks)
  • Short-answer and structured questions Questions will be based on the Core subject content
  • No marks deducted from incorrect answers
  • NO CALCULATOR ALLOWED
  • 50% weight
  • Externally assessed

Extended candidates take:

Extended candidates – Paper 2

  • Time: 45 minutes (40 marks)
  • 40 four-choice multiple-choice questions Questions will be based on the Extended subject content (Core and Supplement)
  • No marks deducted from incorrect answers
  • NO CALCULATOR ALLOWED
  • 30% weight
  • Externally assessed

Extended candidates – Paper 4

  • Time: 75 minutes (80 marks)
  • Short-answer and structured questions Questions will be based on the Extended subject content (Core and Supplement)
  • No marks deducted from incorrect answers
  • NO CALCULATOR ALLOWED
  • 50% weight
  • Externally assessed

Syllabus Cambridge IGCSE Physics 0625  2022

1. General physics -1.1 Length and time

Core

  • Use and describe the use of rules and measuring cylinders to find a length or a volume.
  • Use and describe the use of clocks and devices, both analogue and digital, for measuring an interval of time.
  • Obtain an average value for a small distance and for a short interval of time by measuring multiples (including the period of a pendulum)

Supplement

  • Understand that a micrometer screw gauge is
    used to measure very small distances

1. General physics -1.2 Motion

Core

  • Define speed and calculate average speed from total distance/total time.
  • Plot and interpret a speed–time graph or a distance–time graph.
  • Recognise from the shape of a speed–time graph when a body is

 – at rest
– moving with constant speed
– moving with changing speed

  •  Calculate the area under a speed–time graph to
    work out the distance travelled for motion with
    constant acceleration.
  • Demonstrate understanding that acceleration
    and deceleration are related to changing speed
    including qualitative analysis of the gradient of a
    speed–time graph.
  • State that the acceleration of free fall for a body
    near to the Earth is constant

Supplement

  • Distinguish between speed and velocity.
  • Define and calculate acceleration using change of velocity/time taken.
  • Calculate speed from the gradient of a distance–time graph.
  • Calculate acceleration from the gradient of a speed–time graph.
  • Recognize linear motion for which the acceleration is constant.
  • Recognise motion for which the acceleration is not constant.
  • Understand deceleration as a negative acceleration.
  • Describe qualitatively the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with and without air resistance (including reference to
    terminal velocity)

1. General physics -1.3 Mass and weight

Core

  • Show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body.
  • State that weight is a gravitational force .
  • Distinguish between mass and weight .
  • Recall and use the equation W = mg.
  • Demonstrate understanding that weights (and hence masses) may be compared using a balance

Supplement

  • Demonstrate an understanding that mass is a property that ‘resists’ change in motion.
  • Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass

1. General physics -1.4 Density

Core

  • Recall and use the equation ρ = m/V.
  • Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and
    make the necessary calculation .
  • Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement.
  • Predict whether an object will float based on density data

Supplement

None

1. General physics -1.5 Forces

1.5.1 Effects of forces

Core

  • Recognise that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body.
  • Plot and interpret extension–load graphs and describe the associated experimental procedure.
  • Describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body.
  • Find the resultant of two or more forces acting along the same line.
  • Recognise that if there is no resultant force on a body it either remains at rest or continues at constant speed in a straight line.
  • Understand friction as the force between two surfaces which impedes motion and results in heating.
  • Recognise air resistance as a form of friction

Supplement

  • State Hooke’s Law and recall and use the expression F = kx, where k is the spring constant .
  • Recognise the significance of the ‘limit of proportionality’ for an extension–load graph.
  • Recall and use the relationship between force, mass and acceleration (including the direction), F = ma .
  • Describe qualitatively motion in a circular path due to a perpendicular force (F = mv 2 /r is not required)

1.5.2 Turning effect

Core

  • Describe the moment of a force as a measure of its turning effect and give everyday examples.
  • Understand that increasing force or distance from the pivot increases the moment of a force .
  • Calculate moment using the product force × perpendicular distance from the pivot .
  • Apply the principle of moments to the balancing of a beam about a pivot

