IBDP Chemistry Study Guide and Notes for SL/HL (2020-2021)

Topic 1. Stoichiometric relationships

  • 1.1 Introduction to the particulate nature of matter and chemical change SL Paper 1
  • 1.2 The mole concept
  • 1.3 Reacting masses and volumes
  • The microscopic world
    • The nature of matter
    • The mole concept
    • Avogadro’s constant (L)
    • Molecules, atoms, ions, formula units
  •  Formulation
    • Constant composition
    • Valency
    • Formulae
    • Percentage composition, empirical formula
  • The solid state and chemical change
    • Mass and moles
    • Reacting masses
    • Chemical reactions
    • Chemical equations
    • Particles and moles in reactions
    • Conservation of mass
    • Practical descriptions
  • Gases
    • The gaseous state
    •  Standard temperature and pressure
    •  Reacting gas volumes
    •  Gas molar volume
    •  Mass and moles relationships in gases
    • Density
    • Boyle’s law
    • Charles’ law
    • The equation of state
    • The ideal gas equation
    • Non-ideality
    • Graham’s Law of diffusion
    • Dalton’s law of partial pressures
    • Limiting reagents in gas reactions
  • The aqueous state
    • Concentration and molarity
    • Solution preparation
    • Reactions in solution
    • Titration
    • Back titration
    • Other titrations
  • Experimental
    • Limiting reagent and excess
    • Theoretical and percentage yield
    • Errors and inaccuracies in experimentation
    • Experimental data

Topic 2. Atomic structure

  • 2.1 The nuclear atom
  • 2.2 Electron configuration
  • The atom
    • Structure of the atom
    • Relative mass and charge
    • AZE
    • Isotopes
  • The mass spectrometer
    • The Mass Spectrometer instrument
    • MS – Relative mass determination
    • Other applications of MS
  • Electron arrangement
    • The electromagnetic spectrum
    • Continuous and line spectra
    • The hydrogen spectrum
    • Electronic configuration
    • The Aufbau principle
    • Evidence for energy levels in atoms

Topic 3. Periodicity

  • 3.1 Periodic table
  • 3.2 Periodic trends
  • The periodic table
    • The structure of the periodic table
    • Electronic configuration, valency and formula
  • Physical properties of the elements
    • Atomic radius
    • Ionic radius
    • Ionisation energy and electron affinity
    • Electronegativity
    • Structure and melting point
    • Period 3 chlorides and oxides
  • Chemical properties of the elements
    • Group properties
    • The alkali metals
    • The halogens
    • The period 3 oxides
    • The period 3 chlorides
  • The ‘d’ block elements – HL
    • Characteristic properties
    • Complex ions
    • Variable oxidation state
    • Magnetism
    • Coloured compounds
    • Catalytic behaviour

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

  • 4.1 Ionic bonding and structure
  • 4.2 Covalent bonding
  • 4.3 Covalent structures
  • 4.4 Intermolecular forces
  • 4.5 Metallic bonding
  • Covalent bonding
    • Covalent bonding
    • Sharing electron pairs
    • Covalent bond characteristics
    • Macromolecules
    • Lewis structures
    • Formal charge
  • Shapes of molecules
    • Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
    •  2, 3 and 4 charge centre molecules
    • 5 & 6 charge centres
    • Resonance
    • Delocalisation
    • Hybridisation
    • Molecular orbital theory
    • Aromatic compounds
  • Polarity
    • Bond polarity
    • Polar molecules
  • Intermolecular forces
    • Dispersion forces
    • Permanent dipole – dipole interactions
    • Hydrogen bonding
  • Metallic bonding
    • The metallic bond
    • Properties of metals
    • Alloys
  • Ionic bonding
    • Ion formation
    •  The ionic bond
    •  Polyatomic ions
    • Crystal lattices
  • Physical properties
    • Melting and boiling points
    • Electrical conductivity
    • Solubility

