# NCERT Solutions and Notes for CBSE Class 12 Physics

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2022

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2022: CBSE has published the syllabus of class 12th for the academic year 2022. CBSE divided the whole syllabus into two terms and examination of both the terms will be conducted separately.Â CBSE Class 12th physics syllabus comprises a total of 9 units and 14 chapters and these units are divided into two terms. n the first term of class 12th physics syllabus board has given 4 units and in the second term covers 5 units. The theoretical part will contain 70 marks and the evaluation scheme will be 30 marks. The students must pay close attention to the physics class 12th syllabus and learn the basic concepts of physics from the IITianAcademy. It will help them in further studies and competitive examinations such as JEE Main, JEE Advanced, BITSAT, and NEET, etc.Â

### Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Term 1Â

In the first term of class 12th, the physics syllabus board has given 4 units which have been indexed in the below table.

### Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Term 2

In the second term of class 12th, the physics syllabus board has given 5 units, which has been indexed in the below table-

CBSE Sample Paper Class 12 Term 2 2022

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter-1 (Electric Charges and Fields)

1. Electric Charges and Fields Electric Charges
2. Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges.
3. Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
4. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole
5. Electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in the uniform electric field. Electric flux
6. Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire
7. Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 2 (Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance)

1. Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces
2. The electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
3. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
4. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, a combination of capacitors in series and in parallel
5. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 3 (Current Electricity)

1. Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current.
2. Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
3. Electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors.
4. Series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
5. The internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
6. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
7. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 4 (Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism )

1. Moving Charges and Magnetism Concept of a magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
2. Biot – Savart law and its application to the current-carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to an infinitely long straight wire.
3. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
4. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, the force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.
5. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 5 (Magnetism and Matter)

1. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
2. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
3. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines
4. Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 6 (Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents)

1. Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current
2. Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction. Chapterâ€“7: Alternating Current Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage
3. Reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance
4. Power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

### Class 12th Physics Syllabus- Chapter 7 (Alternating Current)Â

1. Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance;
2. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance;
3. power in AC circuits
4. AC generator and transform

CBSE Class 12 Physics past papers PDF

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Practical

Class 12th Physics Practical Evaluation Scheme:Â The evaluation scheme consists of the following sections, Two experiments one from each section, Practical record [experiments and activities], and Viva on experiments and activities. Marks are allotted to each section separately. All the sections combined consist of 15 marks. Break up of marks for each section given below in table-Â

### Class 12 Physics Practical (Term-I)

In Term-I students need to perform a total ofÂ  6 practicals. In some of the practicals, choices have been given. From these choices, students can choose the practical they want to perform. Have a look at the table given below-

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Practical for Term-II

In Term-II students needs to perform a total ofÂ  6 practicals. In practical number 2, two practicals are given students can choose any one of the practicals. A list of all the practicals is provided in the table below-Â

### How to complete the CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus?

First, go through the whole syllabus of class 12th physics. Prepare a monthly plan and divide the units according to that plan. For example- you can choose a unit according to your convenience. Complete the first reading of a chapter from the chosen unit. If you find any difficulty in any topic then take help from IITian Academy Teacher . Likewise, complete all the chapters and revise them periodically. Thatâ€™s how you can retain all the units for a longer duration by multiple revisions. Repeat this process for all the units.

### How to Develop Interest in Class 12 Physics?

Most of the students find physics difficult. They failed to solve numerical problems and failed to remember derivations. Here are some tips listed below follow them and make physics interesting.

1. Start with basics, yes you have heard it right. If you want to understand what is the gravitational force, first learn what is force.
2. Imagine and relate concepts with your daily life.
3. Understand derivation step by step, donâ€™t mug up.
4. Start with easy numerical then gradually increase their level. If it is not working for you then thoroughly read the topic of that numerical and start practising.
5. Last but not least, physics is all about concepts donâ€™t try to mug up them, try to understand them. Practice questions as much as you can it will boost your confidence.