Supplement

  • Apply the principle of moments to different situations

1.5.3 Conditions for equilibrium

Core

  • Recognise that, when there is no resultant force and no resultant turning effect, a system is in equilibrium

Supplement

  • Perform and describe an experiment (involving vertical forces) to show that there is no net moment on a body in equilibrium

1.5.4 Centre of mass

Core

  • Perform and describe an experiment to determine the position of the centre of mass of a plane lamina.
  • Describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects

Supplement

None

1.5.5 Scalars and vectors

Core

None

Supplement

  • Understand that vectors have a magnitude and direction .
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between scalars and vectors and give common examples.
  • Determine graphically the resultant of two vectors

1. General physics -1.6 Momentum

Core

None

Supplement

  • Understand the concepts of momentum and impulse.
  • Recall and use the equation momentum = mass × velocity, p = mv.
  • Recall and use the equation for impulse Ft = mv – mu .
  • Apply the principle of the conservation of momentum to solve simple problems in one dimension

1. General physics -1.7 Energy, work and power

1.7.1 Energy

Core

  • Identify changes in kinetic, gravitational potential, chemical, elastic (strain), nuclear and internal energy that have occurred as a result of an event or process.
  • Recognise that energy is transferred during events and processes, including examples of transfer by forces (mechanical working), by electrical currents (electrical working), by heating and by waves .
  • Apply the principle of conservation of energy to simple examples

Supplement

  • Recall and use the expressions kinetic energy = ½mv2 and change in gravitational potential energy = mg∆h.
  • Apply the principle of conservation of energy to examples involving multiple stages .
  • Explain that in any event or process the energy tends to become more spread out among the objects and surroundings (dissipated)

1.7.2 Energy resources

Core

  • Describe how electricity or other useful forms of energy may be obtained from: .
    • chemical energy stored in fuel .
    • water, including the energy stored in waves, in tides, and in water behind hydroelectric dams .
    • geothermal resources .
    • nuclear fission .
    • heat and light from the Sun (solar cells and panels).
    • wind
  • Give advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of renewability, cost, reliability, scale and environmental impact .
  • Show a qualitative understanding of efficiency

Supplement

  • Understand that the Sun is the source of energy for all our energy resources except geothermal, nuclear and tidal .
  • Show an understanding that energy is released by nuclear fusion in the Sun.
  • Recall and use the equations: efficiency = (useful energy output/energy input) × 100%
    efficiency =( useful power output /power input) × 100%

1.7.3 Work

Core

  • Demonstrate understanding that work done = energy transferred .
  • Relate (without calculation) work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved in the direction of the force

Supplement

  • Recall and use W = Fd = ∆E

1.7.4 Power

Core

  • Relate (without calculation) power to work done and time taken, using appropriate examples

Supplement

  • Recall and use the equation P = ∆E/t in simple systems

1. General physics -1.8 Pressure

Core

  • Recall and use the equation p = F/A .
  • Relate pressure to force and area, using appropriate examples .
  • Describe the simple mercury barometer and its use in measuring atmospheric pressure .
  • Relate (without calculation) the pressure beneath a liquid surface to depth and to density, using appropriate examples .
  • Use and describe the use of a manometer

Supplement

  • Recall and use the equation p = hρg

2. Thermal physics -2.1 Simple kinetic molecular model of matter

2.1.1 States of matter

Core

  • State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases

Supplement

None

2.1.2 Molecular model

Core

  • Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases in terms of the arrangement, separation and motion of the molecules.
  • Interpret the temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules .
  • Describe qualitatively the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules .
  • Show an understanding of the random motion of particles in a suspension as evidence for the kinetic molecular model of matter .
  • Describe this motion (sometimes known as Brownian motion) in terms of random molecular bombardment

Supplement

  • Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules.
  • Explain pressure in terms of the change of momentum of the particles striking the walls creating a force.
  • Show an appreciation that massive particles may be moved by light, fast-moving molecules 

2.1.3 Evaporation

Core

  • Describe evaporation in terms of the escape of more-energetic molecules from the surface of a liquid .
  • Relate evaporation to the consequent cooling of the liquid

