NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Beehive Chapter 8 Reach for the Top

NCERT Class 9 Beehive Page No. 102

Thinking about the Text

I. Answer these questions in one or two sentences each. (The paragraph numbers within brackets provide clues to the answers.)

1. Why was the ‘holy man’ who gave Santosh’s mother his blessings surprised? (1)

Answer:

The ‘holy man’ was surprised because he had assumed that Santosh’s mother wanted a
son. However, the unborn child’s grandmother told him that they did not want a son.

2. Give an example to show that even as a young girl Santosh was not ready to accept anything unreasonable. (2)

Answer:

Santosh always lived life on her own terms. Unlike the other girls in the village who wore traditional dresses, she liked to wear shorts. This shows her rebellious attitude.

All Chapters: CBSE Class 9 English Syllabus 2020-21

3. Why was Santosh sent to the local school? (3)

Answer:

Santosh was sent to the local village school due to the prevailing custom in the family.

4. When did she leave home for Delhi, and why? (4)

Answer:

When she turned sixteen left home for Delhi because she wanted to pursue higher education there.

5. Why did Santosh’s parents agree to pay for her schooling in Delhi? What mental qualities of Santosh are brought into light by this incident? (4)

Answer:

When Santosh’s parents refused to pay for her schooling in Delhi, she informed them of her plans to do a part-time job and pay her school fees. Then, her parents agreed to pay for her schooling in Delhi.

This shows that Santosh was a mentally-strong girl. She was full of self-determination.  

NCERT Class 9 Beehive Page No. 103

II. Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (about 30 words).

1. How did Santosh begin to climb mountains?

Answer:

While she was staying at her hostel in Jaipur, from her room she used to watch people going up the Aravalli Hills and vanishing after a while. She became curious about this. On investigating, she found that they all were mountaineers. She asked if she could join them. On her request they agreed to let her join them in mountain climbing. This was how she began climbing mountains.

2. What incidents during the Everest expedition show Santosh’s concern for her team-mates?

Answer:

During her Everest expedition she showed immense concern for her team-mates. She shared her oxygen cylinder with her team-mates. Though she was unsuccessful in saving the life of one of them, another one could be saved because of her help.

3. What shows her concern for the environment?

Answer:

Her concern for the environment is evident from the fact that she collected and brought down 500 kilograms of garbage from the Everest.

4. How does she describe her feelings at the summit of the Everest?

Answer:

She said that it took some time for the enormity of the moment to sink in. She asserted that her feeling was indescribable. Unfurling the Indian flag on the top of the world was a spiritual moment for her and she felt proud as an Indian.

5. Santosh Yadav got into the record books both times she scaled Mt Everest. What were the reasons for this?

Answer:

When Santosh Yadav first scaled Mt Everest, she became the youngest woman in the world to achieve this goal. When she scaled the Everest the second time, she became the only woman to have scaled it twice.

III. Complete the following statements.

1. From her room in Kasturba Hostel, Santosh used to _________

2. When she finished college, Santosh had to write a letter of apology to her father because _________

3. During the Everest expedition, her seniors in the team admired her _________ while _________endeared her to fellow climbers.

Answer:

1. From her room in Kasturba Hostel, Santosh used to watch villagers going up the hill and suddenly vanish after a while.

2. When she finished college, Santosh had to write a letter of apology to her father because she had got herself enrolled at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering without his permission.

3. During the Everest expedition, her seniors in the team admired her climbing skills, physical fitness and mental strength while her concern for others and desire to work together with them endeared her to fellow climbers.

IV. Pick out words from the text that mean the same as the following words or expressions. (Look in the paragraphs indicated.)

1. took to be true without proof (1): _________

2. based on reason; sensible; reasonable (2): _________

3. the usual way of doing things (3): _________

4. a strong desire arising from within (5): _________

5. the power to endure, without falling ill (7): _________

Answer:

1. took to be true without proof (1):  Assumed

2. based on reason; sensible; reasonable (2): Rational

3. the usual way of doing things (3): Custom

4. a strong desire arising from within (5): Urge

5. the power to endure, without falling ill (7): Resistance

NCERT Class 9 Beehive Page No. 107

Part II

Maria Sharapova

Thinking about the Text

Working in small groups of 4−5 students, go back over the two passages on Santosh Yadav and Maria Sharapova and complete the table given below with relevant phrases or sentences.

Points of Comparison/Contrast

Santosh Yadav

Maria Sharapova

1. Their humble beginning

  

2. Their parents’ approach

  

3. Their will power and strong desire to succeed

  

4. Evidence of their mental toughness

  

5. Their patriotism

  

Answer:

Points of Comparison/Contrast

Santosh Yadav

Maria Sharapova

1. Their humble beginning

-“She was born in the small village of Joniyawas of Rewari District in Haryana.”

“the Siberian born teenager”

2. Their parents’ approach

– “in line with the

prevailing custom in the family, Santosh had to make do with the local village school.”

– “At sixteen, most of the girls in her village used to get married. Santosh was also under pressure from her parents to do the same.”

– “her parents refused to pay for her education”

– “her father slowly getting used to her urge”

– “she was packed off to train in the United States.”

– “trip to Florida with her father Yuri launched her on the path to success and stardom.”

– “My father was working as much as he could to keep my tennis-training going.”

3. Their will power and strong desire to succeed

-“Wishing always to study ‘a bit more’”

-“her urge for more education”

-“She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.”

– “She saved money and enrolled in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.”

– “I headed straight for the training.”

– “Instead of letting that depress me, I became more quietly determined and mentally tough.”

– “unwavering desire to succeed and readiness to sacrifice”

– “I work hard at what I do.”

– “the most important thing is to become number one in the world. That’s the dream that kept me going.”

4. Evidence of their mental toughness

-“She began living life on her own terms from the start.”

-“From the very beginning I was quite determined that if I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me.”

-“she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part-time to pay her school fees.”

– “Santosh went on an expedition every year.”

– “an amazing mental toughness”

– “mental strength impressed her seniors”

-“I learnt how to take care of myself. I never thought of quitting because I knew what I wanted.”

-“I would have put up with much more humiliation and insults than that to steadfastly pursue my dream.”

5. Their patriotism

-“Then I unfurled the Indian tricolour and held it aloft on the roof of the world. The feeling is indescribable. The Indian flag was flying on top of the world. It was truly a spiritual moment. I felt proud as an Indian.”