### How to increase sitting to complete CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus

You can increase sitting gradually, it’s not a one-day process. Take baby steps i.e. the first day sit for 2 hours and donâ€™t involve yourself in these two hours anywhere except studies. Break these 2 hours into 4 slots. Each slot consists of 30 minutes. study with full focus in these 30 minutes and complete all the chunks likewise. Then second or third day increase an hour. This process will make you consistent and studies will become a habit. Thatâ€™s how you can increase these hours as per your need and increase your sitting.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised):

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21. CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.Â Â

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21 and . CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21

Time: 3 hrs. Max Marks: 70

 Â Â No. of Periods Marks Unitâ€“I Electrostatics 23 16 Â Chapterâ€“1: Electric Charges and Fields Â Chapterâ€“2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Unit-II Current Electricity 15 Â Chapterâ€“3: Current Electricity Unit-III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 16 17 Â Chapterâ€“4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Â Chapterâ€“5: Magnetism and Matter Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 19 Â Chapterâ€“6: Electromagnetic Induction Â Chapterâ€“7: Alternating Current Unitâ€“V Electromagnetic Waves 2 18 Â Chapterâ€“8: Electromagnetic Waves Unitâ€“VI Optics 18 Â Chapterâ€“9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Â Chapterâ€“10: Wave Optics Unitâ€“VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 7 12 Â Chapterâ€“11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Unitâ€“VIII Atoms and Nuclei Â 11 Â Chapterâ€“12: Atoms Â Chapterâ€“13: Nuclei Unitâ€“IX Electronic Devices 7 7 Â Chapterâ€“14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Total 118 70 Â Â Â Â

Unit I: Electrostatics (23 Periods)

• Â

Chapterâ€“1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges, Â forces Â between Â multiple Â charges; Â superposition Â principle Â and Â continuous charge distribution. Electric Â field, Â electric Â field Â due to Â a point Â charge, electric Â field Â lines, Â electric Â dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s Â theorem and its applications to Â find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Chapterâ€“2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and Â insulators, Â free Â charges Â and Â bound Â  charges Â inside Â a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity (15 Periods)

Chapterâ€“3: Current Electricity

Electric Â current, flow of electric charges in Â a metallic conductor, drift velocity, Â mobility and Â  their Â  relation Â  with Â  electric Â  current; Â  Ohm’s Â  law, Â  electrical Â  resistance, Â  V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only)

Potentiometer Â – principle Â and its Â applications Â to measure potential Â difference Â and forÂ comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell(qualitative ideas only)

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (16 Periods)

Chapterâ€“4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel Â current-carrying Â conductors-definition Â of Â ampere, Â torque experienced Â by Â a current loop Â in uniform Â magnetic field; Â moving Â coil galvanometer-its Â current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapterâ€“5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (19 Periods)

Chapterâ€“6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapterâ€“7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (2 Periods)

Chapterâ€“8: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics (18 Periods)

Chapterâ€“9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapterâ€“10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof Â of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young’s double Â slit Â experiment Â and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (7 Periods)

Chapterâ€“11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

Unit VIII: Â Atoms and Nuclei (11 Periods)

Chapterâ€“12: Atoms

Alpha-particle Â scattering Â experiment; Â Rutherford’s Â model Â of atom; Bohr Â model, Â energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapterâ€“13: Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices Â (7 Periods)

Chapterâ€“14: Semiconductor Electronics:Â Materials, Devices and Simple CircuitsÂ

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

PRACTICALS [Total Periods: 32]

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:

Record of at least 8 Experiments [with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.

Record of at least Â 6 Activities Â [with Â 3 each from section Â A and section Â B], to be demonstrated by teacher

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: Three hours, Max. Marks: 30

 Two experiments one from each section 8+8 marks Practical record [experiments and activities] 7 marks Viva on experiments, and activities 7 marks Total 30 marks

SECTIONâ€“A Experiments

1.Â To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.

2.Â To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

3.Â To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.

OR

To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using a potentiometer.

4.Â To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

5.Â To Â convert the given Â galvanometer Â (of known Â resistance Â and figure Â of merit) Â into Â a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.

