NCERT Solutions CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solution All Chapters

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry (Chapter-Wise)

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry (all chapters) are provided chapter-wise on this page. Students can access solutions for each individual class 12 chemistry chapter by following the links tabulated below. The NCERT solutions provided here are free for all users to view online.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised)

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised & Reduced by 30%). Latest CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 is very important for the preparation of upcoming CBSE Class 12 Chemistry board exam 2020-21 preparation. 

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised & Reduced by 30%):

Unit No.


No. of Periods


Unit I

Solid State



Unit II



Unit III



Unit IV

Chemical Kinetics


Unit V

Surface Chemistry


Unit VII

p ‐Block Elements




d ‐and f ‐Block Elements


Unit IX

Coordination Compounds


Unit X

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes



Unit XI

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers


Unit XII

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids





Unit XIV







Unit I: Solid State                                                                                                      

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects.

Unit II: Solutions  

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult’s law, colligative properties ‐ relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation  of  boiling  point, depression  of freezing  point,  osmotic  pressure,  determination  of molecular masses using colligative properties.

Unit III: Electrochemistry                                                                                         

Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics                                                                                      

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half‐life (only for zero and first order reactions).

Unit V: Surface Chemistry 

Adsorption, physisorption and  chemisorption, factors  affecting  adsorption  of  gases  on  solids, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi‐molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation.

Unit VII: p-Block Elements                                                                                        

Group ‐15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid.

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur ‐allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur‐dioxide, Sulphuric Acid:properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements   

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general  trends  in  properties of  the  first  row  transition metals  –  metallic  character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

Lanthanoids ‐ Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds 

Coordination compounds ‐ Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and  shapes,  IUPAC nomenclature of  mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding,  Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT.

Unit X:  Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. 

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.

Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers   

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of  preparation, physical and  chemical properties (of  primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids:  Nomenclature, acidic  nature,  methods  of  preparation, physical  and  chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Amines

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of  preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules   

Carbohydrates ‐ Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D‐L configuration

Proteins ‐Elementary idea  of  ‐  amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of \ proteins ‐ primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Practical Syllabus 2020-21

Evaluation Scheme for Examination


Volumetric Analysis


Salt Analysis


Content Based Experiment


Project Work


Class record and viva




CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for Practical (36 Periods) 

Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.

A. Chromatography

i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and

determination of Rf values.

ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only

(constituents having large differences in Rf values to be provided).

A. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds

Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate. 

B. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds: 

Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

C. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their

detection in given foodstuffs.

D. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:

i) Oxalic Acid,

ii) Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate

(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

E. Qualitative analysis

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.

Cation : Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4

Anions: (CO3)2-, S2-, (SO3)2-, (NO2)-, (SO4)2-, Cℓ-, Br-, I-, PO3- 4, (C2O4)2-, CH3COO-, NO 3

(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) 


Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources

A few suggested Projects.

• Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

• Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.

• Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature,etc.

• Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions

(temperature, concentration, time,etc.)

• Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature onit.

• Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice,etc.

• Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi(cardamom).

• Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper. Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

CBSE 12 Chemistry Textbooks

CBSE prescribes the NCERT textbooks for every subject. The board recommend two books for the chemistry students to prepare for class 12 exam. Both the books are helpful to clear concepts as they include many examples and questions. Students should read NCERT textbook before they move towards reference books for class 12 – chemistry. The books prescribed by CBSE for class 12 Chemistry are listed below:

  • Chemistry Part -I, Class-XII, published by NCERT.
  • Chemistry Part -II, Class-XII, published by NCERT

Best Reference Books for Class 12 CBSE Chemistry

After reading NCERT books, candidates should go for reference books for class 12 chemistry to do ample practice and be comfortable with each type of problems and questions. Candidates can opt for any of the following books to choose for the best reference book for class 12 CBSE chemistry.

S.No.Names of reference books for CBSE Class 12 ChemistryAuthor
1Pradeep’s New Course Chemistry for class XII (Vol I and II)S.C. Kheterpal, S.N. Dhawan, P.N. Kapil
2Modern’s ABC of Chemistry Class – 12 (Part 1 & 2)S. P. Jauhar
3Concise Inorganic ChemistryJ. D. Lee
4Modern Approach to Chemical CalculationsR.C. Mukerjee
5SC Chemistry Class 12: Chemistry Class XIIOP Tandon, A.K. Virmani, A.S. Singh
6CBSE Chapterwise Solutions – Chemistry (Class 12): A Collection of Fully Solved Questions Asked from 2014 – 2008 Examination ArrangedPurnima Sharma

CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern for Chemistry

After getting Best reference Books for class 12 CBSE chemistry, one should know the exam pattern of class 12 chemistry to prepare and ace the exam. The exam pattern is tabulated below:

Type of QuestionMark per QuestionTotal No. of QuestionsTotal Marks
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