“I’m Russian. It’s true that the U.S. is a big part of my life. But I have Russian citizenship. My blood is totally Russian. I will play the Olympics for Russia if they want me.”

Thinking about the Language

I. Identify the two parts in the sentences below by underlining the part that gives us the information in brackets.

1. Where other girls wore traditional Indian dresses, Santosh preferred shorts.
(Contrasts her dress with that of others)
2. She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. (Tells us what happened after the first action.)
3. She decided to fight the system when the right moment arrived. (Tells us when she was going to fight the system.)
4. Little Maria had not yet celebrated her tenth birthday when she was packed off to train in the United States. (Tells us when Maria was sent to the U.S.)

Answer:

1. Where other girls wore traditional Indian dresses, Santosh preferred shorts.
2. She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.
3. She decided to fight the system when the right moment arrived.
4. Little Maria had not yet celebrated her tenth birthday when she was packed off to train in the United States.

NCERT Class 9 Beehive Page No. 108

II. Now rewrite the pairs of sentences given below as one sentence.

1. Grandfather told me about the old days. All books were printed on paper then.
2. What do you do after you finish the book? Perhaps you just throw it away.
3. He gave the little girl an apple. He took the computer apart.
4. You have nothing. That makes you very determined.
5. I never thought of quitting. I knew what I wanted.

Answer:

1. Grandfather told me about the old days when all books were printed on paper.
2. After finishing the book, perhaps you just throw it away.
3. After giving the little girl an apple, he took the computer apart.
4. Having nothing makes you very determined.
5. I never thought of quitting as I knew what I wanted.

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Class 9 English Beehive

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What made Santosh Yadav achieve fame and greatness?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world who has scaled Mt Everest twice. Santosh Yadav scaled Mt Everest when she was barely twenty years of age, becoming the youngest woman in the world to achieve the feat. Within twelve months, Santosh scaled the Everest a second time as a member of an Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition. She thus set a record as the only woman to have scaled the Everest twice.

Question 2.
Why was the ‘holy man’, who gave Santosh’s mother his blessings, surprised?
Answer:
The holy man expected that like all other families in the villages, the family would also wish for the birth of a son. However, when he was told by Santosh’s grandmother that they wanted to have a daughter, he was surprised.

Question 3.
What kind of society was Santosh born in?
Answer:
Santosh was born in Joniyawas, a small village in the Rewari District in Haryana. The society in this region was very conservative and orthodox. People were rigidly patriarchal and gender-biased. The birth of a girl was generally unwelcome and people strictly adhered to conservative traditions.

Question 4.
The grandmother wished her daughter-in-law give birth to a daughter. What light does this throw on her character?
Answer:
Despite being the member of a conservative family, the grandmother wished to be blessed with a granddaughter. This was because there were already five boys in the family. Hence, the family now wished for a daughter. This also shows her as a woman of progressive views.

Question 5.
What do you know about Santosh’s family?
Answer:
Santosh was born into an affluent family of landlords in a village, Joniyawas, in the Rewari district of Haryana. She was the sixth child in a conservative family, the only sister to five brothers. Though financially well-off, her family was orthodox and conservative in matters related to the education and upbringing of girls.

Question 6.
Why was Santosh sent to the local school?
Answer:
Santosh’s parents were affluent and could afford to send Santosh to a school in Delhi. But they sent her to the local village school because they strictly followed tradition and it was customary in their society to send girls to the local school only.

Question 7.
How was Santosh different from the other girls of her village?
Answer:
Unlike other girls of her village, Santosh was not content with the traditional way of life. She used to wear shorts and went on to study further at Delhi. She did not get married at sixteen as most of the girls of her village did.

Question 8.
Why was Santosh Yadav not content with a traditional way of life? What path did she choose and why?
Answer:
Right from childhood, Santosh was not content with a traditional way of life and felt that if she chose a correct and a rational path, the others around her had to change, not she. She wanted to chart her own course in life, rather than following the age-old customs and traditions. She wore shorts instead of traditional attire, went to study in Delhi when girls in her village got married. When her parents refused to pay for her education, she got them to agree by informing them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay. her school fees. She chose the path of excellence through education, rational thinking and hard work and achieved unparalleled success as a woman mountaineer.

Question 9.
When did Santosh leave home for Delhi, and why?
Answer:
Santosh left home for Delhi when she turned sixteen because her parents had begun to pressurize her to get married in keeping with the traditional practice in their community. She decided that it was the right moment to rebel and she quietly got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi to continue her studies.

Question 10.
Why did Santosh’s parents agree to pay for her schooling in Delhi? What mental qualities of Santosh are brought to light by this incident?
Answer:
At the age of sixteen, Santosh got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her schooling in Delhi, she politely informed them that she planned to work part time in order to pay her fees. Her parents realized that their daughter was independent, had a strong will-power and firm self-belief. She could take her decisions and also stand by them. They saw her strong sense of conviction and her passion for education. So, they agreed to pay for her schooling in Delhi.

Question 11.
In what ways did Santosh show her dissatisfaction with the traditional life in the family?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav always opposed traditional ways. She wore shorts rather than wearing traditional dresses. She refused to give up her studies and get married at the age of sixteen. Though her parents put great pressure on her, she left her home and came to Delhi for high school, informing her parents she would earn her own money by working part-time if they refused to pay her fees.

Question 12.
How did Santosh develop a liking for mountain climbing?
Answer:
From the window of her room in the Kasturba Hostel, Jaipur, Santosh used to watch the villagers going up the hills and then suddenly vanishing after a while. It inspired her to explore the hills. One day when she decided to check it out herself, she met a group of mountaineers. The mountaineers allowed her to join them and encouraged her to take up climbing. Thus, she developed liking for climbing.

Question 13.
Why did Santosh decide to take up mountaineering?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav began to climb mountains when she met some mountaineers in the Aravalli Hills, who not only let her join them but also motivated her to take up mountaineering.

Question 14.
What did Santosh do after being motivated by the mountaineers to take to climbing?
Answer:
Santosh saved money and enrolled herself in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering and after completion of her semester in the college, headed straight for the Institute to be able to reach for her training in time.

