NCERT Solutions CBSE Class 12 Physics

CBSE Class 12 Physics NCERT Solution All Chapters

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics consist of solved answers for all the chapters, exercise-wise. This is a great material for students who are preparing for the Class 12 exams. The solutions provided here are with respect to NCERT syllabus and curriculum. These materials are prepared by our expertise keeping on mind students learning the level. You can ask your doubt Online from IITainAcademy Experts.

NCERT textbooks are formulated by CBSE board. So all the students who are studying under this board have the best solution materials here. Class 12 is also an important class for students, as the level of education increases here. In this standard, students have opted for Maths or Biology as their main subject, have Physics and Chemistry subjects in common. Students have to be more focussed about their studies as this is the start of their future learning and career. Therefore, using these solutions students can really score good marks in their final exams.

All the solutions for all the chapters for Class 12 Physics subject have been arranged in a proper manner. Students can easily find answers for any question here which is mentioned in the textbook. These answers are in accordance with latest syllabus.

NCERT solutions for 12th standard Physics subject covers the chapters which are present in the textbook Part 1 and Part 2, exercise-wise. The topics covered here are Electric charges and field, magnetism, electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic waves, alternating current, etc. The solutions for these chapters are available in PDF format.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Physics help you to solve the unsolved problems of the class 12 NCERT Physics book prescribed by the CBSE. The NCERT solutions for class 12 physics helps you to quickly grasp the concepts of physics. Thorough understanding of the solutions helps you to understand Physics concepts to the point.

Class 12 Physics NCERT Solutions

The NCERT solutions for all the chapters of Class 12 Physics subject is given here. Students can click on the links of the particular chapter for which they are finding the solutions. All the questions are solved here with respect to the method and procedures explained in the textbook. The PDF for all the chapters are provided here learn online and ask questions/doubt from iitianacademy Experts.. Solving the questions present in the textbooks is not an easy task. It requires mathematical and logical skills to solve those problems with a lot of efforts. Class 12th Physics is a next level Physics, where students will learn a large variety of topics, which they are going to face in higher studies as well, such as in Class 12th.

The NCERT textbook for physics for class 11 and 12 is more than enough for any kind of exam if it is studied properly and each numerical is solved with proper care.  NCERT Physics textbooks are enough to score 90+ in 12th boards.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields

All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather. This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Another common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is the discharge of electric charges through our body, which was accumulated due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that this is due to the generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the study of forces, fields, and potentials arising from static charges.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

When an external force does work in taking a body from a point to another against a force like spring force or gravitational force, that work gets stored as the potential energy of the body. When the external force is removed, the body moves, gaining kinetic energy and losing an equal amount of potential energy. The sum of kinetic and potential energies is thus conserved. Forces of this kind are called conservative forces. Spring force and gravitational force are examples of conservative forces. Coulomb force between two (stationary) charges is also a conservative force. This is not surprising since both have inverse-square dependence on distance and differ mainly in the proportionality constants – the masses in the gravitational law are replaced by charges in Coulomb’s law. Thus, like the potential energy of a mass in a gravitational field, we can define the electrostatic potential energy of a charge in an electrostatic field.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 3 Current Electricity

Charges in motion constitute an electric current. Such currents occur naturally in many situations. Lightning is one such phenomenon in which charges flow from the clouds to the earth through the atmosphere, sometimes with disastrous results. The flow of charges in lightning is not steady, but in our everyday life, we see many devices where charges flow in a steady manner, like water flowing smoothly in a river. A torch and a cell-driven clock are examples of such devices. In the present chapter, we shall study some of the basic laws concerning steady electric currents.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism

In this chapter, we will see how magnetic field exerts forces on moving charged particles, like electrons, protons, and current-carrying wires. We shall also learn how currents produce magnetic fields. We shall see how particles can be accelerated to very high energies in a cyclotron. We shall study how currents and voltages are detected by a galvanometer. In this and subsequent Chapter on magnetism, we adopt the following convention: A current or a field (electric or magnetic) emerging out of the plane of the paper is depicted by a dot. A current or a field going into the plane of the paper is depicted by a cross.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 5 Magnetism And Matter

Magnetic phenomena are universal in nature. Vast, distant galaxies, the tiny invisible atoms, humans, and beasts all are permeated through and through with a host of magnetic fields from a variety of sources. The earth’s magnetism predates human evolution. In the previous chapter, we have learned that moving charges or electric currents produce magnetic fields. In the present chapter, we take a look at magnetism as a subject in its own right. The earth behaves as a magnet with the magnetic field pointing approximately from the geographic south to the north. When a bar magnet is freely suspended, it points in the north-south direction. The tip which points to the geographic north is called the north pole and the tip which points to the geographic south is called the south pole of the magnet.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Induction

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is not merely of theoretical or academic interest but also of practical utility. Imagine a world where there is no electricity – no electric lights, no trains, no telephones, and no personal computers. The pioneering experiments of Faraday and Henry have led directly to the development of modern-day generators and transformers. Today’s civilization owes its progress to a great extent to the discovery of electromagnetic induction.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 7 Alternating Current