Topic 5. Energetics/thermochemistry

  • 5.1 Measuring energy changes
  • 5.2 Hess’s Law
  • 5.3 Bond enthalpies
  • 5.4 Energy cycles
  • 5.5 Entropy and spontaneity
  • Thermodynamics
    •  Heat energy
    • Heat capacity
    • Changes of state
    •  Chemical energy
    •  Law of conservation of energy
    • Enthalpy changes
    • Experimental data analysis
  • Standard Enthalpy change
    • The standard enthalpy of combustion
    •  The standard enthalpy of formation
    • Enthalpy of reaction
    • Enthalpy of neutralisation
  • Hess’ law
    • Manipulation of chemical equations
    • Energy cycles and diagrams
    • Two and three step process calculations
  • Bond enthalpies
    • Bond dissociation enthalpy
    • Bond enthalpy
    • Limitations of bond enthalpies
  • Ionic systems
    • Lattice enthalpy
    • Born Haber cycles
    • Enthalpy of solution
    • Limitations of the ionic model
  • Entropy
    • Disorder and spontaneity
    • Gibbs’ free energy
    • Gibbs’ free energy calculations
    • Standard free energy changes
    • Relationship between G and SEP

Topic 6. Chemical kinetics

  • 6.1 Collision theory and rates of reaction
  • Rates of reaction
    • What do we mean by reaction rate?
    • Measuring reaction rates
    • Experimental methods
    • Analysis of data
  • Collision theory
    • Particle motion, energy and collisions
    • Concentration and pressure
    • Surface area
    • Temperature
    • Catalysts
  • The rate expression
    • The rate expression
    • The rate constant, k
    • Reaction mechanisms
    • Half life
  • The energy barrier
    • The Arrhenius equation
    • Factors affecting reaction rate – summary

Topic 7. Equilibrium

  • 7.1 Equilibrium
  • Physical equilibrium
    • Reversible change
    • Phase equilibria
    • Changing the conditions of physical systems
    • The enthalpy of vaporisation
  • Chemical equilibrium
    • Reversible reactions
    • Changing conditions
    • The equilibrium law
    • The position of equilibrium
    • The equilibrium constant
    • Catalysts
    • Industrial processes

Topic 8. Acids and bases

  • 8.1 Theories of acids and bases
  • 8.2 Properties of acids and bases
  • 8.3 The pH scale
  • 8.4 Strong and weak acids and bases
  • 8.5 Acid deposition
  • Properties of acids and bases
    • Acid and base theory
    • The properties of acids
    • The properties of bases
  • Theories of acids and bases
    • Brønsted Lowry acids and bases
    • Lewis acids and bases
  • Measuring acidity
    • The pH scale
    • Hydrogen ion concentration
    • Measuring pH
  • Strong and weak acids and bases
    • Properties
    • Differentiating weak and strong acids and bases
    • Acid deposition
  • Acid and base calculations
    • The dissociation of water
    • pH and pOH
    • Acid and base dissociation constants
  • Buffer solutions
    • Buffer solutions
    • Preparation of buffer solutions
  • Hydrolysis
    • Salt hydrolysis
    • Effect of charge density
    • Hydrolysis calculations
  • pH curves
    • Neutralisation
    • Titration curves
    • Indicator theory
    • Types of indicators

Topic 9. Redox processes

  • 9.1 Oxidation and reduction
  • 9.2 Electrochemical cells
  • Oxidation and reduction
    • Oxidation state
    • Naming compounds
    • Oxidation and reduction reactions
  • Redox equations
    • Half-equations
    • Half-equations involving hydrogen ions
    • Biochemical oxygen demand
  • Reactivity series
    • Relative reactivity
    • Reaction feasibility
  • Making electricity
    • Electrical cells
    • Reactions at the electrodes
  • Electrolytic cells
    • The electrolytic cell
    • Electrolysis
  • Standard electrode potentials
    • Electrode potentials
    • The Standard Hydrogen Electrode
    • Standard electrode potentials
    • Cell potentials
    • Spontaneity
  • Electrolysis
    • Aqueous electrolysis
    • Quantitative electrolysis
    • Electroplating