Question 15.
Why did Santosh write a letter of apology to her father?
Answer:
Santosh had got herself enrolled in the Uttarkashi Nehru Institute of Mountaineering without seeking her father’s permission. She had thought of talking to her family about this during her holidays. But because her college term was extended by a few days, there was hardly any time between the end of the semester and her reporting date at the Institute. Due to her inability to go home, she wrote a letter of apology to her father.

Question 16.
What is the secret of Santosh’s success as a mountaineer?
Answer:
Santosh had a strong will power, great physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness. The single- minded determination and dedication helped her overcome all hurdles to emerge as a winner. She possessed a remarkable resistance to cold and high altitude. Her climbing skills and hard working nature made it easy for her.

Question 17.
When did Santosh get an opportunity to scale Mt. Everest?
Answer:
Santosh got an opportunity to scale Mt. Everest in 1992, just four years after she had met the mountaineers climbing the Aravalli Hills. She was hardly twenty years of age at that time when she became the youngest woman in the world to scale the highest peak.

Question 18.
How did Santosh’s seniors and fellow climbers appreciate her?
Answer:
Santosh’s her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength impressed her seniors, while her concern for others and desire to work together with them found her a special place in the hearts of fellow climbers.

Question 19.
What incidents during the Everest expedition show Santosh’s concern for her team-mates?
Answer:
During the 1992 Everest expedition, one of her team-mates lay dying at the South Col. Santosh made all efforts to look after him. Unfortunately, the climber could not be saved. However, she did succeed in saving the life of another fellow-climber, Mohan Singh. Santosh shared her oxygen with him and saved his life. These incidents show her concern for her team mates.

Question 20.
When did Santosh scale the Mt. Everest for a second time?
Answer:
Santosh was invited by an Indo-Nepalese Women’s expedition to scale Mt. Everest within a year of her first expedition in 1992. Santosh joined them to climb the Everest for the second time. Thus, she scaled the Everest twice setting a record as the only woman to have scaled the Everest two times.

Question 21.
Why is Santosh Yadav’s name recorded twice for climbing Mount Everest?
Answer:
When she scaled the Mount Everest for the first time in 1992, Santosh Yadav, at the age of twenty, earned the credit for being the youngest woman in the world to climb the peak. She then scaled the Everest a second time just a year later, thus setting a record as the only woman to have scaled the Everest twice.

Question 22.
How did the government of India honour Santosh Yadav?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav, by the age of twenty-two had climbed Mt Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world twice, the only woman in the world to have done so. In recognition of her achievements, the Indian government bestowed upon her one of the nation’s top honours, the Padmashri.

Question 23.
What shows Santosh’s concern for the environment?
Answer:
As a fervent environmentalist, Santosh showed her concern for the environment by collecting and bringing down as much as 500kg of refuse that littered the mountains.

Question 24.
How did Santosh feel when she found herself on the ‘top of the world’ at the summit of the Everest?
Answer:
While standing on the “top of the world,” Santosh Yadav was overwhelmed with emotions of patriotism and bliss. She felt proud as an Indian when she unfurled the tricolour on Mount Everest. She was so happy that she experienced a kind of spiritual bliss. She found it hard to articulate her feelings and termed them as “indescribable”.

Question 25.
How did Santosh Yadav get into the record books?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav got into the record books for the first time when she scaled Mt. Everest at the age of twenty. She became the youngest woman in the world to climb Mt. Everest. She scaled the Everest for the second time next year, thus becoming the only woman in the world to do so.

Question 26.
How did Santosh Yadav set records both the times when scaled Mount Everest?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav set records both the times when scaled Mount Everest. When she scaled the peak for the first time she was the youngest woman to scale the Everest and when she climbed it the second time she was the only woman to scale it twice.

Question 27.
Describe Santosh’s fight against the system?
Answer:
Santosh came from a family that was conservative and orthodox. The society was patriarchal and the birth of a daughter, though not considered a curse, was not generally welcome. Girls were educated at the local school, and married off at the age of sixteen. Right from the beginning Santosh had to fight the system to assert for her right to equality and education. She never lost her spirit and determination. She defied all the customs and traditions which limit the girls within the spheres of family, marriage and children. She ventured into a man’s domain to become a role model for others.

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Briefly write what you learn about Santosh Yadav’s parents.
Answer:
Santosh Yadav’s parents were affluent but conservative people. Her father was a wealthy landlord from Joniyawas village of Rewari District in Haryana. Though they lived according to the prevailing customs in the village, their love for their daughter made them often give in to her wishes. They yielded to their daughter’s demands because they loved her dearly, and knew that she was sensible enough to have chosen a correct and a rational path. Thus, Santosh got full support from her parents, which in the long run helped her reach to the top.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on Santosh’s journey from her local village school to the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering at Uttarkashi.
Answer:
Born in an affluent but traditional and conservative landowners’ family in a small village of Rewari district in Haryana, Santosh was a rebel from early childhood. The local village school, but when her parents insisted she get married at the age of sixteen, she refused as she wanted to get a proper education first.

She got admission in Delhi school, despite her parents’ reluctance to send her there and informed them politely that she would earn by working part time. Santosh persuaded her parents to send her to Jaipur for higher studies after finishing high school. She got admission in Maharani College, Jaipur. She got a room in Kasturba Hostel which faced the Aravalli hills. She used to see the villagers going up the hill and disappearing.

This aroused her curiosity about the mountains. One day, when Santosh went near the hills, she met some climbers. They encouraged her to take to climbing. This whetted her interest in climbing and she saved money and took admission in Nehru Institute of Mountaineering at Uttarkashi.

Question 3.
“If I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me”, said Santosh Yadav. How does her life justify her words?
Answer:
Born to conservative parents, Santosh did not want to let the norms of the patriarchal, gender-biased and rigidly conventional society dictate her life. Though her name means contentment, Santosh was not always content with her place in a traditional way of life and wanted to live life on her own terms. In fact, she believed that if she chose a correct and a rational path, others would have to change and align themselves to her choices, not her.

She wore shorts instead of traditional dresses as a child. Santosh resisted the pressure to get married at the young age of sixteen, declaring that she would not marry at all if denied proper education. Defying tradition, she got enrolled in a school in Delhi.

When her parents refused to pay for her schooling, she informed them that she would work part-time to manage her school fees. Seeing their daughter’s determination, her parents had to give in. Taking up mountaineering as her career was also an independent decision. However, she tried her best not to hurt her parents and wrote a letter of apology to her father for not having sought his permission before joining the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering in Uttarkashi. Thus, despite all odds, Santosh chose for herself a path which was absolutely unthinkable and unheard of for girls in an orthodox society.