The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favorite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 8 Electromagnetic Waves

We learned that an electric current produces the magnetic field and that two current-carrying wires exert a magnetic force on each other. Also, we have seen that a magnetic field changing with time gives rise to an electric field. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), argued that this was indeed the case – not only electric current but also a time-varying electric field generates a magnetic field. While applying the Ampere’s circuital law to find a magnetic field at a point outside a capacitor connected to a time-varying current, Maxwell noticed an inconsistency in the Ampere’s circuital law. He suggested the existence of an additional current, called by him, the displacement current to remove this inconsistency.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

In this chapter, we consider the phenomena of reflection, refraction, and dispersion of light, using the ray picture of light. Using the basic laws of reflection and refraction, we shall study the image formation by plane and spherical reflecting and refracting surfaces. We then go on to describe the construction and working of some important optical instruments, including the human eye.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 10 Wave Optics

In this chapter, we will first discuss the original formulation of the Huygens principle and derive the laws of reflection and refraction. We will also discuss the phenomenon of interference which is based on the principle of superposition. And we will discuss the phenomenon of diffraction which is based on HuygensFresnel principle. Finally, we will discuss the phenomenon of polarisation which is based on the fact that the light waves are transverse electromagnetic waves.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

It was found that certain metals, when irradiated by ultraviolet light, emitted negatively charged particles having small speeds. Also, certain metals when heated to high temperature were found to emit negatively charged particles. The value of e/m of these particles was found to be the same as that for cathode ray particles. These observations thus established that all these particles, although produced under different conditions, were identical in nature. J. J. Thomson, in 1897, named these particles like electrons and suggested that they were fundamental, universal constituents of matter.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Atoms

Rutherford’s nuclear model was a major step towards how we see the atom today. However, it could not explain why atoms emit light of only discrete wavelengths. How could an atom as simple as hydrogen, consisting of a single electron and a single proton, emit a complex spectrum of specific wavelengths? In the classical picture of an atom, the electron revolves around the nucleus much like the way a planet revolves around the sun. However, we shall see that there are some serious difficulties in accepting such a model.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 13 Nuclei

In the previous chapter, we have learnt that in every atom, the positive charge and mass are densely concentrated at the centre of the atom forming its nucleus. The overall dimensions of a nucleus are much smaller than those of an atom. Experiments on the scattering of α-particles demonstrated that the radius of a nucleus was smaller than the radius of an atom by a factor of about 104. This means the volume of a nucleus is about 10-12 times the volume of the atom. In other words, an atom is almost empty. If an atom is enlarged to the size of a classroom, the nucleus would be of the size of a pinhead. Nevertheless

Class 12 Physics Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronic: Material, Devices And Simple Circuits

In this chapter, we will introduce the basic concepts of semiconductor physics and discuss some semiconductor devices like junction diodes (a 2-electrode device) and bipolar junction transistor (a 3-electrode device). A few circuits illustrating their applications will also be described.

Class 12 Physics Chapter 15 Communication Systems

We all know that the three basic elements of communication include the transmitter, channel, and the receiver. This chapter explains the role of each element in details. It also talks about the bandwidth of signals, the bandwidth of transmission medium, the necessity of modulation, amplitude modulation, production and detection of amplitude modulated wave, propagation of electromagnetic waves, etc. After a thorough explanation of the topics, there are exercises to solve at the end of the chapter.

As we all know, 12th is the most important class for all the students, as after this they move to their college level. But you can get admission in a good recognized institute or university, only when you have scored the minimum qualifying marks. And it is only then, you will be able to get good jobs or get placed directly from campus recruitment, conducted by colleges. Therefore, it very necessary for you to build a strong base in Class 12 Physics subject and understand the concepts deeply.

To make it easier for them to learn, we are providing here solutions for all the students of 11th standard, such that, they can clarify their doubts for all types of questions. Below are the introductions for each chapter and links for all the exercises, read them thoroughly.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised):

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21. CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.  

Check the new CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2020-21 and . CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics is very important for the preparation of CBSE 12th Physics board exam 2020-21.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21

Time: 3 hrs. Max Marks: 70



 No. of PeriodsMarks
 Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
 Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and
Unit-IICurrent Electricity15
 Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit-IIIMagnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism1617
 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
 Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit-IVElectromagnetic Induction and Alternating19
 Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
 Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–VElectromagnetic Waves218
 Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
 Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
 Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Unit–VIIDual Nature of Radiation and Matter712
 Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit–VIIIAtoms and Nuclei 11
 Chapter–12: Atoms
 Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IXElectronic Devices77
 Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Unit I: Electrostatics (23 Periods)


Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges,  forces  between  multiple  charges;  superposition  principle  and  continuous charge distribution. Electric  field,  electric  field  due to  a point  charge, electric  field  lines,  electric  dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s  theorem and its applications to  find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and  insulators,  free  charges  and  bound   charges  inside  a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity (15 Periods)

Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric  current, flow of electric charges in  a metallic conductor, drift velocity,  mobility and   their   relation   with   electric   current;   Ohm’s   law,   electrical   resistance,   V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only)

Potentiometer  – principle  and its  applications  to measure potential  difference  and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell(qualitative ideas only)

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (16 Periods)

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel  current-carrying  conductors-definition  of  ampere,  torque experienced  by  a current loop  in uniform  magnetic field;  moving  coil galvanometer-its  current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (19 Periods)

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (2 Periods)

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics (18 Periods)

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof  of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young’s double  slit  experiment  and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (7 Periods)

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

Unit VIII:  Atoms and Nuclei (11 Periods)

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle  scattering  experiment;  Rutherford’s  model  of atom; Bohr  model,  energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices  (7 Periods)

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits 

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

PRACTICALS [Total Periods: 32]

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:

Record of at least 8 Experiments [with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.

Record of at least  6 Activities  [with  3 each from section  A and section  B], to be demonstrated by teacher

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: Three hours, Max. Marks: 30

Two experiments one from each section

8+8 marks

Practical record [experiments and activities]

7 marks

Viva on experiments, and activities

7 marks


30 marks

SECTION–A Experiments

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.

2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a metre bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

3. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.


To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using a potentiometer.

4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

5. To  convert the given  galvanometer  (of known  resistance  and figure  of merit)  into  a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.


To convert the  given  galvanometer  (of  known  resistance  and figure  of  merit)  into  an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.


1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using a multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6. To  draw  the  diagram  of  a given  open  circuit  comprising  at  least  a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and  voltmeter.  Mark the  components  that  are  not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.



1. To  find  the focal  length  of a convex lens  by plotting  graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.


To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

3. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.

4. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

5. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.

6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.


1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.

2. Use of a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.

3. To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.

6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

CBSE Class 12 Books List 2019-20: Check NCERT & Other Recommended Reference Books for Physics

Wondering about the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Check details of best reference books & also get links to download solutions of NCERT (and NCERT Exemplar).

What are the best reference books for CBSE Class 12th Physics subject? Many students preparing or CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam 2019 often asks this question. Here we are providing details of books recommended by many CBSE School teachers and important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics Syllabus and CBSE 12th Physics Board Exam 2020.

Recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics:

List of best books or recommended books for CBSE Class 12 Physics is given below

1- NCERT Textbook for Class 12 Physics – Part I & Part II

Books published by NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) are recommended by CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). NCERT textbooks (Part 1 and 2) for Class 12 Physics are important for the preparation of Class 12 Physics board exam and competitive exams like NEET, JEE  etc. These books are available free of cost on the official website of NCERT. You can also download these books free of cost from the link given below. We have also provided the solutions of the exercises given in Class 12 Physics NCERT Textbooks.


2 – NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics

NCERT Exemplar is basically a question bank and it contains different varieties of questions that you will not find in the NCERT textbook.  In NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics, you will find

– Multiple Choice Questions with Single Correct Answer

– Multiple Choice Questions with Multiple Correct Answers

– Very Short Answer Types Questions

– Short Answer Types Questions

– Long Answer Types Questions

The difficulty level of these questions is a bit higher then NCERT textbook. Questions given in NCERT Exemplar are often asked in competitive exams (like NEET, JEE Mains etc), directly or indirectly. NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Physics is also available for download in PDF format, free of cost. Here, we have also provided links to download solutions of Class 12 Physics NCERT Exemplar.

3 – NCERT Lab Manual for Class 12 Physics

This is another important book for CBSE Class 12 students having Physics as one of their subjects. In Lab manual students will get complete details of the project work and the experiments. The theory and experiments, given in the NCERT Lab Manual are important for both CBSE 12th Physics board exam and various competitive exams (JEE Main & Advanced, NEET).  The PDF of this book is also available for free of the cost.

Reference Books for Class 12 Physics:

The book which has easy to understand theory and varieties of questions is considered as the best reference book. Here we have provided details of the reference books recommended by many teachers teaching in various CBSE Schools.

4 – Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics – Class 12: Volume 1 and 2

For Class 12 Physics, we recommend Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is recommended by many CBSE School teachers. The theory portion given in this book is very easy to understand. This book has a sufficient number of solved and unsolved questions. This book also contains solutions of NCERT and NCERT Exemplar. This book is also helpful for the preparation of various engineering and medical entrance examinations.

5 – Concept of Physics by HC Verma (Part I and Part II)

If you are preparing for competitive exams, then, you must study Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Part I & II. This book even has more varieties of questions which you will not find in NCERT Textbook and NCERT Exemplar.

6 – Nootan Physics – A reference book for Class 12 by Kumar Mittal

This book is another good option and is often recommended by many school teachers. The flow of theory portion given in Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics is similar to the NCERT textbook but this book has its own unique style. Many students love reading from this book and is often recommended by teachers of various coaching institutes.

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