Topic 10. Organic chemistry

  • 10.1 Fundamentals of organic chemistry
  • 10.2 Functional group chemistry
  • Structure and formula
    • Organic structure
    • Formula representation
    • Homologous series
    • Naming organic molecules
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Isomerism
    • E/Z isomerism
    • Optical isomerism
  • Physical properties
    • Volatility
    • Solubility
  • Chemical properties
    • Alkanes
    • Alkenes
    • Alcohols
    • Haloalkanes
    • Carboxylic acids
    • Aldehydes and ketones
    • Aromatic compounds
  • Organic synthesis
    • Basic principles of synthesis
    • Synthetic pathways
    • Synthetic pathways – aromatic chemistry

Topic 11. Measurement and data processing

  • 11.1 Uncertainties and errors in measurement and results
  • 11.2 Graphical techniques
  • 11.3 Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds
  • Uncertainty and error in measurement
    • Uncertainties and errors
    • Precision and accuracy
    • Random uncertainties
    • Use of the ± sign in uncertainties
    • Significant figures
    • Percentage
    • Propagation of errors
  • Graphical techniques
    • Graphing and interpreting data
    • Scale, axes and points
    • Plotting lines
    • The gradient and intercept
  • Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds
    • Structural identification of unknown compounds
    • Index of hydrogen deficiency
    • Mass spectrometry
    • Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    • Single crystal X-ray crystallography

AHL Topic 12. Atomic structure

  • 12.1 Electrons in atoms

AHL Topic 13. The periodic table—the transition metals

  • 13.1 First-row d-block elements
  • 13.2 Coloured complexes

AHL Topic 14. Chemical bonding and structure

  • 14.1 Covalent bonding and electron domain and molecular geometries
  • 14.2 Hybridization

AHL Topic 15. Energetics/thermochemistry

  • 15.1 Energy cycles
  • 15.2 Entropy and spontaneity

AHL Topic 16. Chemical kinetics

  • 16.1 Rate expression and reaction mechanism
  • 16.2 Activation energy

AHL Topic 17. Equilibrium

  • 17.1 The equilibrium law

AHL Topic 18. Acids and bases

  • 18.1 Lewis acids and bases
  • 18.2 Calculations involving acids and bases
  • 18.3 pH curves

AHL Topic 19. Redox processes

  • 19.1 Electrochemical cells

AHL Topic 20. Organic chemistry

  • 20.1 Types of organic reactions
  • 20.2 Synthetic routes
  • 20.3 Stereoisomerism

AHL Topic 21. Measurement and analysis

  • 21.1 Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds

Options. A: Materials

  • A.1 Materials science introduction
  • A.2 Metals and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy
  • A.3 Catalysts
  • A.4 Liquid crystals
  • A.5 Polymers
  • A.6 Nanotechnology
  • A.7 Environmental impact—plastics
  • A.8 Superconducting metals and X-ray crystallography (HL only)
  • A.9 Condensation polymers (HL only)
  • A.10 Environmental impact—heavy metals (HL only)

Options. B: Biochemistry

  • B.1 Introduction to biochemistry
  • B.2 Proteins and enzymes
  • B.3 Lipids
  • B.4 Carbohydrates
  • B.5 Vitamins
  • B.6 Biochemistry and the environment
  • B.7 Proteins and enzymes (HL only)
  • B.8 Nucleic acids (HL only)
  • B.9 Biological pigments (HL only)
  • B.10 Stereochemistry in biomolecules (HL only)

Options. C: Energy

  • C.1 Energy sources
  • C.2 Fossil fuels
  • C.3 Nuclear fusion and fission
  • C.4 Solar energy
  • C.5 Environmental impact—global warming
  • C.6 Electrochemistry, rechargeable batteries and fuel cells (HL only)
  • C.7 Nuclear fusion and nuclear fission (HL only)
  • C.8 Photovoltaic and dye-sensitized solar cells (HL only)

Options. D: Medicinal chemistry

  • D.1 Pharmaceutical products and drug action
  • D.2 Aspirin and penicillin
  • D.3 Opiates
  • D.4 pH regulation of the stomach
  • D.5 Anti-viral medications
  • D.6 Environmental impact of some medications
  • D.7 Taxol—a chiral auxiliary case study (HL only)
  • D.8 Nuclear medicine (HL only)
  • D.9 Drug detection and analysis (HL only)

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