Question 4.
Santosh “decided to fight the system in her own quiet way when the right moment arrived”. Elaborate.
Answer:
Santosh was a very rational and progressive girl, who wished to shape her life herself. She says, “From the very beginning I was quite determined that if I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me.” Though it was not easy for a girl who came from a rigid patriarchal and traditional environment, she decided to fight the system in her own quiet way when the right moment arrived. And the right moment came when she turned sixteen. At sixteen, most of the girls in her village used to get married.

Santosh, too, was under pressure from her parents to do the same. Instead of giving in, she opposed her parents’ decision to marry her off at the early age of sixteen and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her education in the city, she told them politely that she would earn money for her fees by working part-time. She politely but firmly made it clear that she was determined to overcome all obstacles.

Finally, her parents had to surrender. Her decision to take up mountaineering as a career was also handled very boldly by her. She took admission in Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering without seeking the permission of her parents leaving them with no choice but to accept her decision. Thus, Santosh rebelled against the orthodox, conservative system in a quiet but firm way.

Question 5.
Santosh had all the qualities of a good mountaineer. Comment.
Answer:
Mountaineering is a challenging career which demands great physical and mental strength. It requires boldness, fearlessness, sturdiness and faith in one’s abilities. Equipped with an iron will, physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness, Santosh Yadav was, in fact, made for mountaineering. Just within a span of four years of her training in mountain climbing, Santosh successfully scaled Mt. Everest” setting a record for being the youngest woman to climb Mt Everest.

She repeated this feat in less than a year’s time again and became the only woman in the world to have scaled the Everest twice. All this was made possible with her climbing skills, physical fitness and mental strength. Her resistance to cold and altitude proved to be added advantages. All these qualities, coupled with her team-spirit and her concern for her fellow climbers made her not only a good mountaineer but also a very popular one among her superiors and her fellow climbers.

Question 6.
Santosh is not only a good mountaineer but also a genuinely good human being. Discuss.
Answer:
Santosh Yadav proved her mountaineering skills quite early in her career. She displayed an unflinching will and a fearless mind that fought a rigid, orthodox society to rise to the top. But the iron will and mental toughness did not overshadow her qualities of co-operation and concern for others. That Santosh is endowed with a caring heart is obvious from the fact that she took great care of a climber who lay dying at the South Col. Though, the climber could not be saved, Santosh’s concern for him was really commendable.

In another incident, she saved the life of a fellow climber, Mohan Singh, by sharing her own oxygen with him. This sense of sacrifice and team-spirit won for her the esteem of her team-mates. Moreover, Santosh’s heart overflowed with patriotism when she unfurled the national flag on the top of Mt. Everest. Her concern for the purity of the environment also proves that she is a good human being. Such is her love for nature that she brought down five hundred kilograms of rubbish from the Everest. Thus, Santosh is blessed with the human qualities of both head and heart.

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Reference to Context

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
The only woman in the world who has scaled Mt Everest twice was born in a society where the birth of a son was regarded as a blessing, and a daughter, though not considered a curse, was not generally welcome. When her mother was expecting Santosh, a travelling ‘holy man ’, giving her his blessing, assumed that she wanted a son. But, to everyone’s surprise, the unborn child’s grandmother, who was standing close by, told him that they did not want a son.

(a) Name the only woman in the world who has climbed Mt Everest twice.
Answer:
The only woman to climb Mt Everest twice is Santosh Yadav.

(b) What blessing did the holy man give her mother when she was expecting Santosh?
Answer:
The holy man blessed her mother that she give birth to a son.

(c) Why was the holy man, who gave Santosh’s mother his blessings, surprised?
Answer:
The holy man was surprised when the grandmother requested blessing for a girl.

(d) What does this show about her grandmother?
Answer:
Santosh’s grandmother was a progressive person who did not believe in conservative views.

Question 2.
The girl was given the name ‘Santosh ’, which means contentment. But Santosh was not always content with her place in a traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start.

(a) What was the girl named? How was she different from her name?
Answer:
The girl was named Santosh, which means contentment. She was not content with a traditional way of life.

(b) What kind of society was Santosh born in?
Answer:
Santosh was born in a society where the birth of a son was regarded as a blessing, and that of a daughter was not generally welcome.

(c) How did she began living her life from the beginning?
Answer:
Santosh lived her life on her own terms from the beginning.

(d) Give an instance of her unconventional behaviour from her childhood?
Answer:
While other girls wore traditional Indian dresses, Santosh preferred shorts.

Question 3.
“From the very beginning I was quite determined that if I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me. ”

(a) Who speaks these words?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav, the mountaineer from Haryana, speaks these words.

(b) What kind of choices did the speaker make?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav always chose the correct and rational path.

(c) How was the speaker able to change those around her?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav was able to change those around her by making them yield to her firm decision through logic and rational argument.

(d) What light do these words throw on the speaker?
Answer:
These words show that right from her childhood, Santosh did not wish to follow conventions and tradition blindly, but had a logical and rational approach.

Question 4.
Santosh’s parents were affluent landowners who could afford to send their children to the best schools, even to the country’s capital, New Delhi, which was quite close by. But, in line with the prevailing custom in the family, Santosh had to make do with the local village school.

(a) What was Santosh’s family background?
Answer:
Santosh belonged to a wealthy landowning family of Haryana.

(b) Where did Santosh’s parents send their daughter to study? Why?
Answer:
Santosh’s parents sent their daughter to the local village school to study as it was customary to do so.

(c) What light does this throw on Santosh’s family?
Answer:
Santosh’s family members were conservative in their thought.

(d) At what age did Santosh begin to fight the prevailing customs?
Answer:
Santosh began to fight the system at the age of sixteen.

Question 5.
So, she decided to fight the system in her own quiet way when the right moment arrived. And the right moment came when she turned sixteen.

(a) Who is ‘she’ in this extract and which system did she decide to fight?
Answer:
‘She’ in the extract refers to Santosh Yadav, the famous mountaineer. She decided to fight the system of conservative traditions which blocked the progress of a person, especially a girl.

(b) How and why did she decide to fight the system?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav decided to fight the system in her quiet but firm way because she did not want to insult those who supported the traditions nor did she want to give in to the system.