Supplement

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how temperature, surface area and draught over a surface influence evaporation .
  • Explain the cooling of a body in contact with an evaporating liquid

2.1.4 Pressure changes

Core

  • Describe qualitatively, in terms of molecules, the effect on the pressure of a gas of:
    • a change of temperature at constant volume.
    • a change of volume at constant temperature
  • Relate evaporation to the consequent cooling of the liquid

Supplement

  • Recall and use the equation pV = constant for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature

2. Thermal physics -2.2 Thermal properties and temperature

2.2.1 Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases

Core

  • Describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases at constant pressure .
  • Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion

Supplement

  • Explain, in terms of the motion and arrangement of molecules, the relative order of the magnitude of the expansion of solids, liquids and gases

2.2.2 Measurement of temperature

Core

  • Appreciate how a physical property that varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature, and state examples of such properties .
  • Recognise the need for and identify fixed points .
  • Describe and explain the structure and action of liquid-in-glass thermometers

Supplement

  • Demonstrate understanding of sensitivity, range and linearity .
  • Describe the structure of a thermocouple and show understanding of its use as a thermometer for measuring high temperatures and those that vary rapidly .
  • Describe and explain how the structure of a liquid-in-glass thermometer relates to its sensitivity, range and linearity

2.2.3 Thermal capacity (heat capacity

Core

  • Relate a rise in the temperature of a body to an increase in its internal energy .
  • Show an understanding of what is meant by the thermal capacity of a body

Supplement

  • Give a simple molecular account of an increase in internal energy .
  • Recall and use the equation thermal capacity = mc .
  • Define specific heat capacity .
  • Describe an experiment to measure the specific heat capacity of a substance .
  • Recall and use the equation change in energy = mc∆T

2.2.4 Melting and boiling

Core

  • Describe melting and boiling in terms of energy input without a change in temperature .
  • State the meaning of melting point and boiling point .
  • Describe condensation and solidification in terms
    of molecules

Supplement

  • Distinguish between boiling and evaporation .
  • Use the terms latent heat of vaporisation and latent heat of fusion and give a molecular interpretation of latent heat .
  • Define specific latent heat .
  • Describe an experiment to measure specific latent heats for steam and for ice .
  • Recall and use the equation energy = ml

2. Thermal physics -2.3 Thermal processes

2.3.1 Conduction

Core

  • Describe experiments to demonstrate the properties of good and bad thermal conductors

Supplement

  • Give a simple molecular account of conduction in solids including lattice vibration and transfer by electrons

2.3.2 Convection

Core

  • Recognise convection as an important method of thermal transfer in fluids .
  • Relate convection in fluids to density changes and describe experiments to illustrate convection

Supplement

None

2.3.3 Radiation

Core

  • Identify infrared radiation as part of the electromagnetic spectrum .
  • Recognise that thermal energy transfer by radiation does not require a medium .
  • Describe the effect of surface colour (black or white) and texture (dull or shiny) on the emission, absorption and reflection of radiation

Supplement

  • Describe experiments to show the properties of good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of infrared radiation .
  • Show understanding that the amount of radiation emitted also depends on the surface temperature and surface area of a body

2.3.4 Consequences of energy transfer

Core

  • Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation

Supplement

None

3 Properties of waves, including light and sound -3.1 General wave properties

Core

  • Demonstrate understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter .
  • Describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes and springs and by experiments using water waves .
  • Use the term wavefront .
  • Give the meaning of speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude .
  • Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples .
  • Describe how waves can undergo:
    • reflection at a plane surface
    • refraction due to a change of speed
    • diffraction through a narrow gap
  • Describe the use of water waves to demonstrate
    reflection, refraction and diffraction

Supplement

  • Recall and use the equation v = f λ.
  • Describe how wavelength and gap size affects diffraction through a gap .
  • Describe how wavelength affects diffraction at an edge

3 Properties of waves, including light and sound -3.2 Light

3.2.1 Reflection of light

Core

  • Describe the formation of an optical image by a plane mirror, and give its characteristics
  • Recall and use the law angle of incidence = angle of reflection

