NCERT Solutions and Notes for CBSE Class 12 Physics

CBSE Class 12 Physics Study Materials All Chapters

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised):

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21. CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.  

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21 and . CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21

Time: 3 hrs. Max Marks: 70



 No. of PeriodsMarks
 Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
 Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and
Unit-IICurrent Electricity15
 Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit-IIIMagnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism1617
 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
 Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit-IVElectromagnetic Induction and Alternating19
 Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
 Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–VElectromagnetic Waves218
 Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
 Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
 Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Unit–VIIDual Nature of Radiation and Matter712
 Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit–VIIIAtoms and Nuclei 11
 Chapter–12: Atoms
 Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IXElectronic Devices77
 Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Unit I: Electrostatics (23 Periods)


Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges,  forces  between  multiple  charges;  superposition  principle  and  continuous charge distribution. Electric  field,  electric  field  due to  a point  charge, electric  field  lines,  electric  dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s  theorem and its applications to  find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and  insulators,  free  charges  and  bound   charges  inside  a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity (15 Periods)

Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric  current, flow of electric charges in  a metallic conductor, drift velocity,  mobility and   their   relation   with   electric   current;   Ohm’s   law,   electrical   resistance,   V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only)

Potentiometer  – principle  and its  applications  to measure potential  difference  and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell(qualitative ideas only)

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (16 Periods)

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel  current-carrying  conductors-definition  of  ampere,  torque experienced  by  a current loop  in uniform  magnetic field;  moving  coil galvanometer-its  current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (19 Periods)

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (2 Periods)

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics (18 Periods)

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof  of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young’s double  slit  experiment  and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (7 Periods)

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

Unit VIII:  Atoms and Nuclei (11 Periods)

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle  scattering  experiment;  Rutherford’s  model  of atom; Bohr  model,  energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices  (7 Periods)

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits 

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

PRACTICALS [Total Periods: 32]

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:

Record of at least 8 Experiments [with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.

Record of at least  6 Activities  [with  3 each from section  A and section  B], to be demonstrated by teacher

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: Three hours, Max. Marks: 30

Two experiments one from each section

8+8 marks

Practical record [experiments and activities]

7 marks

Viva on experiments, and activities

7 marks


30 marks

SECTION–A Experiments

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.

2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a metre bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

3. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.


To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using a potentiometer.

4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

5. To  convert the given  galvanometer  (of known  resistance  and figure  of merit)  into  a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.


To convert the  given  galvanometer  (of  known  resistance  and figure  of  merit)  into  an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.


1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using a multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6. To  draw  the  diagram  of  a given  open  circuit  comprising  at  least  a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and  voltmeter.  Mark the  components  that  are  not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.



1. To  find  the focal  length  of a convex lens  by plotting  graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.


To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

3. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.

4. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

5. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.

6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.


1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.

2. Use of a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.

3. To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.

6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

CBSE Class 12 Books List 2019-20: Check NCERT & Other Recommended Reference Books for Physics

Wondering about the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Check details of best reference books & also get links to download solutions of NCERT (and NCERT Exemplar).

What are the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Many students preparing or CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam 2019 often asks this question. Here we are providing details of books recommended by many CBSE School teachers and important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics Syllabus and CBSE 12th Physics Board Exam 2020.

Recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics:

List of best books or recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics is given below

1- NCERT Textbook for Class 12 Physics – Part I & Part II

Books published by NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) are recommended by CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). NCERT textbooks (Part 1 and 2) for Class 12 Physics are important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics board exam and competitive exams like NEET, JEE  etc. These books are available free of cost on the official website of NCERT. You can also download these books free of cost from the link given below. We have also provided the solutions of the exercises given in Class 12 Physics NCERT Textbooks.


2 – NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics

NCERT Exemplar is basically a question bank and it contains different varieties of questions that you will not find in the NCERT textbook.  In NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics, you will find

– Multiple Choice Questions with Single Correct Answer

– Multiple Choice Questions with Multiple Correct Answers

– Very Short Answer Types Questions

– Short Answer Types Questions

– Long Answer Types Questions

The difficulty level of these questions is a bit higher then NCERT textbook. Questions given in NCERT Exemplar are often asked in competitive exams (like NEET, JEE Mains etc), directly or indirectly. NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics is also available for download in PDF format, free of cost. Here, we have also provided links to download solutions of Class 12 Physics NCERT Exemplar.

3 – NCERT Lab Manual for Class 12 Physics

This is another important book for CBSE Class 12 students having Physics as one of their subjects. In Lab manual students will get complete details of the project work and the experiments. The theory and experiments, given in the NCERT Lab Manual are important for both CBSE 12th Physics board exam and various competitive exams (JEE Main & Advanced, NEET).  The PDF of this book is also available for free of the cost.

Reference Books for Class 12 Physics:

The book which has easy to understand theory and varieties of questions is considered as the best reference book. Here we have provided details of the reference books recommended by many teachers teaching in various CBSE Schools.

4 – Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics – Class 12: Volume 1 and 2

For Class 12 Physics, we recommend Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is recommended by many CBSE School teachers. The theory portion given in this book is very easy to understand. This book has a sufficient number of solved and unsolved questions. This book also contains solutions of NCERT and NCERT Exemplar. This book is also helpful for the preparation of various engineering and medical entrance examinations.

5 – Concept of Physics by HC Verma (Part I and Part II)

If you are preparing for competitive exams, then, you must study Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Part I & II. This book even has more varieties of questions which you will not find in NCERT Textbook and NCERT Exemplar.

6 – Nootan Physics – A reference book for Class 12 by Kumar Mittal

This book is another good option and is often recommended by many school teachers. The flow of theory portion given in Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is similar to the NCERT textbook but this book has its own unique style. Many students love reading from this book and is often recommended by teachers of various coaching institutes.

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