(c) What was ‘the right moment’?
Answer:
The right moment was when she turned sixteen and was under pressure from her parents to get married like other girls of her village.

(d) What did’ she’ do at this moment?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav did not wish to get married at such a young age, so she threatened her parents that she would never marry if she was denied proper education.

Question 6.
A marriage as early as that was the last thing on her mind. She threatened her parents that she would never marry if she did not get a proper education. She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.

(a) What is meant by “a marriage as early as that”?
Answer:
In Santosh’s village girls were married off at the age of sixteen.

(b) What did her parents want Santosh to do?
Answer:
Santosh’s parents wanted her to get married at the age of sixteen.

(c) What did Santosh do the escape parental pressure?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.

(d) What light does this throw on Santosh’s character?
Answer:
Santosh was a person with a progressive way of thought and strong determination.

Question 7.
When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees.

(a) Where did Santosh go for her education?
Answer:
Santosh decided to go to Delhi for her education.

(b) Why did her parents refuse to pay for her education?
Answer:
Her parents refused to pay for her education because Santosh did not follow the family tradition of getting married early and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi against their wishes.

(c) What does this tell you about her parents?
Answer:
They were conservative and traditional in their thought and tried to pressurise their daughter into following the same path.

(d) How did she react to her parents’ decision?
Answer:
Santosh refused to give up her studies and told her parents that she would manage to pay her school expenses by working part time.

Question 8.
“I used to watch villagers from my room, going up the hill and suddenly vanishing after a while. One day I decided to check it out myself. I found nobody except a few mountaineers. I asked if I could join them. To my pleasant surprise, they answered in the affirmative and motivated me to take to climbing. ”

(a) From where did the speaker see people going up the hill?
Answer:
The speaker saw people going up the hill from her room in Kasturba Hostel, Jaipur.

(b) Where did she see the villagers going?
Answer:
She saw the villagers going up the hill.

(c) What did she decide to do one day?
Answer:
One day she decided check out climbing the hill for herself.

(d) How did this prove a turning point in her life?
Answer:
This climb up the hill with some mountaineers motivated her to take to mountaineering.

Question 9.
Then there was no looking back for this determined young girl. She saved money and enrolled in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.

(a) What does the word ‘then’ imply?
Answer:
The word ‘then’ implies the point of time from when she took the decision to take up mountaineering.

(b) Why did she enrol herself at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering?
Answer:
She enrolled herself at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering to train for mountaineering.

(c) How did she pay for the course?
Answer:
She saved money and paid for the course.

(d) What light does this throw on Santosh’s character?
Answer:
This shows her strong determination and strength of purpose in her desire to pursue her goals.

Question 10.
I had to write a letter of apology to my father without whose permission I had got myself enrolled at Uttarkashi.

(a) Why did Santosh have to write a letter of apology to her father?
Answer:
Santosh Yadav had to write a letter of apology to her father because she had got herself enrolled for a mountaineering course without seeking his permission. Moreover, she did not have time to visit her parents as her course started immediately after her semester exams.

(b) Where had she enrolled herself and why?
Answer:
She had enrolled herself at the Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering in order to get proper training to pursue her interest in mountain climbing.

(c) Why didn’t Santosh seek her father’s permission before getting enrolled in the Institute?
Answer:
Santosh knew that her father would not allow her to pursue a career in mountaineering, so she decided to let her parents know about it after joining the institute.

(d) What light does this extract reflect on the speaker’s character?
Answer:
The extract shows that Santosh was adamant and determined to live life according to her choices. She did not mean to insult her parents in any way but at the same time did not wish to let go of her dreams and ambition.

Question 11.
Thereafter, Santosh went on an expedition every year. Her climbing skills matured rapidly. Also, she developed a remarkable resistance to cold and the altitude. Equipped with an iron will, physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness, she proved herself repeatedly.

(a) On what expedition did Santosh go every year?
Answer:
Santosh went on a mountaineering expedition every year.

(b) What skills did Santosh develop during her time at the Institute?
Answer:
At the Institute Santosh’s climbing skills matured rapidly. Also, she developed a remarkable resistance to cold and the altitude.

(c) What inherent skills did Santosh helped that helped her achieve success in mountaineering?
Answer:
Santosh possessed an iron will, an immense capacity for physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness that helped her achieve success in mountaineering.

(d) At what age did she climb Mt Everest for the first time?
Answer:
Santosh climbed Mt Everest in 1992, at barely twenty years of age, becoming the youngest woman in the world to do so.

Question 12.
If her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength impressed her seniors, her concern for others and desire to work together with them found her a special place in the hearts of fellow climbers.

(a) Why were her seniors impressed with Santosh?
Answer:
Santosh’s seniors were impressed with her because of her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength.

(b) What endeared her to her fellow climbers?
Answer:
Her team-spirit and her concern for her fellow climbers endeared her to them.

(c) Give an example of Santosh’s concern for others.
Answer:
Santosh Yadav tried her best to save the lives of two fellow climbers. She succeeded in saving the life of one, Mohan Singh, by sharing her oxygen with him.

(d) What great honour was given to Santosh by the Indian government in recognition of her achievements?
Answer:
In recognition of her achievements the Indian government bestowed upon her one of the nation’s top honours, the Padmashri.

Maria Sharapova

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Briefly describe Maria Sharapova.
Answer:
Maria Sharapova, the famous woman tennis player, won the women’s singles at Wimbledon in 2004 and attained the world number one position in women’s tennis in 2005. Though Russian by birth, she got tennis training in United States of America. She loves singing, dancing, reading novels and is very hardworking and dedicated.

Question 2.
How is Maria’s personality a mix of contrasts?
Answer:
The maturity, balanced mind and inner strength of Maria does not appear to be in accordance with her glamorous dress or her charming manner and ready smile. There seems to be some mismatch between her sophisticated outer appearance and her balanced inner-self.

Question 3.
Maria possesses some contradictory characteristics. What are they?
Answer:
Maria appears to be highly fashionable as far as her appearance is considered, but she possesses a charming nature that proves her to be friendly and simple. She appears to be sophisticated and yet warm and approachable. Her love for junk foods like pancakes with chocolate spread and orange drinks appears at odds with her fondness for evening gowns.