Supplement

  • Recall that the image in a plane mirror is virtual
  • Perform simple constructions, measurements and calculations for reflection by plane mirrors

3.2.2 Refraction of light

Core

  • Describe an experimental demonstration of the refraction of light .
  • Use the terminology for the angle of incidence i and angle of refraction r and describe the passage of light through parallel-sided transparent material .
  • Give the meaning of critical angle .
  • Describe internal and total internal reflection

Supplement

  • Recall and use the definition of refractive index n in terms of speed .
  • Recall and use the equation sin i /sin r = n .
  • Recall and use n = 1/sin c .
  • Describe and explain the action of optical fibres particularly in medicine and communications technology

3.2.3 Thin converging lens

Core

  • Describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light
  • Use the terms principal focus and focal length .
  • Draw ray diagrams for the formation of a real image by a single lens .
  • Describe the nature of an image using the terms enlarged/same size/diminished and upright/ inverted

Supplement

  • Draw and use ray diagrams for the formation of a virtual image by a single lens .
  • Use and describe the use of a single lens as a magnifying glass .
  • Show understanding of the terms real image and virtual image

3.2.4 Dispersion of light

Core

  • • Give a qualitative account of the dispersion of light as shown by the action on light of a glass prism including the seven colours of the spectrum in their correct order

Supplement

  • Recall that light of a single frequency is described as monochromatic

3 Properties of waves, including light and sound -3.3 Electromagnetic spectrum

Core

  • Describe the main features of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of wavelength .
  • State that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same high speed in a vacuum .
  • Describe typical properties and uses of radiations in all the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum including:
    • radio and television communications (radio waves) .
    • satellite television and telephones (microwaves)
    • electrical appliances, remote controllers for televisions and intruder alarms (infrared)
    • medicine and security (X-rays)
  • Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues
    regarding the use of microwaves and X-rays

Supplement

  • State that the speed of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 3.0 × 108m/s and is approximately the same in air

3 Properties of waves, including light and sound -3.4 Sound

Core

  • Describe the production of sound by vibrating sources .
  • Describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves .
  • State that the approximate range of audible frequencies for a healthy human ear is 20Hz to 20000Hz .
  • Show an understanding of the term ultrasound .
  • Show an understanding that a medium is needed to transmit sound waves .
  • Describe an experiment to determine the speed of sound in air .
  • Relate the loudness and pitch of sound waves to amplitude and frequency .
  • Describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo

Supplement

  • Describe compression and rarefaction .
  • State typical values of the speed of sound in gases, liquids and solids

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.1 Simple phenomena of magnetism

Core

  • Describe the forces between magnets, and between magnets and magnetic materials .
  • Give an account of induced magnetism .
  • Distinguish between magnetic and non-magnetic materials .
  • Describe methods of magnetisation, to include stroking with a magnet, use of direct current (d.c.) in a coil and hammering in a magnetic field .
  • Draw the pattern of magnetic field lines around a bar magnet .
  • Describe an experiment to identify the pattern of magnetic field lines, including the direction .
  • Distinguish between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel .
  • Distinguish between the design and use of permanent magnets and electromagnets

Supplement

  • Explain that magnetic forces are due to interactions between magnetic fields .
  • Describe methods of demagnetisation, to include hammering, heating and use of alternating current (a.c.) in a coil

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.2 Electrical quantities

4.2.1 Electric charge

Core

  • State that there are positive and negative charges .
  • State that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel .
  • Describe simple experiments to show the production and detection of electrostatic charges .
  • State that charging a body involves the addition or removal of electrons .
  • Distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators and give typical examples

Supplement

  • State that charge is measured in coulombs .
  • State that the direction of an electric field at a point is the direction of the force on a positive charge at that point .
  • Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force .
  • Describe simple field patterns, including the field around a point charge, the field around a charged conducting sphere and the field between two parallel plates (not including end effects) .
  • Give an account of charging by induction .
  • Recall and use a simple electron model to distinguish between conductors and insulators

