CBSE Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solution All Chapters
Class 12 Chemistry Chapters
- Chapter 1 The Solid State
- Chapter 2 Solutions
- Chapter 3 Electrochemistry
- Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics
- Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry
- Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
- Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements
- Chapter 8 The d and f Block Elements
- Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds
- Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Chapter 13 Amines
- Chapter 14 Biomolecules
- Chapter 15 Polymers
- Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday life
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry (Chapter-Wise)
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry (all chapters) are provided chapter-wise on this page. Students can access solutions for each individual class 12 chemistry chapter by following the links tabulated below. The NCERT solutions provided here are free for all users to view online.
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised)
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised & Reduced by 30%). Latest CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 is very important for the preparation of upcoming CBSE Class 12 Chemistry board exam 2020-21 preparation.
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised & Reduced by 30%):
No. of Periods
p ‐Block Elements
d ‐and f ‐Block Elements
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult’s law, colligative properties ‐ relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half‐life (only for zero and first order reactions).
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption, physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi‐molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements
Group ‐15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid.
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur ‐allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur‐dioxide, Sulphuric Acid:properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.
Lanthanoids ‐ Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds ‐ Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT.
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Amines
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates ‐ Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D‐L configuration
Proteins ‐Elementary idea of ‐ amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of \ proteins ‐ primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Practical Syllabus 2020-21
Evaluation Scheme for Examination
Content Based Experiment
Class record and viva
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for Practical (36 Periods)
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and
determination of Rf values.
ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only
(constituents having large differences in Rf values to be provided).
A. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
B. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.
C. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their
detection in given foodstuffs.
D. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
i) Oxalic Acid,
ii) Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
E. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation : Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4
Anions: (CO3)2-, S2-, (SO3)2-, (NO2)-, (SO4)2-, Cℓ-, Br-, I-, PO3- 4, (C2O4)2-, CH3COO-, NO 3
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources
A few suggested Projects.
• Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
• Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
• Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature,etc.
• Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions
(temperature, concentration, time,etc.)
• Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature onit.
• Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice,etc.
• Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi(cardamom).
• Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper. Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
CBSE 12 Chemistry Textbooks
CBSE prescribes the NCERT textbooks for every subject. The board recommend two books for the chemistry students to prepare for class 12 exam. Both the books are helpful to clear concepts as they include many examples and questions. Students should read NCERT textbook before they move towards reference books for class 12 – chemistry. The books prescribed by CBSE for class 12 Chemistry are listed below:
- Chemistry Part -I, Class-XII, published by NCERT.
- Chemistry Part -II, Class-XII, published by NCERT
Best Reference Books for Class 12 CBSE Chemistry
After reading NCERT books, candidates should go for reference books for class 12 chemistry to do ample practice and be comfortable with each type of problems and questions. Candidates can opt for any of the following books to choose for the best reference book for class 12 CBSE chemistry.
|S.No.||Names of reference books for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry||Author|
|1||Pradeep’s New Course Chemistry for class XII (Vol I and II)||S.C. Kheterpal, S.N. Dhawan, P.N. Kapil|
|2||Modern’s ABC of Chemistry Class – 12 (Part 1 & 2)||S. P. Jauhar|
|3||Concise Inorganic Chemistry||J. D. Lee|
|4||Modern Approach to Chemical Calculations||R.C. Mukerjee|
|5||SC Chemistry Class 12: Chemistry Class XII||OP Tandon, A.K. Virmani, A.S. Singh|
|6||CBSE Chapterwise Solutions – Chemistry (Class 12): A Collection of Fully Solved Questions Asked from 2014 – 2008 Examination Arranged||Purnima Sharma|
CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern for Chemistry
After getting Best reference Books for class 12 CBSE chemistry, one should know the exam pattern of class 12 chemistry to prepare and ace the exam. The exam pattern is tabulated below:
|Type of Question||Mark per Question||Total No. of Questions||Total Marks|