Question 4.
Explain: “all this happened in almost no time”.
Answer:
The phrase “all this happened in almost no time” means that Maria’s rose to the top in the world of tennis was very quickly and within a very short span of four years as a professional player she became the world number one in her chosen sport.

Question 5.
What does Maria declare to be her ‘mantra for success’?
Answer:
Maria works really hard to fulfill her dreams. She does not shy away from making any sacrifice. She does not allow herself to be emotional and sentimental. She is very competitive and works hard to be the best in whatever she does. She is driven by her hunger to succeed and the dream of becoming the world number one in women’s tennis. This is her mantra for success.

Question 6.
How was Maria different from other children?
Answer:
Maria was calmer and more composed, more confident and tolerant than the other children of her age. She also had inner strength that enabled her to make sacrifices – staying away from her mother, getting bullied by senior players in the hostel – that few children could think of making. Unlike most children, she did not buckle under hardships and adverse circumstances, but toiled hard to achieve success.

Question 7.
Why was Maria brought to Florida in the USA by her father? Why didn’t her mother go with her? How did Maria respond to this separation?
Answer:
Maria was brought to Florida, USA, by her father, Yuri, to get trained as a professional tennis player and reach great heights of success and stardom in this sport. Her mother, Yelena, did not go with her because of visa restrictions. This two-year separation was very painful for the young girl. But Maria endured this sacrifice to pursue her dreams.

Question 8.
How does Maria describe her journey from Siberia to United States?
Answer:
Maria was just nine years old when she had to leave her home, mother and her country to go to the United States. She had to make many sacrifices in a foreign land where she did not even speak the language. She was bullied by senior players and had to face a lot of humiliation and insults. But she did not give in. Her competitive nature and hard work helped her become the world number one in women’s tennis.

Question 9.
What important lesson did Maria learn during the first two years of her stay in the USA, away from her mother?
Answer:
During her first two years in USA, when she was living away from her mother Maria learnt that excellence comes at a price. Since she wished to reach the top in the field of tennis, she would have to make sacrifices and struggle hard. She endured the heart-wrenching separation from her mother for two years to attain her goal. Moreover, she also learnt how to put up patiently with adverse circumstances.

Question 10.
Maria’s father accompanied her to USA but why could he also not see her during her stay there?
Answer:
Maria’s father, Yuri, had brought his nine-year-old daughter to the USA to get her trained in tennis. U Unfortunately, he too could not see her frequently as he had to work very hard to earn to pay for her training.

Question 11.
How did some of the other pupils at the tennis academy trouble her? How did Maria cope with this?
Answer:
The other pupils at the tennis academy were much older than Maria and would return to the room around 11 pm when Maria was already asleep. They would wake her up and make her clean and tidy up the room. Maria coped with this trouble by not allowing it to depress her. Instead this strengthened her determination and mental toughness.

Question 12.
Why did Maria not retaliate against the humiliation at the hands of the other pupils?
Answer:
Maria was working hard to attain the world number one position in women’s tennis. She had no time to retaliate against others and their humiliation. She also had no time for sentiments. So, instead of retaliating against the humiliation at the hands of the other pupils, she took it as a challenge and worked harder to achieve success.

Question 13.
Despite being harassed by her seniors, why didn’t Maria think of quitting?
Answer:
Instead of letting the harassment by her seniors depress her and get her to quit, she became more quietly determined and mentally tough. She learnt how to take care of herself and never thought of quitting because she knew what she wanted. Her hunger for success and determination to achieve prompted her to put up with the humiliation and insults in order to steadfastly pursue her dream.

Question 14.
Describe Maria’s struggle to reach at the top of the world in the field of the women tennis.
Answer:
Maria started working to achieve her goal at a very young age, making any sacrifices required. She had to face separation from her mother and stay in completely unfamiliar and hostile surroundings for years. She also faced humiliation but never let it affect negatively. She took it as a challenge and with her mental toughness and competitive nature, she succeeded in achieving her goal.

Question 15.
What mental qualities of Maria are revealed by her decision not to quit and pack up on being harassed by her fellow-trainees?
Answer:
The torment and humiliation inflicted on Maria by her fellow trainees failed to demoralise her. This reveals that she had a firm determination and strong-will. She was much more mature than other girls of her age and knew the art of survival.

Question 16.
What makes Maria very hungry and determined?
Answer:
Maria came from a middle class background, where she had known deprivation. She didn’t want to miss any opportunity to succeed. She bore unfavourable and painful situations with forbearance. She lived apart from her mother, suffered bullying by older players, but never took it to heart. She said that if you came from nothing and you had nothing, it made you very hungry and determined.

Question 17.
What motivates Maria to keep moving ahead?
Answer:
Maria is motivated by her spirit of competitiveness to keep moving ahead. She works very hard once she has decided to achieve something. She considers it her job to excel despite severe hardships and demands.

Question 18.
Despite staying in America for years, Maria is a Russian at the core of her heart. Justify.
Answer:
Maria moved to Florida, USA, from Siberia at the young age of nine. Since then she has spent most part of her life here. Yet, she has remained a Russian through and through. She is proud of her Russian blood and Russian citizenship. She adds that she would play for Russia in the Olympics if given an opportunity.

Question 19.
Why does Maria call the US a big part of her life?
Answer:
Maria was trained for tennis in the US and attained the number one position in women’s tennis in the game as a result of the training. It was in the USA that she developed confidence, self-control, strength of will and endurance – qualities that are pre-requisites for a person to reach the top in any field. Since she gained all this in the US, she calls it a big part of her life.

Question 20.
In addition to tennis, what else is Maria fond of?
Answer:
Maria’s first love is tennis. Apart from this sport, she is fond of fashion, singing and dancing like any other young girl of her age. She also likes to read Arthur Canon Doyle’s novels, is fond of sophisticated evening gowns and enjoys pancakes with chocolate-spread and fizzy orange drinks.

Question 21.
What has lifted Maria Sharapova to the top of the world?
Answer:
Maria’s talent, her unwavering determination, her hunger for success, her willingness to work hard, her readiness to endure challenges, and her sacrifices have lifted her to the top of the world. In addition, monetary gains have motivated her to reach the top.

Question 22.
Why do her fans not grudge Maria her riches?
Answer:
Maria’s fans are aware of the immense hard work that has gone into making her attain the number one position in women’s tennis. The unparalleled sacrifices she made were investments that she is reaping the dividends of. Her earnest efforts and hard work have resulted in financial rewards that are well earned and well deserved. Therefore, nobody feels jealous of or grudges Maria her riches.