4.2.2 Current

Core

  •  State that current is related to the flow of charge .
  • Use and describe the use of an ammeter, both analogue and digital .
  • State that current in metals is due to a flow of electrons

Supplement

  • Show understanding that a current is a rate of flow of charge and recall and use the equation I = Q/t .
  • Distinguish between the direction of flow of electrons and conventional current

4.2.3 Electromotive force

Core

  • State that the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of an electrical source of energy is measured in volts

Supplement

  • Show understanding that e.m.f. is defined in terms of energy supplied by a source in driving charge round a complete circuit

4.2.4 Potential difference

Core

  • State that the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component is measured in volts .
  • Use and describe the use of a voltmeter, both analogue and digital

Supplement

  • Recall that 1V is equivalent to 1J/C

4.2.5 Resistance

Core

  • State that resistance = p.d./ current and understand qualitatively how changes in p.d. or resistance affect current .
  • Recall and use the equation R = V/ I .
  • Describe an experiment to determine resistance using a voltmeter and an ammeter .
  • Relate (without calculation) the resistance of a wire to its length and to its diameter

Supplement

  • Sketch and explain the current–voltage characteristic of an ohmic resistor and a filament lamp .
  • Recall and use quantitatively the proportionality between resistance and length, and the inverse proportionality between resistance and crosssectional area of a wire

4.2.6 Electrical working

Core

  • Understand that electric circuits transfer energy from the battery or power source to the circuit components then into the surroundings

Supplement

  • Recall and use the equations P = IV and E = IVt

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.3 Electric circuits

4.3.1 Circuit diagrams

Core

  • Draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing sources, switches, resistors (fixed and variable), heaters, thermistors, light-dependent resistors, lamps, ammeters, voltmeters, galvanometers, magnetising coils, transformers, bells, fuses and relays

Supplement

  • Draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing diodes

4.3.2 Series and parallel circuits

Core

  • Understand that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same .
  • Give the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series .
  • State that, for a parallel circuit, the current from the source is larger than the current in each branch .
  • State that the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel is less than that of either resistor by itself .
  • State the advantages of connecting lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit

Supplement

  • Calculate the combined e.m.f. of several sources in series .
  • Recall and use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s across the components in a series circuit is equal to the total p.d. across the supply .
  • Recall and use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit .
  • Calculate the effective resistance of two resistors in parallel

4.3.3 Action and use of circuit components

Core

  • Describe the action of a variable potential divider (potentiometer) .
  • Describe the action of thermistors and light dependent resistors and show understanding of their use as input transducers .
  • Describe the action of a relay and show understanding of its use in switching circuits

Supplement

  • Describe the action of a diode and show understanding of its use as a rectifier .
  • Recognise and show understanding of circuits operating as light-sensitive switches and temperature-operated alarms (to include the use of a relay)

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.4 Digital electronics

Core

None

Supplement

  • Explain and use the terms analogue and digital in terms of continuous variation and high/low states .
  • Describe the action of NOT, AND, OR, NAND and NOR gates .
  • Recall and use the symbols for logic gates .
  • Design and understand simple digital circuits combining several logic gates .
  • Use truth tables to describe the action of individual gates and simple combinations of gates

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.5 Dangers of electricity

Core

  • State the hazards of:
    • damaged insulation
    • overheating of cables
    • damp conditions .
  •  State that a fuse protects a circuit
  • Explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers and choose appropriate fuse ratings and circuit breaker settings
  •  Explain the benefits of earthing metal cases

Supplement

 

4. Electricity and magnetism -4.6 Electromagnetic effects

4.6.1 Electromagnetic induction

Core

  • Show understanding that a conductor moving across a magnetic field or a changing magnetic field linking with a conductor can induce an e.m.f. in the conductor .
  •  Describe an experiment to demonstrate electromagnetic induction .
  • State the factors affecting the magnitude of an induced e.m.f.

Supplement

  • Show understanding that the direction of an induced e.m.f. opposes the change causing it .
  • State and use the relative directions of force, field and induced current

4.6.2 a.c. generator

Core

  • Distinguish between d.c. and a.c.

