IB Biology Study Guide and Notes for SL/HL (2022-2023)

IB Biology Detailed Topic-Wise Study Notes

Excellent Study Notes for IB DP Biology Prepared by Subject Matter Experts.

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Topic 2: Molecular biology

Additional Higher Level (AHL) Topics

Optional Topics

Option A: Neurobiology and behavior (Core topics)

  • A.1 Neural development
    • Neurulation
    • Spina Bifida
    • Neuron Development
    • Synaptic Formation
    • Neuroplasticity
    • Strokes
    • Gastrulation
    • Types of Neuroglia
  • A.2 The human brain
    • Brain Formation
    • Brain Sections
    • Brain Functions
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Autonomic Control
    • Brain Damage
    • Encephalization
    • Brain Metabolism
    • Brain Matter
    • Sensorimotor Areas
    • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • A.3 Perception of stimuli
    • Sensory Perception
    • Sensory Structures
    • Photoreception
    • Visual Processing
    • Hearing
    • Vestibular System
    • Olfaction
    • Perception Issues
    • Types of Vision
    • Edge Enhancement
    • Gustation

Option A: Neurobiology and behaviour (Additional higher level topics)

  • A.4 Innate and learned behaviour
    • Innate Behaviour
    • Reflex Arcs
    • Learned Behaviour
    • Conditioning
    • Birdsong Development
    • Memory
    • Habituation
    • Insight Learning
  • A.5 Neuropharmacology
    • Synaptic Transmission
    • Neuromodulators
    • Psychoactive Drugs
    • Anesthetics
    • Endorphins
    • Addiction
    • Types of Neurotransmitters
    • Anti-Drug Vaccines
  • A.6 Ethology
    • Ethology
    • Migration
    • Altruism
    • Foraging
    • Breeding Behaviours
    • Innate versus Learned Behaviour
    • Social Hierarchies
    • Sexual Dimorphism

Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics (Core topics)

  • B.1 Microbiology: organisms in industry
    • Microorganisms
    • Gram Staining
    • Bactericides
    • Fermenters
    • Batch versus Continuous Culture
    • Pathway Engineering
    • Biogas Production
    • Archaea versus Eubacteria
    • Types of Eubacteria
    • Biofuels
  • B.2 Biotechnology in agriculture
    • Transgenics
    • Gene Identification
    • Gene Delivery Systems
    • Gene Expression
    • GM Crops
    • Environmental Impact
    • Other GM Examples
    • Edible Vaccines
  • B.3 Environmental protection
    • Bioremediation
    • Pollutant Metabolism
    • Biofilms
    • Use of Biofilms
    • Bacteriophages
    • Eutrophication
    • Plastic Pollution
    • Biomagnification

Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics (Additional higher level topics)

  • B.4 Medicine
    • Disease Markers
    • DNA Microarrays
    • PCR Analysis
    • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    • Tracking Experiments
    • Biopharming
    • Gene Therapy
    • Pharmacogenomics
    • Gene Editing
    • Yeast-2-Hybrid System
  • B.5 Bioinformatics
    • Databases
    • Gene Discovery
    • Sequence Alignment
    • Phylogenetics
    • Gene Knockouts
    • RNA Interference
    • Allele Frequencies

Option C: Ecology and conservation (Core topics)

  • C.1 Species and communities
    • Survival Factors
    • Species Distribution
    • Ecological Niche
    • Species Interactions
    • Keystone Species
    • Plant Survival
    • Animal Survival
  • C.2 Communities and ecosystems
    • Trophic Levels
    • Energy Conversions
    • Feed Conversion Ratio
    • Types of Ecosystems
    • Ecosystem Analysis
    • Primary Succession
    • Ecological Disturbance
    • Types of Biomes
    • Ecological Pyramids
    • Sustainable Food Practices
  • C.3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
    • Invasive Species
    • Biological Control
    • Biomagnification
    • Plastic Pollution
    • Chlorofluorocarbons
    • Earth Spheres
  • C.4 Conservation of biodiversity
    • Indicator Species
    • Biodiversity
    • Biogeographic Factors
    • Conservation
    • Endangered Species
    • Extinction

Option C: Ecology and conservation (Additional higher level topics)

  • C.5 Population ecology
    • Population Size
    • Population Sampling
    • Population Growth
    • Sigmoid Growth Curve
    • Population Factors
    • Sustainable Yields
    • r / K Strategies
    • Population Clocks
  • C.6 Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Waterlogging
    • Phosphorus Cycle
    • Phosphate Availability
    • Eutrophication
    • Soil Content
    • Haber Process
    • Sulphur Cycle

Option D: Human physiology (Core topics)

  • D.1 Human nutrition
    • Essential Nutrients
    • Energy Sources
    • Amino Acids
    • Lipids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Appetite and Diet
    • Dietary Intake
    • Food Pyramids
    • Dietary Supplements
  • D.2 Digestion
    • Exocrine Glands
    • Gastric Secretions
    • Stomach Acid
    • Intestinal Villi
    • Dietary Fibre
    • Digestive Infections
    • Digestive Juices
    • Gastric Pits
  • D.3 Functions of the liver
    • Liver Blood Flow
    • Liver Structure
    • Nutrient Supply
    • Detoxification
    • Plasma Proteins
    • Erythrocyte Recycling
    • Jaundice
    • Deamination
    • Liver and Alcohol
  • D.4 The heart
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Cardiac Conduction
    • Heart Sounds
    • Electrocardiography
    • Cardiac Output
    • Heart Disorders
    • Heart Treatments
    • Circulation
    • Heart Measurements

Option D: Human physiology (Additional higher level topics)

  • D.5 Hormones and metabolism
    • Endocrine Glands
    • Types of Hormones
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Growth Hormone
    • Lactation
    • Types of Signalling
    • Hormone Comparison
    • Feedback Loops
    • Iodine Deficiency
  • D.6 Transport of respiratory gases
    • Lung Tissue
    • Oxygen Dissociation Curve
    • Carbon Dioxide Transport
    • Blood pH
    • Bohr Shift
    • Respiratory Control
    • High Altitude Training
    • Emphysema
    • Asthma
    • Lung Cancer

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