Question 23.
Why does Maria call tennis a business and a sport?
Answer:
Tennis is a competitive sport like any other and requires the player display stamina, nerve, determination, planning and strategizing. It is also a business because it is played professionally for money. Tennis tournaments involve millions of pounds being spent on sponsorship and prize money. Tennis generates a lot of business for media, drinks, clothes and sports companies too.

Question 24.
What makes How are Maria’s achievements significant?
Answer:
Maria exemplifies the success achieved through hard work and dedication. Her patience, determination, iron will and persistence and her hunger for success make her an ideal role model for the girls all over the world. Her winning Wimbledon and then becoming world’s number one woman tennis player also makes her achievement significant.

Question 25.
“Maria’s parents played an important role in her success? How? What other things motivated her?
Answer:
When Maria was only nine years old her training started. She moved to USA with her father, Yuri, leaving her mother, Yelena, behind in Russia as she had visa problems. In USA, her father had to work very hard to keep Maria’s tennis training going. Her mother stayed alone in Siberia without her husband and daughter to give her daughter the chance to succeed.

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
What do you know about Maria Sharapova’s parents?
Answer:
Maria’s parents, Yuri and Yelena Sharapova, Maria Sharapova’s father and mother contributed to her success by identifing their daughter’s potential at a very young age and going all out to get her the best tennis training that could be had in the USA. They knew well that it was going to be expensive and difficult, still they extended their full support to their talented daughter.

Yuri worked very hard to pay for Maria’s training and Yelena tolerated the heart-wrenching separation from her dearly loved child for two years. As parents, they displayed unflinching faith in their child’s abilities which gave Maria the boost to keep going ahead and to overcome the challenges that came her way.

Question 2.
What problems did Maria face as a child while she trained at the tennis academy in Florida? What sustained her?
Answer:
As a young child Maria had to make many sacrifices and endure loneliness in her struggle to reach the top. She came to the U.S. at the young age of nine years without her mother, who could not accompany Maria and her father due to some visa restrictions. During the first two years of their heart-wrenching separation she missed her mother terribly.

Though her father had accompanied her to the USA, he too could not frequently visit her as he had to spend a lot of time to earn money to pay for Maria’s tennis training. Apart from it, the other trainees at the tennis academy in Florida bullied, tormented and humiliated her. They were inconsiderate to Maria who was much younger and woke her up late at night and made her tidy up and clean the room.

Yet, Maria never let these problems get the better of her. Her eyes firmly fixed on achieving her goal of becoming the number one player in women’s tennis, Maria endured the hardships without thinking of quitting. In fact, the problems she faced strengthened her will-power and made her even more determined to succeed.

Question 3.
One has to sacrifice something to achieve something good in life. Do you agree? Justify with reference to Maria Sharapova.
Answer:
Yes, I agree without sacrifice one can never achieve good things in life. Maria Sharapova is an example of the truth of this statement. Maria Sharapova had to sacrifice her childhood pleasures in order to become a tennis star. She left her home at a tender age to achieve her goal in life.

At the age of nine, she came to USA with her father. Her mother could not accompany her as she had some visa restrictions. Her father, who had accompanied her to USA, had to work very hard to pay for her tennis training. She was not able to meet him often. At the hostel, she was bullied by the older players, who woke her up late at night to clean and tidy up the room. If she had not sacrificed her childhood, she would not have become a star.

Question 4.
The lives of Santosh Yadav and Maria Sharapova have much in common to prove that determined and consistent hard work paves the way to success. Identify the points of comparison and contrast in the lives of these two great players.
Answer:
Santosh Yadav, the legendary mountaineer from India, and Maria Sharapova, Russia’s tennis sensation who trained in the USA, are living examples that single-minded determination and dedication and consistent hard work are the way to success. Both young women had to struggle against odds to reach the top. Santosh belonged to a small village in the Rewari district of Haryana while Maria came from the frozen plains of Siberia where she did not have adequate training facilities.

Although both girls were supported by their respective parents, Santosh, at times, had to struggle to make her conservative family agree to her decisions, while Maria’s parents were willing to make any sacrifice to help Maria succeed. However, both the young girls had to sacrifice the loving and protective environment of their homes in order to train for their passion.

Both the women had unwavering determination, physical and mental strength, and undivided focus on their goals. They both rose to the number one position in their respective areas within a short span of four years. While Sharapova moved from the frozen Siberia to the plains of Florida, Yadav moved from the plains of Rewari to the frozen Mount Everest. But both of them are devout patriots and their love for their country remains constant.

Reach for the Top Extra Questions and Answers Reference to Context

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
There is something disarming about Maria Sharapova, something at odds with her ready smile and glamorous attire. And that something in her lifted her on Monday, 22 August 2005 to the world number one position in women’s tennis. All this happened in almost no time.

(a) What contrast does Maria present?
Answer:
Maria Sharapova has a charming manner and is quick to smile. This spontaneous behaviour is at odds with her glamorous attire.

(b) What position did Maria achieve in 2005?
Answer:
She became world number one in women’s tennis.

(c) How long had it taken her to reach this position?
Answer:
It had taken her merely four years to reach this position.

(d) Where had Maria come from? How old was she then?
Answer:
Maria had come to USA from Siberia at the age of nine.

Question 2.
However, the rapid ascent in a fiercely competitive world began nine years before with a level of sacrifice few children would be prepared to endure.

(a) What does the phrase “rapid ascent” refer to?
Answer:
The phrase “rapid ascent” refers to the short period of time in which Maria Sharapova achieved so much success.

(b) What had happened nine years ago?
Answer:
Nine years ago Maria had come to USA from Siberia to receive training in tennis.

(c) What sacrifice did Maria have to make?
Answer:
Maria came to USA with her father while her mother had to stay back in Russia.

(d) What lesson did this teach the young Maria?
Answer:
Maria learnt that that tennis excellence would only come at a price, and she would need to pay that price.

Question 3.
Little Maria had not yet celebrated her tenth birthday when she was packed off to train in the United States. That trip to Florida with her father Yuri launched her on the path to success and stardom. But it also required a heart-wrenching two-year separation from her mother Yelena.