Supplement

  • Describe and explain a rotating-coil generator and the use of slip rings .
  • Sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator .
  • Relate the position of the generator coil to the peaks and zeros of the voltage output

4.6.3 Transformer

Core

  • Describe the construction of a basic transformer with a soft-iron core, as used for voltage transformations .
  • Recall and use the equation (Vp /Vs) = (Np /Ns ) .
  • Understand the terms step-up and step-down .
  • Describe the use of the transformer in high voltage transmission of electricity .
  • Give the advantages of high-voltage transmission

Supplement

  • Describe the principle of operation of a transformer .
  • Recall and use the equation IpVp = IsVs (for 100% efficiency) .
  • Explain why power losses in cables are lower when the voltage is high

4.6.4 The magnetic effect of a current

Core

  • Describe the pattern of the magnetic field (including direction) due to currents in straight wires and in solenoids .
  • Describe applications of the magnetic effect of current, including the action of a relay

Supplement

  • State the qualitative variation of the strength of the magnetic field over salient parts of the pattern .
  • State that the direction of a magnetic field line at a point is the direction of the force on the N pole of a magnet at that point .
  • Describe the effect on the magnetic field of changing the magnitude and direction of the current

4.6.5 Force on a current-carrying conductor

Core

  • Describe an experiment to show that a force acts on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, including the effect of reversing: .
    • the current .
    • the direction of the field

Supplement

  • State the qualitative variation of the strength of the magnetic field over salient parts of the pattern .
  • State that the direction of a magnetic field line at a point is the direction of the force on the N pole of a magnet at that point .
  • Describe the effect on the magnetic field of changing the magnitude and direction of the current

4.6.6 d.c. motor

Core

  • State that a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a turning effect and that the effect is increased by:
    • increasing the number of turns on the coil
    • increasing the current
    • increasing the strength of the magnetic field
  •  

Supplement

  • Relate this turning effect to the action of an electric motor including the action of a split-ring commutator

5 Atomic physics – 5.1 The nuclear atom

5.1.1 Atomic model

Core

  • Describe the structure of an atom in terms of a positive nucleus and negative electrons
  •  

Supplement

  • Describe how the scattering of α-particles by thin metal foils provides evidence for the nuclear atom

5.1.2 Nucleus

Core

  • Describe the composition of the nucleus in terms of protons and neutrons .
  • State the charges of protons and neutrons .
  • Use the term proton number Z .
  • Use the term nucleon number A .
  • Use the term nuclide and use the nuclide notation AXZ.
  • Use and explain the term isotope
  •  

Supplement

  • State the meaning of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
  • Balance equations involving nuclide notation

5 Atomic physics – 5.2 Radioactivity

5.2.1 Detection of radioactivity

Core

  • Demonstrate understanding of background radiation
  • Describe the detection of α-particles, β-particles and γ-rays (β+ are not included: β-particles will be taken to refer to β )
  •  

Supplement

  • None

5.2.2 Characteristics of the three kinds of emission

Core

  • Discuss the random nature of radioactive emission
  • Identify α-, β- and γ-emissions by recalling
    • their nature
    • their relative ionising effects
    • their relative penetrating abilities (β+ are not included, β-particles will be taken to refer to β)
  •  

Supplement

  • Describe their deflection in electric fields and in magnetic fields
  • Interpret their relative ionising effects
  • Give and explain examples of practical applications of α-, β- and γ-emissions

5.2.3 Radioative decay

Core

  • State the meaning of radioactive decay .
  • State that during α- or β-decay the nucleus changes to that of a different element
  •  

Supplement

  • Use equations involving nuclide notation to represent changes in the composition of the nucleus when particles are emitted

5.2.4 Half-life

Core

  • Use the term half-life in simple calculations, which might involve information in tables or decay curves
  •  

Supplement

  • Use equations involving nuclide notation to represent changes in the composition of the nucleus when particles are emitted

5.2.5 Safety precautions

Core

  • Recall the effects of ionising radiations on living things .
  • Describe how radioactive materials are handled, used and stored in a safe way
  •  

Supplement

  • None

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