OR

To convert the Â given Â galvanometer Â (of Â known Â resistance Â and figure Â of Â merit) Â into Â an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6.Â To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

Activities

1.Â To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2.Â To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using a multimeter.

3.Â To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.

4.Â To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5.Â To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6.Â To Â draw Â the Â diagram Â of Â a given Â open Â circuit Â comprising Â at Â least Â a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and Â voltmeter. Â Mark the Â components Â that Â are Â not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

Experiments

SECTION-B

1.Â To Â find Â the focal Â length Â of a convex lens Â by plotting Â graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

2.Â To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.

OR

To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

3.Â To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.

4.Â To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

5.Â To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.

6.Â To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.

Activities

1.Â To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.

2.Â Use of a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.

3.Â To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5.Â To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.

6.Â To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

7.Â To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

8.Â To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

### CBSE Class 12 Books List 2019-20: Check NCERT & Other Recommended Reference Books for Physics

Wondering about the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Check details of best reference books & also get links to download solutions of NCERT (and NCERT Exemplar).

What are the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Many students preparing or CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam 2019 often asks this question. Here we are providing details of books recommended by many CBSE School teachers and important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics Syllabus and CBSE 12th Physics Board Exam 2020.

Recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics:

List of best books or recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics is given below

1- NCERT Textbook for Class 12 Physics â€“ Part I & Part II

Books published by NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) are recommended by CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). NCERT textbooks (Part 1 and 2) for Class 12 Physics are important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics board exam and competitive exams like NEET, JEEÂ  etc. These books are available free of cost on the official website of NCERT. You can also download these books free of cost from the link given below. We have also provided the solutions of the exercises given in Class 12 Physics NCERT Textbooks.

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2 â€“ NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics

NCERT Exemplar is basically a question bank and it contains different varieties of questions that you will not find in the NCERT textbook. Â In NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics, you will find

â€“ Multiple Choice Questions with Single Correct Answer

â€“ Multiple Choice Questions with Multiple Correct Answers

â€“ Very Short Answer Types Questions

The difficulty level of these questions is a bit higher then NCERT textbook. Questions given in NCERT Exemplar are often asked in competitive exams (like NEET, JEE Mains etc), directly or indirectly. NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics is also available for download in PDF format, free of cost. Here, we have also provided links to download solutions of Class 12 Physics NCERT Exemplar.

3 â€“ NCERT Lab Manual for Class 12 Physics

This is another important book for CBSE Class 12 students having Physics as one of their subjects. In Lab manual students will get complete details of the project work and the experiments. The theory and experiments, given in the NCERT Lab Manual are important for both CBSE 12th Physics board exam and various competitive exams (JEE Main & Advanced, NEET).Â  The PDF of this book is also available for free of the cost.

Reference Books for Class 12 Physics:

The book which has easy to understand theory and varieties of questions is considered as the best reference book. Here we have provided details of the reference books recommended by many teachers teaching in various CBSE Schools.

4 â€“ Pradeepâ€™s Fundamental Physics â€“ Class 12: Volume 1 and 2

For Class 12 Physics, we recommend Pradeepâ€™s Fundamental Physics is recommended by many CBSE School teachers. The theory portion given in this book is very easy to understand. This book has a sufficient number of solved and unsolved questions. This book also contains solutions of NCERT and NCERT Exemplar. This book is also helpful for the preparation of various engineering and medical entrance examinations.

5 â€“ Concept of Physics by HC Verma (Part I and Part II)

If you are preparing for competitive exams, then, you must study Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Part I & II. This book even has more varieties of questions which you will not find in NCERT Textbook and NCERT Exemplar.

6 â€“ Nootan Physics â€“ A reference book for Class 12 by Kumar Mittal

This book is another good option and is often recommended by many school teachers. The flow of theory portion given in Pradeepâ€™s Fundamental Physics is similar to the NCERT textbook but this book has its own unique style. Many students love reading from this book and is often recommended by teachers of various coaching institutes.