(a) How old was Maria when she came to the United States?
Answer:
Maria Sharapova came to the United States when she was just nine years old.

(b) From where did she make the journey to Florida and why?
Answer:
She came to Florida from the frozen plains in Russia with the purpose of taking training in tennis.

(c) What was the ‘heart-wrenching’ thing about the journey?
Answer:
The ‘heart-wrenching’ thing was that she had to part from her mother for two years.

(d) Why could her mother not accompany her?
Answer:
Her mother could not accompany her because of visa restrictions.

Question 4.
“I used to be so lonely, ” Maria Sharapova recalls. “I missed my mother terribly. My father was working as much as he could to keep my tennis-training going. So, he couldn’t see me either. ”

(a) What does the word ‘recalls’ in the passage imply?
Answer:
The word ‘recalls’ implies that Maria is sharing her memories with someone.

(b) Why was Maria lonely at the time?
Answer:
Maria was staying at the tennis academy at the time. She was only nine years old and did not speak English so could not communicate with the others. That is why she felt very lonely.

(c) Why did Maria’s father have to work so hard?
Answer:
‘ Maria’s father worked hard to earn enough money for paying the fees at the tennis training academy at Florida. ‘

(d) Where was Maria’s mother at the time? How long did it take for her to arrive in USA?
Answer:
Maria’s mother was still in Russia at the time due to visa restrictions. She joined her husband and Maria after two years.

Question 5.
Instead of letting that depress me, I became more quietly determined and mentally tough.

(a) Where was the speaker at the time?
Answer:
The speaker, Maria Sharapova, was at the tennis academy at Florida.

(b) What was ‘that’ which could not depress her?
Answer:
The senior trainees in the tennis training academy at Florida bullied and tormented Maria. They would wake her up late at night and order her to tidy up the room and clean it.

(c) What was the impact of ‘that’ on her?
Answer:
‘That’ – or – the bullying of her seniors made her more determined and mentally strong.

(d) What does the extract reveal about the speaker’s character?
Answer:
The extract reveals that the speaker had the ability to face difficult situations boldly and not yield to adverse circumstances.

Question 6.
The straight looks and the answers she gives when asked about her ambition make it amply clear that she considers the sacrifices were worth it. “I am very, very competitive. I work hard at what I do. It’s my job. ” This is her mantra for success.

(a) How does Maria show she is not a sentimental person?
Answer:
Maria shows she is not sentimental by not talking too much on her struggle and sacrifice.

(b) What does the writer mean by “straight looks”?
Answer:
The writer means that as she talks about herself, Maria looks boldly and steadily, and does not show much emotion or sentimentality.

(c) What helped Maria win the women’s singles crown at Wimbledon in 2004?
Answer:
Her ambition and desire to succeed, her toughness and her competitive spirit helped Maria win the women’s singles crown at Wimbledon in 2004.

(d) Why does the writer say there is no room for sentiment in her life?
Answer:
Sentiment would make her softer and less competitive.

Question 7.
“I’m Russian. It’s true that the U.S. is a big part of my life. But I have Russian citizenship. My blood is totally Russian. I will play the Olympics for Russia if they want me. ”

(a) What light does this statement throw on Maria’s character?
Answer:
Maria Sharapova takes immense pride in her nationality.

(b) What does she say about the US?
Answer:
Maria acknowledges the contribution of the USA where she took training in tennis and became the world number one tennis player.

(c) Why does the speaker say, ‘My blood is totally Russian’?
Answer:
Maria claims this because she was born to Russian parents in Russia. She did spend a large part of her life in the USA, but she proudly declares her Russian identity.

(d) Given a chance, what will Maria like to do for Russia?
Answer:
Being a Russian, and proud of her nationality, Maria would like to represent Russia in the Olympics and make them proud, if given an opportunity.

Question 8.
Few would grudge her the riches she is now reaping.

(a) How is she ‘reaping’ the ‘riches’?
Answer:
Maria has been declared the number one in women’s tennis. She earns a good deal of money from her game.

(b) Why would few grudge her the riches?
Answer:
Everybody is aware of the fact that Maria has reached the top by making a lot of sacrifices and by working extremely hard. Hence, the riches that she is earning from her game are well deserved and everybody readily agrees on this.

(c) Why has the word ‘reaping’ been used for riches?
Answer:
The word ‘reaping’ has been used metaphorically. Just as reaping the harvest is the reward for the hard work of the farmer, similarly earning money is the reward for Maria Sharapova’s labour and sacrifice.

(d) What according to her is the biggest motivation for her to do well?
Answer:
The biggest motivation for Maria to do well is to become the World number one in tennis.

Question 9.
Tennis is a business and a sport, but the most important thing is to become number one in the world.

(a) Why does Maria call tennis “a business”?
Answer:
For Maria, playing tennis as a professional game requires following rules and regulations and hard work just as running a business does. Also, as in business, tennis too brings profits in terms of name, fame and money.

(b) According to Maria, why is tennis also a ‘sport’ in addition to being a business?
Answer:
Maria calls tennis a sport, in addition to being a business, as it gives excitement and thrill just like other sporting events do. Every match is filled with expectations and anxiety both among the players and the spectators.

(c) What light does the extract throw on Maria’s personality?
Answer:
The extract shows that Maria is very practical and pragmatic in her views. She does not deny that winning at tennis is monetarily rewarding.

(d) Why did Maria wish to become number one in the world?
Answer:
Maria’s childhood dream was to become the number one tennis player in the world. She worked very hard and made a lot of sacrifices to train herself for this feat.

Question 10.
Like any number of teenaged sensations, Maria Sharapova lists fashion, singing and dancing as her hobbies. She loves reading the novels of Arthur Conan Doyle. Her fondness for sophisticated evening gowns appears at odds with her love of pancakes with chocolate spread and fizzy orange drinks.

(a) What are Maria’s hobbies?
Answer:
Maria’s hobbies include fashion, singing and dancing.

(b) What does Maria like to read?
Answer:
Maria likes to read the novels of Arthur Conan Doyle.

(c) What contrast does Maria present in her tastes?
Answer:
While Maria lists fashion as her hobby and likes to wear sophisticated evening gowns, she is also fond of junk food like pancakes with chocolate spread and fizzy orange drinks.

(d) What light does this throw on Maria’s character?
Answer:
She combines the sophistication of a fashionista with the simplicity of a teenager.

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